These pages represent the work of an amateur researcher and should not be used as a sole source by any other researcher. Few primary sources have been available. Corrections and contributions are encouraged and welcomed. -- Karen (Johnson) Fish

Descendants of FORNJOTUR(c.160- )


First Generation  Next


1. Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological] 1 was born about 160 in Kvenland, (Finland & Sweden).

Fornjotur married someone.

His child was:

+ 2 M    i. Kara Fornjotsson, King in Kvenland [Mythological] 1 was born about 185 in Kvenland, (Finland & Sweden).

previous  Second Generation  Next



2. Kara Fornjotsson, King in Kvenland [Mythological] 1 (Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 185 in Kvenland, (Finland & Sweden). Another name for Kara was Kara Fornjotursson King in Kvenland.

Kara married someone.

His child was:

+ 3 M    i. Frosti Karasson, King in Kvenland [Mythological] 1 was born about 210 in Kvenland, (Finland & Sweden).

previous  Third Generation  Next



3. Frosti Karasson, King in Kvenland [Mythological] 1 (Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 210 in Kvenland, (Finland & Sweden).

Frosti married someone.

His child was:

+ 4 M    i. Jokull Frostasson, [Mythological] 1 was born about 240 in Kvenland, (Finland & Sweden).

previous  Fourth Generation  Next



4. Jokull Frostasson, [Mythological] 1 (Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 240 in Kvenland, (Finland & Sweden).

Jokull married someone.

His child was:

+ 5 M    i. Snaer Jokulsson, King in Kvenland [Mythological] 1 was born about 275 in Kvenland, (Finland & Sweden).

previous  Fifth Generation  Next



5. Snaer Jokulsson, King in Kvenland [Mythological] 1 (Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 275 in Kvenland, (Finland & Sweden). Another name for Snaer was Svaer Jokullsson King in Kvenland.

Snaer married someone.

His children were:

+ 6 M    i. Thorri Snaersson, King in Kvenland 2 was born about 320 in <Romsdal, (Norway)>.

+ 7 F    ii. Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological] 1 was born in (Finland).

previous  Sixth Generation  Next



6. Thorri Snaersson, King in Kvenland 2 (Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 320 in <Romsdal, (Norway)>. Another name for Thorri was Thorri Svaersson King in Kvenland.

Thorri married someone.

His children were:

+ 8 M    i. Norr Thorasson 3 was born about 345 in <Raumsdal>, Norway.

+ 9 M    ii. Gorr Thorrasson 2 was born about 365 in <Romsdal, (Norway)>.

Thorri next married someone.

7. Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological] 1 (Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in (Finland).

Driva married Vanlandi Svegdasson, King in Sweden [Mythological],1 4 son of Sveigðir Fjölnarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological] and Vana, of Vanaheim [Mythological]. Another name for Vanlandi was Vanlande King of Sweden.

Research Notes: Mythological Swedish king, of the House of Ynglings.

From Wikipedia - Vanlandi :

Vanlandi or Vanlande was a Swedish king at Uppsala of the House of Yngling in Norse mythology . He was the son of Sveigðir whom he succeeded as king. He married a girl from Finnland (territories inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples), but forgot about her. In revenge, the girl arranged so that Vanlandi was hag ridden to death. He was succeeded by his son Visbur .

Snorri Sturluson wrote of Vanlandi in his Ynglinga saga (1225) (note that the translator has rendered Finnland as Finland ):

Vanlande, Swegde's son, succeeded his father, and ruled over the Upsal domain . He was a great warrior, and went far around in different lands. Once he took up his winter abode in Finland with Snae the Old , and got his daughter Driva in marriage; but in spring he set out leaving Driva behind, and although he had promised to return within three years he did not come back for ten. Then Driva sent a message to the witch Huld ; and sent Visbur , her son by Vanlande, to Sweden . Driva bribed the witch- wife Huld, either that she should bewitch Vanlande to return to Finland, or kill him. When this witch-work was going on Vanlande was at Upsal , and a great desire came over him to go to Finland; but his friends and counsellors advised him against it, and said the witchcraft of the Finn people showed itself in this desire of his to go there. He then became very drowsy, and laid himself down to sleep; but when he had slept but a little while he cried out, saying that the Mara was treading upon him. His men hastened to him to help him; but when they took hold of his head she trod on his legs, and when they laid hold of his legs she pressed upon his head; and it was his death. The Swedes took his body and burnt it at a river called Skytaa, where a standing stone was raised over him.[2][3]

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

He [Sveigde] sired Vanlande, who died in his sleep, suffocated by a goblin, one of the demonic species known in Norwegian as 'mare'. He was the father of Visbur, [...][7] The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and also gives Vanlandi as the successor of Svegðir and the predecessor of Visbur : v Svegðir. vi Vanlandi. vii Visburr. viii Dómaldr[8].


The child from this marriage was:

+ 10 M    i. Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological] .1 5

previous  Seventh Generation  Next



8. Norr Thorasson 3 (Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 345 in <Raumsdal>, Norway.

Norr married someone.

His child was:

+ 11 M    i. Raum "the Old" Norrsson 3 was born about 370 in <Ogdum, Raumsdal, Norway>.

9. Gorr Thorrasson 2 (Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 365 in <Romsdal, (Norway)>.

Gorr married someone.

His child was:

+ 12 M    i. Heytir Gorrsson 2 was born about 425 in <Romsdal, (Norway)>.

10. Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological] 1 5 (Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Mythological Swedish king, in the House of Ynglings.

From Wikipedia - Visbur :

In Scandinavian mythology , Visbur was a king of the House of Ynglings and the son of Vanlandi . He was burned to death inside his hall by the arson of two of his own sons in revenge for rejecting their mother and denying them their heritage. He was succeeded by his son Dómaldi .

Snorri Sturluson wrote of Visbur in his Ynglinga saga (1225):

Visbur succeeded his father Vanlande. He married the daughter of Aude the Rich , and gave her as her bride-gift three large farms, and a gold ornament. They had two sons, Gisle and Ond; but Visbur left her and took another wife, whereupon she went home to her father with her two sons. Visbur had a son who was called Domald, and his stepmother used witchcraft to give him ill-luck. Now, when Visbur's sons were the one twelve and the other thirteen years of age, they went to their father's place, and desired to have their mother's dower; but he would not deliver it to them. Then they said that the gold ornament should be the death of the best man in all his race, and they returned home. Then they began again with enchantments and witchcraft, to try if they could destroy their father. The sorceress Huld said that by witchcraft she could bring it about by this means, that a murderer of his own kin should never be wanting in the Yngling race; and they agreed to have it so. Thereafter they collected men, came unexpectedly in the night on Visbur, and burned him in his house.[2][3]

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

He [Vanlande] was the father of Visbur, whose sons burnt him alive with all his hirdsmen, so that they might attain their inheritance more swiftly. His son Domalde [...][7] The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and also gives Visburr as the successor of Vanlandi and the predecessor of Dómaldr : vi Vanlandi. vii Visburr. viii Dómaldr[8].

Visbur married someone.

His child was:

+ 13 M    i. Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological] .1 6

previous  Eighth Generation  Next



11. Raum "the Old" Norrsson 3 (Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 370 in <Ogdum, Raumsdal, Norway>.

Raum married Hildur Gudraudsdatter 7 about 391 in Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway. Hildur was born about 371 in <Raumsdal>, Norway.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 14 M    i. Hring Raumsson 3 was born about 406 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

12. Heytir Gorrsson 2 (Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 425 in <Romsdal, (Norway)>.

Heytir married someone.

His child was:

+ 15 M    i. Svidri Heytsson 2 was born about 600 in (Norway).

13. Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological] 1 6 (Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Other names for Domalde were Dómaldi Visbursson King in Sweden and Dómaldr King of Sweden.

Research Notes: Mythological Swedish king, of the House of Ynglings.

From Wikipedia - Domalde :

In Norse mythology Domalde, Dómaldi or Dómaldr was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings , cursed by his stepmother, according to Snorri Sturluson , with ósgæssa, "ill-luck". He was the son of Visbur .

The luck of the king is the luck of the land,[1] and Domalde's rule was marked by bad crops and starvation. The first autumn, the Swedes sacrificed oxen at the temple at Uppsala , but the next harvest was not better. The second autumn, they sacrificed men, but the following crops were even worse.

The third year many Swedes arrived at Gamla Uppsala at the Thing of all Swedes and the chiefs decided they had to sacrifice the king. They sprinkled the statues of the gods with his blood (see Blót ) and the good harvests returned.

He was succeeded by his son Domar whose reign was prosperous.
Snorri Sturluson wrote of Domalde in his Ynglinga saga (1225):

Domald took the heritage after his father Visbur, and ruled over the land. As in his time there was great famine and distress, the Swedes made great offerings of sacrifice at Upsal . The first autumn they sacrificed oxen, but the succeeding season was not improved thereby. The following autumn they sacrificed men, but the succeeding year was rather worse. The third autumn, when the offer of sacrifices should begin, a great multitude of Swedes came to Upsal; and now the chiefs held consultations with each other, and all agreed that the times of scarcity were on account of their king Domald, and they resolved to offer him for good seasons, and to assault and kill him, and sprinkle the stalle of the gods with his blood. And they did so.[3][4]

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

His [Visbur] son Domalde was hanged by the Swedes as a sacrificial offering to Ceres to ensure the fruitfulness of the crops. Domalde begot Domar, [...][8]

The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and also gives Dómaldr as the successor of Visburr and the predecessor of Dómarr : vii Visburr. viii Dómaldr. ix Dómarr[9].

Domalde married someone.

His child was:

+ 16 M    i. Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological] .1 8

previous  Ninth Generation  Next



14. Hring Raumsson 3 (Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 406 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

Hring married someone.

His child was:

+ 17 M    i. Halfdan "the Old" Hringsson 3 was born about 450 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

15. Svidri Heytsson 2 (Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 600 in (Norway). Another name for Svidri was Svidri Heytirsson.

Svidri married someone.

His child was:

+ 18 M    i. Sveidi Svidrasson 2 was born about 650 in <Romsdal, (Norway)>.

16. Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological] 1 8 (Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Mythological Swedish king, of the House of Ynglings.

From Wikipedia - Domar :

In Norse mythology , the Swedish king Domar of the House of Ynglings was the son of Domalde . He was married to Drott , the sister of Dan the Arrogant who gave his names to the Danes. Drott and Dan are in this work said to be the children of Danp son of Ríg .

His rule lasted long and after the sacrifice of his father Domalde , the crops were plentiful and peace reigned. Consequently there is not much to tell about his reign, and when he died at Uppsala , he was transported over the Fyris Wolds (Fyrisvellir ) and burnt on the banks of the river, where a stone was raised over his ashes.

He was succeeded by his son Dyggvi .

Snorri Sturluson wrote of Domar in his Ynglinga saga (1225):

Domald's son, called Domar, next ruled over the land. He reigned long, and in his days were good seasons and peace. Nothing is told of him but that he died in his bed in Upsal , and was transported to the Fyrisvold , where his body was burned on the river bank, and where his standing stone still remains.[2][3]

The information about Domar's marriage appears after Snorri has presented Domar's son Dyggvi (Danish tongue refers to the Old Norse language as a whole and not only to the dialect of Denmark):

Dygve's mother was Drott , a daughter of King Danp, the son of Rig , who was first called "king" in the Danish tongue. His descendants always afterwards considered the title of king the title of highest dignity. Dygve was the first of his family to be called king, for his predecessors had been called "Drottnar", and their wives "Drottningar", and their court "Drott". Each of their race was called Yngve, or Yngune, and the whole race together Ynglinger. The Queen Drott was a sister of King Dan Mikillati , from whom Denmark a took its name.[2][3]

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

Domalde begot Domar, who died in Sweden. Likewise Dyggve, his son, [...][7] The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and also gives Dómarr as the successor of Dómaldr and the predecessor of Dyggvi : viii Dómaldr. ix Dómarr. x Dyggvi[8].

Domar married Drott Danpsdotter, [Mythological],1 8 daughter of Danp Rigsson, [Mythological] and Unknown,. Drott was born in (Sweden).

The child from this marriage was:

+ 19 M    i. Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological] .1 9

previous  Tenth Generation  Next



17. Halfdan "the Old" Hringsson 3 (Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 450 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

Halfdan married Almveigu Eymundsdatter,7 daughter of Eymund, King in Holmgard and Unknown, about 479 in Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway. Almveigu was born about 455 in <Holmgarth, Novgorod, Russia>.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 20 M    i. Lofdi Halfdansson 3 was born about 498 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

+ 21 M    ii. Hildi Halfdansson 7 was born about 500 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

+ 22 M    iii. Budli Halfdansson 7 was born about 502 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

18. Sveidi Svidrasson 2 (Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 650 in <Romsdal, (Norway)>. Another name for Sveidi was Sveithi "the Sea King" Svidrasson.

Sveidi married someone.

His child was:

+ 23 M    i. Halfdan "the Aged" Sveidasson, Jarl of Oppland 10 11 12 was born about 762 in Oppland, (Norway) and died about 800 about age 38.

19. Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological] 1 9 (Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Another name for Dyggvi was Dyggve King of Sweden.

Research Notes: Mythological Swedish king, of the House of Ynglings.

From Wikipedia - Dyggvi :

Dyggvi or Dyggve was a mythological Swedish king of the House of Ynglings . He died in bed and never reached Valhalla . Instead he went to Hel , Loki 's daughter, who acquired a husband of royal blood. He was succeeded by his son Dag the Wise .
Snorri Sturluson wrote of Domar in his Ynglinga saga (1225):

Dygve was the name of his son, who succeeded him in ruling the land; and about him nothing is said but that he died in his bed.[2][3] About Dyggvi's mother Snorri had more to say:

Dygve's mother was Drott , a daughter of King Danp, the son of Rig , who was first called "king" in the Danish tongue. His descendants always afterwards considered the title of king the title of highest dignity. Dygve was the first of his family to be called king, for his predecessors had been called "Drottnar", and their wives "Drottningar", and their court "Drott". Each of their race was called Yngve, or Yngune, and the whole race together Ynglinger. The Queen Drott was a sister of King Dan Mikillati , from whom Denmark took its name.[2][3] In his Ynglinga saga , Snorri Sturluson included a piece from Ynglingatal composed in the 9th century:

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

Likewise Dyggve, his [Domar's] son, reached the limit of his life in that same region [Sweden]. His son Dag [...][7]

The even earlier source Íslendingabók also cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it also gives Dyggvi as the successor of Dómarr and the predecessor of Dagr : ix Dómarr. x Dyggvi. xi Dagr[8].

Dyggvi married someone.

His child was:

+ 24 M    i. Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological] .1 13

previous  11th Generation  Next



20. Lofdi Halfdansson 3 (Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 498 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

Lofdi married someone.

His child was:

+ 25 M    i. Skuli Lofdasson 3 was born about 548 in <Norway>.

21. Hildi Halfdansson 7 (Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 500 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

Hildi married someone.

His child was:

+ 26 M    i. Hildibrand Hildasson 7 was born about 550 in <Norway>.

22. Budli Halfdansson 7 (Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 502 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

Budli married someone.

His child was:

+ 27 M    i. Attip Budlasson 7 was born about 565 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

23. Halfdan "the Aged" Sveidasson, Jarl of Oppland 10 11 12 (Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 762 in Oppland, (Norway) and died about 800 about age 38. Another name for Halfdan was Halfdan II "Mildi" Eysteinsson.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-14

Halfdan married someone.

His child was:

+ 28 M    i. Ivar Halfdansson, Jarl of Oppland 12 14 15 was born about 783 in Oppland, (Norway).

24. Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological] 1 13 (Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Another name for Dag was Dagr Spaka King of Sweden.

Research Notes: Mythological Swedish king, of the House of Yngling, in the 2nd or 3rd century.

From Wikipedia - Dag the Wise :

Dag the Wise or Dagr Spaka (2nd or 3rd century AD) was a mythological Swedish king of the House of Ynglings . He was the son of Dyggvi , the former king. According to legend, he could understand the speech of birds and had a sparrow that gathered news for him from many lands. When the bird was killed on one of these trips, Dag invaded Reidgotaland (considering the date and location, apparently Gothiscandza ), in order to avenge it. There he was ambushed by a thrall and killed.

The earliest two versions based on Ynglingatal , i.e. Historia Norwegiæ and Íslendingabók (see below) say that Dag was succeeded by his son Alrekr and Eírikr who in their turn were succeeded by Dag's grandson Agne (in Historia Norwegiæ incorrectly called Hogne[1]):
Historia Norwegiæ :

His [Dyggve's] son Dag succeeded to his throne; he was killed by the Danes in a royal battle at a ford named Skjotansvad, while he was trying to avenge the violence done to a sparrow. This man engendered Alrek, who was beaten to death with a bridle by his brother, Eirik. Alrek was father to Agne, [...][3]

Íslendingabók only lists the line of succession: x Dyggvi. xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi''[4].

However, in the Ynglinga saga , Snorri Sturluson gives Agne as Dag's son and successor, and the two brothers Alrekr and Eiríkr as his grandsons.

The fact that Skjótansvað/Vápnavað appear both in Ynglinga saga and in Historia Norwegiæ's earlier summary of Ynglingatal but not in Snorri's later quotation from it, suggests that all of Ynglingatal was not presented by him.

Dag married someone.

His child was:

+ 29 M    i. Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological] .1 16

previous  12th Generation  Next



25. Skuli Lofdasson 3 (Lofdi20, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 548 in <Norway>.

Skuli married someone.

His child was:

+ 30 M    i. Egdir Skulasson 3 was born about 598 in <Norway>.

26. Hildibrand Hildasson 7 (Hildi21, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 550 in <Norway>.

Hildibrand married someone.

His child was:

+ 31 M    i. Herbrand Hildibrandsson 7 was born about 600 in <Norway>.

27. Attip Budlasson 7 (Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 565 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

Attip married someone.

His child was:

+ 32 M    i. Leinfni Attipsson 7 was born about 625 in <Norway>.

28. Ivar Halfdansson, Jarl of Oppland 12 14 15 (Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 783 in Oppland, (Norway). Other names for Ivar were Ivar Jarl of the Uplands, Ivar Jarl of Norway, and Ivar Oplaendinge Jarl.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has fl. 800; http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f50/a0025008.htm has b. 783

Research Notes: Fl. abt. 800

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-15

Ivar married < > Eysteinsdatter 2 about 824. < was born about 785 in Trondheim, Sør-Trøndelag, (Norway).

The child from this marriage was:

+ 33 M    i. Eystein "Glumra" Ivarsson, Jarl of Oppland 2 17 18 19 was born about 800 in <Maer, (Nord-Trondelag), Norway>.

29. Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological] 1 16 (Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Other names for Agne were Agni Dagsson King in Sweden, Agni Skjálfarbondi King of Sweden, and Hogne King of Sweden.

Research Notes: Mythological Swedish king, of the House of Yngling.

From Wikipedia - Agne :

Agne, Agni, Hogne or Agni Skjálfarbondi was a mythological king of Sweden , of the House of Yngling .

Snorri Sturluson relates that he was the son of Dag the Wise , and he was mighty and famous. He was also skilled in many ways.

One summer, he went to Finland with his army where he pillaged. The Finns gathered a vast host under a chief named Frosti .[1]


A great battle ensued which Agne won and many Finns were killed together with Frosti. Agne then subdued all of Finland with his army, and captured not only great booty but also Frosti's daughter Skjalf and her kinsman Logi .[2]


Agne returned to Sweden and they arrived at Stocksund (Stockholm ) where they put up their tent on the side of the river where it is flat. Agne had a torc which had belonged to Agne's great-great-great-grandfather Visbur (who, interestingly, was the son of Skjalf's niece Drífa). Although, they were related, Agne married Skjalf who became pregnant with two sons, Erik and Alrik .

Skjalf asked Agne to honour her dead father Frosti with a great feast, which he granted. He invited a great many guests, who gladly arrived to the now even more famous Swedish king. They had a drinking competition in which Agne became very drunk. Skjalf saw her opportunity and asked Agne to take care of Visbur's torc which was around his neck. Agne bound it fast around his neck before he went to sleep.

The king's tent was next to the woods and was under the branches of a tall tree for shade. When Agne was fast asleep, Skjalf took a rope which she attached to the torc. Then she had her men remove the tent, and she threw the rope over a bough. Then she told her men to pull the rope and they hanged Agne avenging Skjalf's father. Skjalf and her men ran to the ships and escaped to Finland, leaving her sons behind.

Agne was buried at the place and it is presently called Agnafit , which is east of the Tauren (the Old Norse name for Södertörn ) and west of Stocksund.

Ynglingatal then gives Alrekr and Eiríkr as Agne's successors.

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

This man [Dag] engendered Alrek, who was beaten to death with a bridle by his brother, Eirik. Alrek was father to Agne, whose wife dispatched him with her own hands by hanging him on a tree with a golden chain near a place called Agnafit.

His son, Ingjald, [...][8] Agne is incorrectly called Hogne[7]. Unlike Ynglingatal, Historia Norwegiæ does not give Dagr as Agne's predecessor, but Alrekr . Instead Alrekr is Agne's predecessor and Agne is succeeded by Yngvi (incorrectly called Ingialdr[7]). The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it gives the same line of succession as Historia Norwegiæ: xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi[9].

The location indicated by Snorri Sturluson as the place of Agne's death has a barrow called Agnehögen (Agne's barrow) in Lillhersby . The barrow was excavated by Oxenstierna and dated to c. 400.[10]

Agne married Skjálf Frostadotter,1 16 daughter of Frosti, King in Finland and Unknown,.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 34 M    i. Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary] .1 20

+ 35 M    ii. Eirík, King of Sweden [Legendary] .20

previous  13th Generation  Next



30. Egdir Skulasson 3 (Skuli25, Lofdi20, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 598 in <Norway>.

Egdir married someone.

His child was:

+ 36 M    i. Hjalmther Egdirsson 3 was born about 638 in <Norway>.

31. Herbrand Hildibrandsson 7 (Hildibrand26, Hildi21, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 600 in <Norway>.

Herbrand married someone.

His child was:

+ 37 M    i. Hildibrand Herbrandsson 7 was born about 650 in <Norway>.

32. Leinfni Attipsson 7 (Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 625 in <Norway>.

Leinfni married someone.

His child was:

+ 38 M    i. Budi Leinfnisson 7 was born about 680 in <Norway>.

33. Eystein "Glumra" Ivarsson, Jarl of Oppland 2 17 18 19 (Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 800 in <Maer, (Nord-Trondelag), Norway>. Other names for Eystein were Eystein Ivarsson Jarl of Oppland, Eystein "the Noisy" Ivarsson Jarl of Oppland, and Glumra Ivarsson Jarl of Oppland.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f50/a0025002.htm has b. 810.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-16. "EYSTEIN GLUMRA, Jarl of the Uplands, abt. 830, sd. to have fathered two known children: Swanhild, who m. HARALD (243A-17) King of Norway, and RAGNVALD I"

Eystein married Aseda Rognvaldsdatter,19 21 daughter of Ragnvald "the Mountain-High" Olafsson, King of Vestfold and Unknown,. Aseda was born about 804 in <Maer, (Nord-Trondelag), Norway>. Other names for Aseda were Aseda Ranvaldsdatter and Ascrida Rognvaldsdatter.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 39 F    i. Swanhild .

+ 40 M    ii. Sigurd Eysteinsson 22 was born about 832 in Maer, Nord-Trondelag, Norway.

+ 41 M    iii. Malahule Eysteinsson 2 23 was born about 845 in Maer, Nord-Trondelag, Norway.

+ 42 F    iv. Svanhild Eysteinsdatter 7 was born about 850 in <Maer, Nord-Trondelag, (Norway)>.

+ 43 M    v. Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre 19 24 25 26 was born before 867 in Oppland, (Norway), died in 890 in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland, and was buried in 893.

34. Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary] 1 20 (Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Another name for Alrik was Alrekr Agnarsson King in Sweden.

Research Notes: Legendary king of Sweden, brother of Eirík

From Wikipedia - Alrek and Eirík :

Alrek and Eirík (Old Norse Alrekr and Eiríkr ) were two legendary kings of Sweden .

In the Ynglinga saga
According to the Ynglinga saga , Alrek and Eirík were sons and heirs of the previous king Agni by his wife Skjálf. They shared the kingship. They were mighty in both war and sports, but were especially skillful horsmen and vied with one another about their horsemanship and their horses.

One day they rode off from their retinue and did not return. They were found dead with their heads battered but no weapons with them save the bridle bits of their horses. Accordingly it was believed that they had quarreled and come to blows and had slain each other with their bridle bits. They were succeeded by Alrik's sons Yngvi and Alf.
However, in other sources, only Alrek died, and in the piece of Ynglingatal quoted by Snorri Sturluson it is only Alrek who dies explicitly. Erik's death seems to be a misunderstanding on Snorri's part due to an influence from the succeeding kings (see also the other sources below):

Ynglingatal then gives Yngvi and Alf as Alrekr's and Eiríkr's successors.
The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

This man [Dag] engendered Alrek, who was beaten to death with a bridle by his brother, Eirik. Alrek was father to Agne, [...][6]

Hogna is an error for Agne .[5] Unlike Ynglingatal, Historia Norwegiæ gives Dagr as Alrekr's predecessor. Instead Alrekr precedes Agne and Agne is succeeded by Yngvi (incorrectly called Ingialdr[5]). The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it gives the same line of succession as Historia Norwegiæ: xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi.[7]

In Gautreks saga and Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar
Gautreks saga also makes Alrek and Eirík sons of Agni by Skjálf and co-kings and it was to them that the warrior Starkad fled after his slaying of King Vikar. Starkad served them first as a companions on their viking expeditions and then, after Alrek and Eirík had settled down, went on further Viking expeditions alone.

But King Alrek had a short life, for Eirík struck Alrek dead with a bridle when they were out to train their horses and then ruled as sole ruler over Sweden. This version says that Eirík reigned for a long time as told in Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar (Saga of Hrólf son of Gautrek).

This second saga introduces Thornbjörg, the daughter of King Eirík and Queen Ingigerd, who was a skillful shieldmaiden and ruled over part of the kingdom. Thornbjörg even called herself King Thorberg. But eventually she fell in love with Hrólf son of Gautrek and agreed to marry him, at which point she gave up her weapons to her father King Eirík and took up embroidery.

In Gesta Danorum
Saxo Grammaticus in Book 5 of his Gesta Danorum introduces Ericus Desertus, that is Erik the Eloquent, son of a champion named Regnerus (Ragnar), both Norwegians in the service of King Gøtarus (Götar) of Norway, a monarch otherwise unknown. This Erik is likely to be the Eirík the Eloquent or Eiríkr the Wise in Speech mentioned by Snorri Sturluson in the Skáldskaparmál as being of Ylfing lineage. But he otherwise has left no clear record in surviving Norse literature.

Saxo makes up for it by telling at greath length of Erik's amusing deeds. He relates how Erik outwitted all foes with clever tricks and became the counselor of Fróði son of Fridleif, king of Denmark . Erik's expeditions on Fróði's behalf always went well because of Erik's cunning and way with words. Erik finally married Fróði's sister Gunvara and Erik's elder half-brother Rollerus (Roller) was made king of Norway.

Saxo then brings in a king of the Swedes named Alricus (Alrik) who corresponds to Alrek of the Norse tradition. Alrik was at war with Gestiblindus king of the Gautar (Geats) and Gestiblindus now sought Fróði's aid. (In the Norse Hervarar saga Gestumblindi is the name assumed by the disguised Odin and it is possible that this Gestiblindus is also Odin in disguise.)

Erik and Skalk the Scanian pursued the war and slew Alrik's son Gunthiovus (Old Norse Gunnþjófr) leader of the men of Vermland and Solongs . Then occurred a parley and secret interview between Alrik and Erik in which Alrik attempted to win Erik over to his cause. When this failed, Alrik asked that the war be settled by a single combat between himself and Gestiblindus. Erik refused the offer because of Gestiblind's unfitness and advanced years but made a counter-offer to fight such a duel with Alrik himself if Alrik were willing. The fight occurred straightaway. Alrik was slain and Erik seemed to be fatally wounded so that a report actually came to King Fróði that Erik was dead. Indeed Erik was long in recovering. However Fróði was disabused when Erik himself returned announcing that Fróði was now also king of Sweden, Värmland, Helsingland , and Soleyar . Fróði then gave all those lands to Erik to rule directly and also gave Erik the two Laplands , Finland , and Estonia as dependencies paying annual tribute.

Saxo explains that this Erik was the first Swedish king to be called Erik but that after him it became a very common name among the Swedish kings. He also writes that Erik met and helped the champion Arngrim , an account that agrees with Hervarar saga , where Arngrim's sons meet Erik's successor Yngvi (see e.g. Angantyr and Hjalmar ).

That the duel occurred at the end of a "secret interview" suggests that Alrik and Erik were alone when they fought just as were their counterparts in the Norse accounts. That Erik was believed to have died suggests knowledge of the Ynglinga saga version in which both fighters met their death. There is no mention of horse bridles. But Erik is not elsewhere a great duelist or champion but instead a trickster who wins through stratagems and deceiving words so that is it likely that Saxo or his source passed over a stratagem in which a horse bridle played a part.

Saxo also mentions Starkad's stay in Sweden in Book 6 in a summary of Starkad's life up to that point in his history. But Saxo does not indicate what king or kings then ruled Sweden, saying only:

... he went into the land of the Swedes, where he lived at leisure for seven years' space with the sons of Frø.

Frø is of course the god Frey , the ancestor of the Swedish dynasty.
At the beginning of Book 6, Saxo notes that Erik died of a disease and was succeeded by his son Haldanus (Halfdan ). Halfdan was later slain by rivals for the throne but the warrior Starkad established Halfdans' heir Siward as the new king. Siward's daughter Signe was married to King Harald of Denmark who was co-king his brother Fróði. Later Harald's son Halfdan, now king of Denmark, slew Siward in war. But Siward's grandson Erik, the son of Halfdan's uncle Fróði by Signe, the direct heir to the throne, now rose up against Halfdan. After a long war this second Erik was captured by Haldfan and left in the woods in chains to be devoured by beasts. With him, it seems, the Swedish line of Erik the Eloquent, as set forth by Saxo, came to an end.

Commentary
It is not clear whether or not the accounts in the Gesta Danorum and the accounts in the Ynglinga saga' tales of a Danish king named Halfdan who became king of Sweden are at all related. See Halfdan .

Traditions of twin brothers connected with horses appear are a commonplace in Indo-European cultures as are foundation legends about two twin brothers, one of whom kills the other. It is possible that Alrek and Eirik are reflexes of such traditions.
Saxo's identification of the legendary Eirík the Eloquent with the legendary Swedish king Eirík probably originated as a flourish by a pro-Danish or pro-Norwegian story teller.

Alrik married Dagreid Dagsdotter,1 daughter of Dag "the Powerful" and Unknown,. Another name for Dagreid was Dageith Dagsdotter.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 44 M    i. Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary] .1 27

+ 45 M    ii. Alf, King of Sweden [Legendary] .28

35. Eirík, King of Sweden [Legendary] 20 (Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Another name for Eirík was Eiríkr King of Sweden.

Research Notes: Legendary king of Sweden, of the House of Yngling, brother of Alrek.


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36. Hjalmther Egdirsson 3 (Egdir30, Skuli25, Lofdi20, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 638 in <Norway>.

Hjalmther married someone.

His child was:

+ 46 M    i. Eylimi Hjalmthersson 3 was born about 688 in <Norway>.

37. Hildibrand Herbrandsson 7 (Herbrand31, Hildibrand26, Hildi21, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 650 in <Norway>.

Hildibrand married someone.

His child was:

+ 47 M    i. Herbrand Hildibrandsson 7 was born about 700 in <Norway>.

38. Budi Leinfnisson 7 (Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 680 in <Norway>.

Budi married someone.

His child was:

+ 48 F    i. Brynhild Budlasdatter 7 was born about 736 in <Norway>.

39. Swanhild (Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Married Harald, King of Norway.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-16 (Eystein Glumra)

40. Sigurd Eysteinsson 22 (Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 832 in Maer, Nord-Trondelag, Norway. Another name for Sigurd was Earl Eysteinsson.

41. Malahule Eysteinsson 2 23 (Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 845 in Maer, Nord-Trondelag, Norway. Other names for Malahule were Haldrick Eysteinsson, Malahulc Eysteinsson, and Malahulde Eysteinsson.

Malahule married someone.

His child was:

+ 49 M    i. Hugh de Cavalcamp 2 was born about 890 in <Near Dieppe>.

42. Svanhild Eysteinsdatter 7 (Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 850 in <Maer, Nord-Trondelag, (Norway)>.

Svanhild married Harald I "Fairhair" Halfdansson, King of Norway,7 son of Halfdan "the Black" Gudrodsson and Ragnhild Sigurdsdatter,. Harald was born about 850 in <Hedemark, Norway>, died in 933 about age 83, and was buried in Hauko, Rogaland, Norway.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 50 M    i. Bjorn "the Merchant" Haraldsson, Prince of Norway 7 was born about 900 in <Vestfold, Norway> and died in 927 about age 27.

43. Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre 19 24 25 26 (Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born before 867 in Oppland, (Norway), died in 890 in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland, and was buried in 893. Other names for Ragnvald were Ragnvald I "the Wise" Earl of Møre and Rognvald I "the Wise" Jarl of More.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f00/a0020082.htm has b. 857, of Upland, Denmark.

Research Notes: Jarl of North and South Møre, and of Ramsdal in Norway.
Parentage uncertain.

From Wikipedia - Rognvald Eysteinsson :

Rognvald "The Wise" Eysteinsson (son of Eystein Ivarsson ) is the founder of the Earldom of Orkney in the Norse Sagas . Three quite different accounts of the creation of the Norse earldom on Orkney and Shetland exist. The best known is that found in the Heimskringla , but other older traditions are found in the Historia Norvegiae and the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland .

Sagas
The saga accounts are the best known, and the latest, of the three surviving traditions concerning Rognvald and the foundation of the Earldom of Orkney. Recorded in the 13th century, their views are informed by Norwegian politics of the day. Once, historians could write that no-one denied the reality of Harald Fairhair 's expeditions to the west recounted in Heimskringla, but this is no longer the case. The Norwegian contest with the Kings of Scots over the Hebrides and the Isle of Man in the middle 13th century underlies the sagas.[1]


In the Heimskringla, Rognvald is Earl of Møre . He accompanies Harald Fairhair on his great expeditions to the west, to Ireland and to Scotland . Here, Rognvald's son Ivarr is killed. In compensation King Harald grants Rognvald Orkney and Shetland. Rognvald himself returns to Norway , giving the northern isles to his brother Sigurd Eysteinsson .[2]


The Heimskringla recounts other tales of Rognvald. It tells how he causes Harald Finehair to be given his byname Fairhair by cutting and dressing his hair, which had been uncut for ten years on account of Harald's vow never to cut it until he was ruler of all Norway,[3] and it makes him the father of Ganger-Hrólf, identified by saga writers with the Rollo (Hrólfr), ancestor of the Dukes of Normandy , who was said to have been established as Count of Rouen by King Charles the Simple in 931.[4]


Earl Rognvald is killed by Harald's son Halfdan Hålegg. Rognvald's death is avenged by his son, Earl Turf-Einar , from whom later Orkney earls claimed descent, who kills Halfdan on North Ronaldsay .[5]

Historia Norvegiae
The Historia Norvegiae's account of Rognvald and the foundation of the Orkney earldom is the next oldest, probably dating from the 12th century. This account contains much curious detail on Orkney, including the earliest account of the Picts as small people who hid in the daytime, but it has little to say about Rognvald.

In the days of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, certain pirates, of the family of the most vigorous prince Ronald [Rognvald], set out with a great fleet, and crossed the Solundic sea..., and subdued the islands to themselves. And being there provided with safe winter seats, they went in summer-time working tyranny upon the English, and the Scots, and sometimes also upon the Irish, so that they took under their rule, from England, Northumbria ; from Scotland, Caithness ; from Ireland, Dublin , and the other sea-side towns.[6]
This account does not associate Rognvald with the earldom, but instead attributes it to his anonymous kinfolk.


Fragmentary Annals of Ireland

The oldest account of the Rognvald and the earldom of Orkney is that found in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland. The annals survive only in incomplete copies made by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh in the 17th century, but the original annals are believed to date from the lifetime of Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic (died 1039). The annals are known to have had an influence on later writings in Iceland .

The annals make Rognvald the son of "Halfdan, King of Lochlann ". This is generally understood to mean Halfdan the Black , which would make the Rognvald of the annals the brother of Harald Finehair. However, the sagas claim that Rognvald's grandfather was named Halfdan.[7]


These events are placed after an account of the devastation of Fortriu , dated to around 866,[8] and the fall of York, reliably dated to late 867. However, such an early date makes it difficult to reconcile the saga claims that Harald Fairhair was involved in Rognvald's conquest of the northern isles.


Harald Finehair's victory in the Battle of Hafrsfjord , which gave him dominion over parts of Norway, is traditionally dated to 872, but was probably later, perhaps as late as 900.[9] What little is known of Scottish events in the period from the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba would correspond equally well with Harald's attacks on Scotland in the reign of Domnall mac Causantín (ruled 889-900).[10] However, this would not correspond with the sequence in the earliest account of the origins of the Orkney earldom, which places this a generation earlier.

Ragnvald married Ragnhild Hrolfsdatter,3 29 30 daughter of Hrolf Nefja and Unknown, about 867 in Maer, Nord-Trondelag, Norway. Ragnhild was born about 857 in <(Norway)>. Other names for Ragnhild were Hilda Countess More, Hiltrude, and Raginhilde.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 848, Orkney Islands, Scotland.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 51 M    i. Einar "Torf" Rögnvaldsson, Earl of Orkney 3 31 was born about 852 in <Sunnmøre, (Møre og Romsdal, Norway)> and died after 920 in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland.

+ 52 M    ii. Rollo, Duke of Normandy 32 33 34 35 was born between 860 and 870 in <Maer, Nord-Trondelag, (Norway)>, died about 929 in <Rouen>, Normandy, Neustria (France), and was buried in Notre Dame, Rouen, Normandy, (France).

44. Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary] 1 27 (Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Legendary king of Sweden, of the House of Yngling, brother of Alf.

From Wikipedia - Yngvi and Alf :

Yngvi and Alf were two legendary Swedish kings of the House of Yngling .

According to Ynglingatal , Historia Norwegiae and Ynglinga saga , Yngvi and Alf were the sons of Alrik .

Snorri Sturluson relates that Yngvi was an accomplished king: a great warrior who always won his battles, the master of all exercises, generous, happy and sociable. He was both loved and famous.

Alf was unsociable and harsh and stayed at home instead of pillaging in other countries. His mother was Dageid, the daughter of king Dag the Great from whom is descended the Dagling family. Alf was married to Bera who was happy and alert and a very lovable woman.

One day in the autumn, Yngvi returned to Uppsala from a very successful Viking expedition which had rendered him famous. He used to spend time at the drinking table until late in the night, like Bera, and they found it pleasant to talk to each other. Alf, however, preferred to go to bed early and he started to tell her to go to bed early as well so that she did not wake him. Then Bera used to answer that Yngvi was much better for a woman than Alf, an answer that was getting on Alf's nerves.

One evening, the jealous Alf entered the hall and saw Yngvi and Bera converse on the high seat. Yngvi had a short sword in his lap and the other guests were too drunk to see that Alf had arrived. From under his cloak Alf drew a sword and pierced Yngvi. Yngvi, mortally wounded, got up, drew his own short sword and slew Alf. They were buried in two mounds on the Fyrisvellir (Fyris Wolds).

Alf was succeeded by his son Hugleik .

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

His [Agne's] son, Ingjald, was murdered in Sweden by his own brother because he had brought discredit on the latter's wife, whose name was Bera (Ursa in Latin). After him his son Jorund ruled, [...][6]

Ingjaldr is held to be an error for Yngvi.[7] Unlike Ynglingatal, Historia Norwegiæ gives Agne as Yngvi's predecessor. Instead Alrekr precedes Agne and Agne is succeeded by Yngvi. The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it gives the same line of succession as Historia Norwegiæ: xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi. xv Jörundr.[8]

Hervarar Saga and the Saga of Orvar-Odd
In the Hervarar saga and the saga of Orvar-Odd , Yngvi was the father of Ingeborg, the princess who was in love with the Swedish hero Hjalmar .

Ari Frodi's Younger Íslendingabók
According to Ari Frodi's line of Swedish kings Yngvi was the son of Agne , and not of Agne's son Alrik .

Gesta Danorum
In Gesta Danorum , Alf (Alverus) was the father of Yngve (Ing) and Ingjald (Ingild). Ingjald, in his turn was the father of Sigurd Ring and the grandfather of Ragnar Lodbrok .

Yngvi married someone.

His children were:

+ 53 M    i. Jorund Yngvasson, King in Uppsala [Legendary] .1 36

+ 54 M    ii. Erik .36

45. Alf, King of Sweden [Legendary] 28 (Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Another name for Alf was Alverus King of Sweden.

Research Notes: Legendary Swedish king of the House of Yngling , brother of Yngvi.


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46. Eylimi Hjalmthersson 3 (Hjalmther36, Egdir30, Skuli25, Lofdi20, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 688 in <Norway>. Another name for Eylimi was Elina Hjalmthersson.

Eylimi married someone.

His child was:

+ 55 F    i. Hjordis Eylimadatter 3 was born about 710 in <Norway>.

47. Herbrand Hildibrandsson 7 (Hildibrand37, Herbrand31, Hildibrand26, Hildi21, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 700 in <Norway>.

Herbrand married someone.

His child was:

+ 56 M    i. Harald "Red Beard" Herbrandsson 7 was born about 750 in <Vestagder, (Norway)>.

48. Brynhild Budlasdatter 7 (Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 736 in <Norway>.

Brynhild married Sigurd "Fafnisbana" Sigmundsson,3 son of Sigmund Volsungsson and Hjordis Eylimadatter,. Sigurd was born about 735 in <Norway>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 57 F    i. Aslaug Sigurdsdatter 3 was born about 765 in <Denmark>.

49. Hugh de Cavalcamp 2 (Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 890 in <Near Dieppe>.

Hugh married someone.

His child was:

+ 58 M    i. Ralph I de Toeni 2 was born about 955 in <Tosni>, (Eure, ) France.

50. Bjorn "the Merchant" Haraldsson, Prince of Norway 7 (Svanhild Eysteinsdatter42, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 900 in <Vestfold, Norway> and died in 927 about age 27.

Bjorn married someone.

His child was:

+ 59 M    i. Gudrod Bjornsson 7 was born about 932 in <Norway> and died in 963 about age 31.

51. Einar "Torf" Rögnvaldsson, Earl of Orkney 3 31 (Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 852 in <Sunnmøre, (Møre og Romsdal, Norway)> and died after 920 in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland. Other names for Einar were Torf-Einarr and Einarr Rögnvaldarson Earl of Orkney.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Torf-Einarr :

Einarr Rögnvaldarson, Torf-Einarr or Turf-Einar (fl. early 890s-920s) was one of the Norse Earls of Orkney . His rise to power is related in sagas which apparently draw on verses of Einarr's own composition for inspiration. After battling for control of the Northern Isles of Scotland , Einarr founded a dynasty which retained control of the islands for centuries after his death.

Rise to power
Einarr was the youngest son of Rögnvald Eysteinsson of Møre , Norway , by a concubine. Rögnvald's family conquered the Orkney and Shetland islands in the late ninth century, and Rögnvald's brother, Sigurd Eysteinsson , was made Earl of Orkney. After his death on campaign, Sigurd was succeeded by his son, Guthorm, who died shortly afterward. Rögnvald sent one of his sons, Hallad, to govern the islands but Hallad was unable to maintain control, resigned his earldom and returned to Norway as a common landholder.[1]

According to the Norse Heimskringla and Orkneyinga sagas , Rögnvald had little regard for his youngest son Einarr because Einarr's mother was a slave. The sagas record that Rögnvald agreed to provide Einarr with a ship and crew in the hope that he would sail away and never return. Einarr sailed to the Scottish islands, where he defeated two Danish warlords, Þórir Tréskegg (Thorir Treebeard) and Kálf Skurfa (Kalf the Scurvy), who had taken residence there, and established himself as earl.[2] It is unclear whether the account in the sagas of Einarr's conquest is accurate. Though the Historia Norvegiæ , written at the same time as the sagas but from a different source, confirms that Rögnvald's family conquered the islands, it gives few details. The scene in the sagas where Einarr's father scorns him is a literary device which often figures in Old Norse literature . Much of Einarr's story in the sagas appears to be derived from five skaldic verses attributed to Einarr himself.[1]

Relations with Norway
The five verses attributed to Einarr describe a feud between the families of Rögnvald and the King of Norway, Harald Finehair . The poems are elaborated in the sagas, which say that two of Harald Finehair's unruly sons, Halvdan Hålegg (Hálfdan Longlegs) and Gudrød Ljome (Gudrod the Gleaming), killed Einarr's father Rögnvald by trapping him in his house and setting it alight. Gudrød took possession of Rögnvald's lands while Hálfdan sailed westwards to Orkney and displaced Einarr. The sagas say that King Harald, apparently appalled by his sons' actions, overthrew Gudrød and restored Rögnvald's lands to his son, Thorir Rögnvaldarson. From a base in Caithness , Einarr resisted Hálfdan's occupation of the islands. After a battle at sea, and a ruthless campaign on land, Einarr spied Hálfdan hiding on North Ronaldsay . The sagas claim that Hálfdan was captured, and sacrificed to Odin as a blood-eagle .[3] While the killing of Hálfdan by the Orkney islanders is recorded independently in the Historia Norvegiæ, the manner of his death is unspecified. The blood-eagle sacrifice may be a misunderstanding or an invention of the sagawriters as it does not feature directly in the earlier skaldic verses, which instead indicate that Hálfdan was killed by a volley of spears.[4] The verses do mention the eagle as a carrion bird, and this may have influenced the sagawriters to introduce the blood-eagle element.[5] The sagas relate that Harald sought vengeance for his son's ignoble death, and set out on campaign against Einarr, but was unable to dislodge him. Eventually, Harald agreed to end the fight in exchange for a fine of 60 gold marks levied on Einarr and the allodial owners of the islands. Einarr offered to pay the whole fine if the allodial landowners passed their lands to him, to which they agreed.[6] Einarr's assumption of control over the islands appears well-attested and was considered by later commentators to be the moment at which the Earls of Orkney came to own the entire island group in fee to the King of Norway.[1] Others have interpreted the payment of 60 gold marks as wergild or blood money .[7]

Legacy
Apart from the five verses recorded in the sagas, no other examples of Torf-Einarr's poetry are known to survive, though they appear to be part of a larger body of work.[8] A couplet that commemorates Einarr's defeat of the two pirate Vikings , Þórir Tréskegg (Thorir Treebeard) and Kálf Skurfa (Kalf the Scurvy),
Hann gaf Tréskegg trollum,
Torf-Einarr drap Skurfu.

He gave Treebeard to the trolls,
Torf-Einarr slew Scurvy.
has a matching metre and alliterative similarites to the attributed verses.[8] Einarr must have had some fame as a poet, as his name is used in the Háttatal , an examination of Old Norse poetry written in the thirteenth-century, to refer to a specific type of metre, Torf-Einarsháttr.[8]

The remainder of Einarr's long reign was apparently unchallenged, and he died in his bed of a sickness, leaving three sons, Arnkel, Erlend and Thorfinn . The sagas describe Einarr as tall, ugly and blind in one eye, but sharp-sighted nonetheless.[9] Despite these apparent disabilities, as well as his low-born mother, Einarr established a dynasty which ruled the Orkneys until 1470.[1]

The sagas incorrectly claim that he was called "Turf-Einar" because he introduced the practice of burning turf or peat to the islands since wood was so scarce. The real reason for the nick-name is unknown.[1] While depletion of woodland could have caused a cultural shift from burning timber to peat, potentially the name arose because the sequestration of the common or allodial rights of the islanders by Einarr forced them away from coppicing towards cutting turves.[10]

Einar married someone.

His child was:

+ 60 M    i. Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer" Einarsson 3 was born about 890 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland>, died after 977, and was buried in Burial Mound, Hoxa, Ronaldsay, Scotland.

52. Rollo, Duke of Normandy 32 33 34 35 (Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born between 860 and 870 in <Maer, Nord-Trondelag, (Norway)>, died about 929 in <Rouen>, Normandy, Neustria (France), and was buried in Notre Dame, Rouen, Normandy, (France). Other names for Rollo were Ganger Rolf "the Viking" 1st Count of Normandy and Rollo Rognvaldsson Duke of Normandy.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 846, Maer, Nord-Trondelag, Norway

Death Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f00/a0020075.htm has d. 927 in Rouen, France. Ancestral Roots has d. 929.
FamilySearch has d. abt 931, Rouen, Normandie, Neustria.

Research Notes: Father may have been Ragnvald Eysteinsson.

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford) has d. 927-932.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-18. "GANGER ROLF, "the Viking" (or ROLLO), 1st Count of Normandy, banished from Norway to the Hebrides abt 876, 890 participated in Viking attack on Bayeux, where Count Berenger of Bayeux was killed, and his dau. Poppa captured and taken 886, by Rollo (now called Count of Rouen) as his 'Danish' wife. Under Treaty of St. Claire, 911, rec'd the County of Normandy from CHARLES III, (148017) 'the Simple'; d. 929, bur. Notre Dame, Rouen."
-------------
From Wikipedia - Rollo :

Rollo (c. 860 - c. 932), baptised Robert, was the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Normandy .

The name Rollo is a Frankish -Latin name probably taken from the Old Norse name Hrólfr (cf. the latinization of Hrólfr into the similar Roluo in the Gesta Danorum , modern Scandinavian name Rolf ).


Historical evidence
Rollo was a Viking leader of contested origin. Dudo of St. Quentin , in his De moribus et actis primorum Normannorum ducum (Latin), tells of a powerful Danish nobleman at loggerheads with the king of Denmark , who had two sons, Gurim and Rollo; upon his death, Rollo was expelled and Gurim killed. William of Jumièges also mentions Rollo's prehistory in his Gesta Normannorum Ducum , but states that he was from the Danish town of Fakse . Wace , writing some 300 years after the event in his Roman de Rou , also mentions the two brothers (as Rou and Garin), as does the Orkneyinga Saga .

Norwegian and Icelandic historians identified this Rollo with a son of Rognvald Eysteinsson , Earl of Møre , in Western Norway , based on medieval Norwegian and Icelandic sagas that mention a Ganger Hrolf (Hrolf, the Walker). The oldest source of this version is the Latin Historia Norvegiae , written in Norway at the end of the 12th century. This Hrolf fell foul of the Norwegian king Harald Fairhair , and became a Jarl in Normandy. The nickname of that character came from being so big that no horse could carry him.

The question of Rollo's Danish or Norwegian origins was a matter of heated dispute between Norwegian and Danish historians of the 19th and early 20th century, particularly in the run-up to Normandy's 1000-year-anniversary in 1911. Today, historians still disagree on this question, but most would now agree that a certain conclusion can never be reached.

Invasion of France
In 885, Rollo was one of the lesser leaders of the Viking fleet which besieged Paris under Sigfred second official king of the Danes. Legend has it that an emissary was sent by the king to find the chieftain and negotiate terms. When he asked for this information, the Vikings replied that they were all chieftains in their own right. In 886, when Sigfred retreated in return for tribute, Rollo stayed behind and was eventually bought off and sent to harry Burgundy .

Later, he returned to the Seine with his followers (known as Danes, or Norsemen). He invaded the area of northern France now known as Normandy .

In 911 Rollo's forces were defeated at the Battle of Chartres by the troops of King Charles the Simple .[1] In the aftermath of the battle, rather than pay Rollo to leave, as was customary, Charles the Simple understood that he could no longer hold back their onslaught, and decided to give Rollo the coastal lands they occupied under the condition that he defend against other raiding Vikings. In the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911) with King Charles, Rollo pledged feudal allegiance to the king, changed his name to the Frankish version, and converted to Christianity , probably with the baptismal name Robert.[2] In return, King Charles granted Rollo the lower Seine area (today's upper Normandy) and the titular rulership of Normandy, centred around the city of Rouen . There exists some argument among historians as to whether Rollo was a "duke " (dux) or whether his position was equivalent to that of a "count " under Charlemagne . According to legend, when required to kiss the foot of King Charles, as a condition of the treaty, he refused to perform so great a humiliation, and when Charles extended his foot to Rollo, Rollo ordered one of his warriors to do so in his place. His warrior then lifted Charles' foot up to his mouth causing him to fall to the ground.[3]

Settlement
Initially, Rollo stayed true to his word of defending the shores of the Seine river in accordance to the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte , but in time he and his followers had very different ideas. Rollo began to divide the land between the Epte and Risle rivers among his chieftains and settled there with a de facto capital in Rouen. With these settlements, Rollo began to further raid other Frankish lands, now from the security of a settled homeland, rather than a mobile fleet. Eventually, however, Rollo's men intermarried with the local women, and became more settled as Frenchmen. At the time of his death, Rollo's expansion of his territory had extended as far west as the Vire River .

Death
Sometime around 927, Rollo passed the fief in Normandy to his son, William Longsword . Rollo may have lived for a few years after that, but certainly died before 933. According to the historian Adhemar , 'As Rollo's death drew near, he went mad and had a hundred Christian prisoners beheaded in front of him in honour of the gods whom he had worshipped , and in the end distributed a hundred pounds of gold around the churches in honour of the true God in whose name he had accepted baptism.' Even though Rollo had converted to Christianity , some of his pagan roots surfaced at the end.

Legacy
Rollo is a direct ancestor of William the Conqueror . Through William, he is an ancestor of the present-day British royal family .

The "Clameur de Haro " in the Channel Islands is, supposedly, an appeal to Rollo.


Rollo married Poppa, de Bayeux,34 37 daughter of Bérenger, of Bayeux and Unknown, in 886. Poppa was born about 872 in <Bayeux>, Neustria (France).

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-18 (Ganger Rolf).

http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f00/a0020076.htm has m. 891.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 872, Evreux, Neustria

Research Notes: "Danish" wife of Rollo (Ganger Rolf).

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-18 (Ganger Rolf).


Children from this marriage were:

+ 61 F    i. Adele, de Normandie 38 died after 969.

+ 62 M    ii. William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy 34 39 40 was born about 892 in <Rouen, (France)> and died on 17 Dec 942 in France about age 50.

53. Jorund Yngvasson, King in Uppsala [Legendary] 1 36 (Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary]44, Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Another name for Jorund was Jörundr King of Sweden.

Research Notes: King of Sweden, of the House of Yngling, in the 5th century.

From Wikipedia - Jorund :

Jorund or Jörundr (5th century) was a Swedish king of the House of Yngling . He was the son of Yngvi , and he had reclaimed the throne of Sweden for his dynasty from Haki (the brother of Hagbard , the hero of the legend of Hagbard and Signy , and Snorri cites two kennings from this legend Sigar's steed and Hagard's fell noose, when telling of Jorund).
Snorri Sturluson relates that when Jorund was young he used to travel the seas and plunder with his brother Erik, and they were great warriors. One summer they plundered in Denmark where they met another pillager, King Gudlög of Hålogaland (a province in Norway) with whom they fought. They took him prisoner and carried him ashore at Stromones where they hanged him. Gudlaug's surviving companions raised a mound over him there.

This act rendered the Swedish princes, Eric and Jorund, even more famous and they were thought of as even greater men. When they learnt that King Haki no longer had his forces around him, they decided to take care of their enemy. They assembled a large force that was joined by Swedes as they approached. They entered Mälaren (a bay at the time) and steered towards Uppsala . They left their ships at the Fyris Wolds and were met by Haki who had less men. Haki was a brutal fighter and managed to turn the tide of the battle. He slew Erik who held the banner and Jorund retreated with his men. Luckily, Haki had been seriously wounded and died.

Jorund then ruled Sweden at Uppsala , but he usually spent the summers pillaging. One summer, he plundered in Jutland and entered Limfjorden , where he continued the pillaging. They anchored in Oddesund (before a storm in 1825, it was near the innermost part of the fjord and almost 200 km from its mouth) but were discovered by the Norwegian pirate Gylaug of Hålogaland , the son of Gudlaug. Gylaug and his men attacked them and were joined by local forces who wanted revenge. As Jorund was vastly outnumbered (and had to run an almost 200 km long gauntlet to get out of the fjord), he lost the battle, and Gylaug had him hanged.

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation, continuing after Yngvi (called Ingialdr):

After him his son Jorund ruled, who ended his days unhappily once he had fought a war against the Danes, who hanged him at Oddesund, on an arm of the sea in Denmark which the natives call Limfjorden. He became the father of Aukun, [...][7]

The even earlier source Íslendingabók also cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it gives the same line of succession: xiiii Yngvi. xv Jörundr. xvi Aun inn gamli[8].

The Skjöldunga saga and the Bjarkarímur tell that Jorund was defeated by the Danish king Fróði (corresponds to the Heaðobard Froda in Beowulf ), who made him a tributary and took his daughter. The daughter gave birth to Halfdan , but another woman became Fróði's legitimate wife and gave him an heir named Ingjaldr (corresponds to the Heaðobard Ingeld in Beowulf). Together with one of his earls , Swerting , Jorund conspired against Fróði and killed him during the blót .

Jorund married someone.

His child was:

+ 63 M    i. Aun "the Old" Jorundsson, King in Uppsala [Legendary] .1 41

54. Erik 36 (Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary]44, Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Another name for Erik was Eric.

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55. Hjordis Eylimadatter 3 (Eylimi46, Hjalmther36, Egdir30, Skuli25, Lofdi20, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 710 in <Norway>.

Hjordis married Sigmund Volsungsson,3 son of Volsung Rersson and Ljod Hrimnirsdatter, about 734 in Norway. Sigmund was born about 705 in <Norway>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 64 M    i. Sigurd "Fafnisbana" Sigmundsson 3 was born about 735 in <Norway>.

56. Harald "Red Beard" Herbrandsson 7 (Herbrand47, Hildibrand37, Herbrand31, Hildibrand26, Hildi21, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 750 in <Vestagder, (Norway)>.

Harald married someone.

His child was:

+ 65 F    i. Asa Haraldsdatter 7 was born about 794 in <Holtum, Vestfold, (Norway)>.

57. Aslaug Sigurdsdatter 3 (Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 765 in <Denmark>.

Aslaug married Ragnar "Lodbrok" Sigurdsson,3 son of Sigurd "Ring" Randversson, King in Sweden and Alfhild Gandolfsdatter, about 783 in Denmark. Ragnar was born about 765 in <Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden> and died about 845 in <England> about age 80.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 66 M    i. Bjorn "Ironside" Ragnarsson 42 was born about 777 in <Denmark>.

+ 67 M    ii. Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson 3 was born about 786 in <Denmark>.

Aslaug next married Helgi "the Bold" Fridleifsson,7 son of Fridleif Frodasson and Unknown, about 815 in Norway. Helgi was born about 796 in <Ringerike, Akershus, (Norway)>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 68 M    i. Sigurd "Hjort" Helgasson 7 was born about 816 in <Ringerike, Akershus, (Norway)>.

58. Ralph I de Toeni 2 (Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 955 in <Tosni>, (Eure, ) France.

Ralph married someone.

His child was:

+ 69 M    i. Ralph II de Toeni, Seigneur de Tosni 2 was born before 970 in <Tosni>, France and died after 1015.

59. Gudrod Bjornsson 7 (Bjorn "the Merchant" Haraldsson, Prince of Norway50, Svanhild Eysteinsdatter42, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 932 in <Norway> and died in 963 about age 31.

Gudrod married Cecilie.7 Cecilie was born about 936 in <Norway>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 70 M    i. Harald "Graenske" Gudrodsson 7 was born about 960 in <Vestfold, Norway> and died about 995 about age 35.

60. Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer" Einarsson 3 (Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 890 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland>, died after 977, and was buried in Burial Mound, Hoxa, Ronaldsay, Scotland. Another name for Thorfinn was Brico Einarsson.

Thorfinn married Grelod Duncansdatter,3 daughter of Duncan, Earl of Caithness and Groa Thorsteinsdatter, in 914 in Orkney Islands, Scotland. Grelod was born about 898 in <Caithness, Scotland>. Other names for Grelod were Gerlaf Duncansdatter and Grelauga Duncansdatter.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 71 M    i. Hlodver Thorfinnsson, Earl of Orkney 3 was born about 924 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died between 980 and 988 in Hofn, Caithness, Scotland.

61. Adele, de Normandie 38 (Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died after 969. Other names for Adele were Adele Gerloc de Normandie and Gerloc de Normandie.

Adele married William I, Count of Poitou,43 son of Ebles Mancer, Count of Poitou and Aremburge, in 935. William was born in 900 in <Poitiers, France> and died on 3 Apr 963 in <Saint-Cyrien de Poitiers, France> at age 63. Other names for William were Guillaume III Count of Poitou and William III of Aquitaine.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 144A-19

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008).line 144A-19. Also line 45-22 (Henry III) and 110-23 (Hildegarde).

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford) has b. 910 in Poitier, d. bet 963 & 966 in Saint-Cyrien de Poitiers


The child from this marriage was:

+ 72 F    i. Adelaide, de Poitou 44 45 was born about 945 and died on 15 Jun 1006 about age 61.

62. William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy 34 39 40 (Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 892 in <Rouen, (France)> and died on 17 Dec 942 in France about age 50. Other names for William were Guillaume I "Longue Épée" Duke of Normandy and William I "Longsword."

Birth Notes: May have been born in Bayeux.

Death Notes: Killed in treacherous ambush by servants of Theobald of Blois and Arnulf of Flanders

Research Notes: When the Bretons rebelled about 930, he subdued them, taking Brittany, the Channel Islands, the Contentin, and the Averanchin.

From Wikipedia - William I, Duke of Normandy :

William I Longsword (French : Guillaume Longue-Épée, Latin : Willermus Longa Spata, Scandinavian : Vilhjálmr Langaspjót; 893 - 17 December 942) was the second Duke of Normandy from his father's death until his own assassination. The title dux (duke) was not in use at the time and has been applied to early Norman rulers retroactively; William actually used the title comes (count).

Little is known about his early years. He was born in Bayeux or Rouen to Rollo and his wife Poppa. All that is known of Poppa is that she was a Christian, and the daughter to Berengar of Rennes , the previous lord of Brittania Nova , which eventually became western Normandy. According to the William's planctus , he was baptised a Christian.

William succeeded Rollo sometime around 927. It appears that he faced a rebellion early in his reign, from Normans who felt he had become too Gallicised . Subsequent years are obscure. In 939 William became involved in a war with Arnulf I of Flanders , which soon became intertwined with the other conflicts troubling the reign of Louis IV . He was killed by followers of Arnulf while at a meeting to settle their conflict. His son Richard the Fearless , child of his first wife, Sprota, succeeded him. William also left a widow, Liègard (Liutgard), who died in 985.

Noted events in his life were:

• Succeeded: to County of Normandy, Abt 927.

• Bretons rebelled: Abt 930.

William married Sprote, de Bretagne,34 46 daughter of Hubert, Count of Senlis and Unknown,. Sprote was born about 911 in Bretagne, (France). Another name for Sprote was Sprota.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-19 (William I)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 73 M    i. Richard I, Duke of Normandy 34 47 48 49 50 was born on 28 Aug 933 in <Fécamp>, Normandy, (France), died on 20 Nov 996 in Fécamp, Seine-Inferieure, France at age 63, and was buried in Fécamp, Seine-Inferieure, France.

William next married Luitgarde, of Vermandois, daughter of Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, Soissons and Troyes and Liegarde, of France,. Luitgarde was born about 920 and died after 978.

Research Notes: Second wife of William I "Longsword"

Source: Wikipedia - Herbert II, Count of Vermandois

63. Aun "the Old" Jorundsson, King in Uppsala [Legendary] 1 41 (Jorund Yngvasson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]53, Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary]44, Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Other names for Aun were Auchun King of Sweden and Audhun King of Sweden.

Research Notes: Legendary king of Sweden, of the house of Yngling.

From Wikipedia - Aun :

Ane, On, One, Auchun or Aun the Old (Audhun, the same name as the A-S name Edwin) was the son of Jorund and one of the Swedish kings of the House of Yngling , the ancestors of Norway 's first king, Harald Fairhair .

Aun was a wise king who sacrificed greatly to the gods, but he was not a warlike king and preferred to live in peace. Consequently, he was attacked by the Danish prince Halfdan (the son of Fróði , the son of Dan the Arrogant , the founder of Denmark). Aun lost the battles and fled to the Geats in Västergötland , where he stayed for 25 years until Halfdan died in his bed in Uppsala and was buried in a mound .

King Aun could return to Uppsala, but he was 60 years old. In order to live longer he sacrificed his own son to Odin who promised him that he could live for another 60 years. However, after 25 years, Aun was attacked by Halfdan 's cousin Ale the Strong . Aun lost several battles and had to flee a second time to Västergötland . Ale the Strong ruled in Uppsala for 25 years until he was killed by Starkad the old.

After Ale the Strong's death, Aun could return to Uppsala. Once again, Aun sacrificed a son to Odin, but this time Odin said that he would live as long as he sacrificed a son every ten years and that he had to name one of the Swedish provinces after the number of sons he sacrificed.

When Aun had sacrificed a son for the seventh time, he was so old that he could not walk but had to be carried on a chair. When he had sacrificed a son for the eighth time, he could no longer get out of his bed. When he had sacrificed his ninth son, he was so old that he had to feed by suckling a horn like a little child.

After ten years he wanted to sacrifice his tenth and last son and name the province of Uppsala the ten lands. However, the Swedes refused to allow him this sacrifice and so he died. He was buried in a mound at Uppsala and succeeded by his last son Egil . From that day, dying in bed of old age was called Aun's sickness among the Scandinavians .

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation (continuing after Jorund ):

He became the father of Aukun, who, in the feebleness of a protracted old age, during the nine years before his death is said to have abandoned the consumption of solid food and only sucked milk from a horn, like a babe-in-arms. Aukun's son was Egil Vendelkråke, [...][6]

The even earlier source Íslendingabók also cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it also gives Aun as the successor of Jörundr and the predecessor of Egil Vendelcrow : xv Jörundr. xvi Aun inn gamli. xvii Egill Vendilkráka[7].

Aun married someone.

His child was:

+ 74 M    i. Ongentheow, King in Sweden [Semi-legendary] 1 51 died about 515.

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64. Sigurd "Fafnisbana" Sigmundsson 3 (Hjordis Eylimadatter55, Eylimi46, Hjalmther36, Egdir30, Skuli25, Lofdi20, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 735 in <Norway>.

Sigurd married Brynhild Budlasdatter,7 daughter of Budi Leinfnisson and Unknown,. Brynhild was born about 736 in <Norway>.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 48)

65. Asa Haraldsdatter 7 (Harald "Red Beard"56, Herbrand47, Hildibrand37, Herbrand31, Hildibrand26, Hildi21, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 794 in <Holtum, Vestfold, (Norway)>.

Asa married Gudrød "the Hunter" Halfdansson, King of Vestfold [Semi-legendary],52 53 son of Halfdan "the Mild" Eysteinsson, King of Vestfold and Romerike [Semi-legendary] and Liv Dagsdotter, of Vestmar, about 821 in Vestfold, (Norway). Gudrød was born about 738 in <Holtum, Vestfold, (Norway)>. Other names for Gudrød were Gudrød Halfdansson and Gudrød "Jaktkonge" Halfdansson King of Vestfold.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Gudrød the Hunter :

Gudrød the Hunter (Old Norse : Guðr veiðikonungr, Norwegian: Gudrød Veidekonge) was a semi-legendary king in south-east Norway , during the early Viking Age . He is mentioned in the skaldic poem Ynglingatal . Snorri Sturluson elaborates on Gudrød's story in Heimskringla , written c. 1230; however, this is not considered to be a historical account by modern historians. The following account is taken from Heimskringla.
Gudrød was the son of Halfdan the Mild of the House of Yngling and Liv Dagsdotter of Vestmar . He married Alfhild, a daughter of Alfarin the king of Alfheim (Bohuslän ), which was the name of the area between Glomma and Göta älv , and inherited half the province of Vingulmark . They had a son, Olaf Gudrødsson .

When Alfhild died, Gudrød sent his warriors to Agder and its king, Harald, to propose a marriage with his daughter Åsa . However, Harald Granraude declined, so Gudrød decided to take his daughter by force.

They arrived at night. When Harald realised that he was being attacked, he assembled his men and fought well, but died together with his son Gyrd. Gudrød carried away Åsa and married her. He raped her and she gave him a son named Halfdan who would be called Halfdan the Black .

In the fall, when Halfdan was a year old, Gudrød was having at a feast in Stiflesund . He was very drunk and in the evening, as he was walking on the gangway to leave the ship, an assassin thrust a spear through Gudrød, killing him. Gudrød's men instantly killed the assassin, who turned out to be Åsa's page-boy. Åsa admitted that the page-boy had acted on her behalf.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 75 M    i. Halfdan "the Black" Gudrodsson 7 was born about 823 in <Vestfold, (Norway)> and died in 863 in Norway about age 40.

66. Bjorn "Ironside" Ragnarsson 42 (Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 777 in <Denmark>.

Bjorn married someone.

His child was:

+ 76 M    i. Refill Bjornsson 42 was born about 796 in Sweden.

67. Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson 3 (Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 786 in <Denmark>.

Sigurd married Heluna, Princess in England,7 daughter of Ella, King in England and Unknown, about 799 in Jutland, Denmark. Heluna was born about 784 in <England>. Another name for Heluna was Bleja Princess in England.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 77 F    i. Thora Sigurdsdatter 3 was born about 806 in <Jutland, Denmark>.

+ 78 M    ii. Knud Sigurdsson 42 was born about 814 in <Hord, Jutland>, Denmark.

68. Sigurd "Hjort" Helgasson 7 (Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 816 in <Ringerike, Akershus, (Norway)>.

Sigurd married Ingibjorg "Thyrne" Haraldsdatter 7 about 829 in Ringerike, Akershus, (Norway). Ingibjorg was born about 814 in <Ringerike, Akershus, (Norway)>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 79 F    i. Ragnhild Sigurdsdatter 7 was born about 830 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

69. Ralph II de Toeni, Seigneur de Tosni 2 (Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born before 970 in <Tosni>, France and died after 1015. Another name for Ralph was Rodulf II de Toeni.

Ralph married someone.

His child was:

+ 80 M    i. Roger "the Spaniard" de Toeni 2 was born about 990 in <Tosni>, France, died about 1039 about age 49, and was buried in Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France.

70. Harald "Graenske" Gudrodsson 7 (Gudrod Bjornsson59, Bjorn "the Merchant" Haraldsson, Prince of Norway50, Svanhild Eysteinsdatter42, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 960 in <Vestfold, Norway> and died about 995 about age 35.

Harald married Asta Gudbrandsdatter,7 daughter of Gudbrand "Kula" Olafsson and Ulfhild,. Asta was born about 970 in <Vestfold, Norway>. Another name for Asta was Astrid Gudbrandsdatter.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 81 M    i. Olaf II "the Saint" Haraldsson, King of Norway 7 was born about 995 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>, died on 29 Jul 1030 in Stiklestad, Norway about age 35, and was buried on 3 Aug 1030 in St. Clemens-Kirke, Trondheim, Sor-Trondelag, Norway.

71. Hlodver Thorfinnsson, Earl of Orkney 3 (Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 924 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died between 980 and 988 in Hofn, Caithness, Scotland. Another name for Hlodver was Lodver Thorfinnsson Earl of Orkney.

Hlodver married Audna Kjarvalsdatter 7 about 959 in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland. Audna was born about 928 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland>. Other names for Audna were Edna Kjarvalsdatter and Ethne Kjarvalsdatter.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 82 M    i. Sigurd II "Digri" Hlodversson 7 was born about 960 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland>, died on 23 Apr 1014 in Battle of Clontarf, Dublin, Ireland about age 54, and was buried in Burial Mound, Hofry, Caithness, Scotland.

+ 83 F    ii. Hvarflad Hlodversdatter 3 was born about 962 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland>.

72. Adelaide, de Poitou 44 45 (Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 945 and died on 15 Jun 1006 about age 61. Another name for Adelaide was Alix of Poitou.


Adelaide married Hugh Capet, King of France,54 55 son of Hugh Magnus, Count of Paris and Hedwig, of Saxony, Summer 968. Hugh was born Winter 941 in France, died on 24 Oct 996 in Les Juifs, Chartres, France at age 55, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Another name for Hugh was Hugues Capet Duke of the Franks, King of France.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 144A-20

Birth Notes: Birth date variously given as Aft. 939, winter 941

Death Notes: Another source says d. in Paris.

Research Notes: King of France 987-996. First of the Capetian kings of France. Count of Poitou, Count of Orleans.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 141-20.

Also Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

From Wikipedia - Hugh Capet :

Hugh Capet[1] (c. 940 - 24 October 996 ) was the first King of France of the eponymous Capetian dynasty from his election to succeed the Carolingian Louis V in 987 until his death.

Descent and inheritance
The son of Hugh the Great , Duke of France , and Hedwige of Saxony , daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler , Hugh was born about 940. His paternal family, the Robertians , were powerful landowners in the Île-de-France . His grandfather had been King Robert I and his grandmother Beatrice was a Carolingian, a daughter of Herbert I of Vermandois . King Odo was his great uncle and King Rudolph Odo's son-in-law. Hugh was born into a well-connected and powerful family with many ties to the reigning nobility of Europe.[2] But for all this, Hugh's father was never king. When Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great organized the return of Louis d'Outremer , son of Charles the Simple , from his exile at the court of Athelstan of England . Hugh's motives are unknown, but it is presumed that he acted to forestall Rudolph's brother and successor as Duke of Burgundy, Hugh the Black from taking the French throne, or to prevent it from falling into the grasping hands of Herbert II of Vermandois or William Longsword , Count of Rouen .[3]
In 956, Hugh inherited his father's estates and became one of the most powerful nobles in the much-reduced West Frankish kingdom . However, as he was not yet an adult, his uncle Bruno , Archbishop of Cologne , acted as regent . Young Hugh's neighbours made the most of the opportunity. Theobald I of Blois , a former vassal of Hugh the Great, took the counties of Chartres and Châteaudun . Further south, on the border of the kingdom, Fulk II of Anjou , another former client of Hugh the Great, carved out a principality at Hugh's expense and that of the Bretons .[4]...

Election and extent of power
From 978 to 986, Hugh Capet allied himself with the German emperors Otto II and Otto III and with Archbishop Adalberon of Reims to dominate the Carolingian king, Lothair . By 986, he was king in all but name. After Lothair and his son died in early 987, the archbishop of Reims and Gerbert of Aurillac convened an assembly of nobles to elect Hugh Capet as their king....

Dispute with the papacy
Hugh made Arnulf Archbishop of Reims in 988, even though Arnulf was the nephew of the his bitter rival, Charles of Lorraine . Charles thereupon succeeded in capturing Reims and took the archbishop prisoner. Hugh, however, considered Arnulf a turncoat and demanded his deposition by Pope John XV . The turn of events outran the messages, when Hugh captured both Charles and Arnulf and convoked a synod at Reims in June 991, which obediently deposed Arnulf and chose as his successor Gerbert of Aurillac. These proceedings were repudiated by Rome, although a second synod had ratified the decrees issued at Reims. John XV summoned the French bishops to hold an independent synod outside the King's realm, at Aachen , to reconsider the case. When they refused, he called them to Rome, but they protested that the unsettled conditions en route and in Rome made that impossible. The Pope then sent a legate with instructions to call a council of French and German bishops at Mousson , where only the German bishops appeared, the French being stopped on the way by Hugh and Robert.
Through the exertions of the legate, the deposition of Arnulf was finally pronounced illegal. After Hugh's death, Arnulf was released from his imprisonment and soon restored to all his dignities.

Legacy
Hugh Capet died on 24 October 996 in Paris and was interred in the Saint Denis Basilica . His son Robert continued to reign.
Most historians regard the beginnings of modern France with the coronation of Hugh Capet. This is because, as Count of Paris , he made the city his power center. The monarch began a long process of exerting control of the rest of the country from there.
He is regarded as the founder of the Capetian dynasty . The direct Capetians, or the House of Capet , ruled France from 987 to 1328; thereafter, the Kingdom was ruled by collateral branches of the dynasty. All French Kings down to Louis Philippe , and royal pretenders since then, have been members of the dynasty (the Bonapartes styled themselves emperors rather than kings). As of 2007 , the Capetian dynasty is still the head of state in the kingdom of Spain (in the person of the Bourbon Juan Carlos ) and the duchy of Luxembourg , being the oldest continuously reigning dynasty in Europe. Queen Elizabeth II is a direct descendent of Hugh Capet.
Marriage and issue
Hugh Capet married Adelaide , daughter of William Towhead , Count of Poitou . Their children are as follows:
Robert , who became king after the death of his father
Hedwig, or Hathui, who married Reginar IV , Count of Hainaut
Gisela, or Gisele
A number of other daughters are less reliably attested.[10]

References
Bordenove, Georges. Les Rois qui ont fait la France: Hugues Capet, le Fondateur. Paris: Marabout, 1986. ISBN 2-501-01099-X
Gauvard, Claude. La France au Moyen Âge du Ve au XVe siècle. Paris: PUF, 1996. 2-13-054205-0
James, Edward. The Origins of France: From Clovis to the Capetians 500-1000. London: Macmillan, 1982. ISBN 0312588623
Riché, Pierre. Les Carolingiens: Une famille qui fit l'Europe. Paris: Hachette, 1983. 2-012-78551-0
Theis, Laurent. Histoire du Moyen Âge français: Chronologie commentée 486-1453. Paris: Perrin, 1992. 2-87027-587-0
Lewis, Anthony W. "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France. " The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 4. (Oct., 1978), pp 906-927.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Paris: 956-996.

• King of France: 987-996.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 84 F    i. Hedwig, of France 56 was born about 969 and died after 1013.

+ 85 M    ii. Robert II "the Pious", King of France 57 58 was born on 27 Mar 972 in Orléans, Orléanais, (Loiret), France and died on 20 Jul 1031 in Meulan, Normandy, France at age 59.

73. Richard I, Duke of Normandy 34 47 48 49 50 (William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born on 28 Aug 933 in <Fécamp>, Normandy, (France), died on 20 Nov 996 in Fécamp, Seine-Inferieure, France at age 63, and was buried in Fécamp, Seine-Inferieure, France. Other names for Richard were Richard I "Sans Peur" Duke of Normandy and Richard I "the Fearless" Duke of Normandy.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. abt 933 in Fecamp, France.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Richard I, Duke of Normandy :

Richard I of Normandy (born 28 August 933 , in Fécamp Normandy , France died November 20 , 996 , in Fécamp) was the Duke of Normandy from 942 to 996; he is considered the first to actually have held that title. He was called Richard the Fearless (French, Sans Peur).

Birth
He was born to William I of Normandy , ruler of Normandy, and his wife, Sprota . He was still a boy when his father died in 942. His mother was a Breton concubine captured in war and bound to William by a Danish marriage. After William died, Sprota became the wife of Esperleng, a wealthy miller; Rodulf of Ivry was their son and Richard's half-brother.

Life
Richard was still a boy when his father died, and so he was powerless to stop Louis IV of France when he seized Normandy. Louis kept him in confinement in his youth at Lâon, but he escaped with the assistance of Osmond de Centville , Bernard de Senlis (who had been a companion of Rollo of Normandy ), Ivo de Bellèsme , and Bernard the Dane (ancestor of families of Harcourt and Beaumont ). In 968, Richard agreed to "commend" himself to Hugh, Count of Paris. He then allied himself with the Norman and Viking leaders, drove Louis out of Rouen, and took back Normandy by 947. He later quarrelled with Ethelred II of England regarding Viking invasions of England because Normandy had been buying up much of the stolen booty.

Richard was bilingual, having been well educated at Bayeux. He was more partial to his Danish subjects than to the French. During his reign, Normandy became completely Gallicized and Christianized. He introduced the feudal system and Normandy became one of the most thoroughly feudalized states on the continent. He carried out a major reorganization of the Norman military system, based on heavy cavalry. He also became guardian of the young Hugh, Count of Paris, on the elder Hugh's death in 956.

Marriages
He married 1st (960) Emma (not to be confused with Emma of France ), daughter of Hugh "The Great" of France , and Hedwiga de Sachsen . They were betrothed when both were very young. She died 19 Mar 968, with no issue.
According to Robert of Torigni , not long after Emma's death, Duke Richard went out hunting and stopped at the house of a local forester. He became enamoured of the forester's wife, Seinfreda, but she being a virtuous woman, suggested he court her unmarried sister, Gunnor , instead. Gunnor became his mistress, and her family rose to prominence. Her brother, Herefast de Crepon , may have been involved in a controversial heresy trial. Gunnor was, like Richard, of Norse descent, being a Dane by blood. Richard finally married her to legitimize their children:
Richard II "the Good", Duke of Normandy (966)
Robert , Archbishop of Rouen , Count of Evreux , died 1037.
Geoffrey, Count of Eu, b. abt 962 died abt 1015. (Parentage [mother] not certain)
Mauger, Earl of Corbeil , died after 1033; his alleged grandson (or perhaps great-grandson) was Robert Fitzhamon , an important Anglo-Norman baron.
Robert Danus, died between 985 and 989
Emma of Normandy (c.985-1052) wife of two kings of England.
Maud of Normandy, wife of Odo II of Blois , Count of Blois, Champagne and Chartres
Hawise of Normandy (b. ca. 978), d. 21 February 1034 . m. Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany
Beatrice of Normandy , Abbess of Montvilliers d.1034 m. Ebles of Turenne (d.1030 (divorced)
Papia m. Gilbert de St Valery.
Fressenda (ca. 995-ca. 1057), m. Tancred of Hauteville .
Muriella m. Tancred of Hauteville .

Mistresses
Richard was known to have had several other mistresses and produced children with many of them. Known children are:
Geoffrey, Count of Brionne , (b. ca. 970)
William, Count of Eu (ca. 972 -26 January 1057/58) m. Leseline de Turqueville (d. 26 January 1057/58).

Death
He died in Fecamp , France on November 20 , 996 of natural causes.

Noted events in his life were:

• Named: his father's heir, 29 May 942.

Richard married Gunnora, de Crepon.34 59 60 Gunnora was born about 936 in <Normandy, (France)> and died about 1031 in France about age 95. Other names for Gunnora were Gonnor de Crepon and Gunnor de Crêpon.

Research Notes: First wife of Richard I - Danish wife. Then married Emma. After Emma died about 968, married Gunnora in a Christian marriage to legitimize their children.

Herfast de Crepon was her brother.

From Wikipedia - Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy :

Gunnora or Gunnor (c. 936-1031) was the wife and consort of Richard I of Normandy . Her parentage is unknown, earliest sources reporting solely that she was of Danish ancestry and naming siblings including brother Herfast de Crepon who is sometimes erroneously given as her father.

She was living with her sister Seinfreda, the wife of a local forester, when Richard, hunting nearby, heard of the beauty of the forester's wife. He is said to have ordered Seinfreda to come to his bed, but the lady substituted her unmarried sister, Gunnora. Richard, it is said, was pleased that by this subterfuge he had been saved from committing adultery, and the two became lovers. Gunnora long acted as Richard's mistress or wife by more danico , but when Richard was prevented from nominating their son Robert to be Archbishop of Rouen , the two were married, making their children legitimate in the eyes of the church.

Gunnora, both as mistress and duchess, was able to use her influence to see her kin favored, and several of the most prominent Conquest-era Norman magnates, including the Montgomery , Warenne , Mortimer , Vernon/Redvers , and Fitz Osbern families, were descendants of her brother and sisters.

Richard and Gunnora were parents to six children:
Richard II "the Good", Duke of Normandy (966)
Robert , Archbishop of Rouen , Count of Evreux , died 1037.
Mauger, Earl of Corbeil , died after 1033.
Robert Danus, died between 985 and 989
Emma of Normandy (c. 985-1052) wife of two kings of England.
Maud of Normandy, wife of Odo II of Blois , Count of Blois, Champagne and Chartres


Children from this marriage were:

+ 86 F    i. Emma, Princess of Normandy 61 62 died in 1052.

+ 87 M    ii. Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne 34 63 was born about 953 in <Brionne>, Normandy, (France) and died about 1015 about age 62.

+ 88 M    iii. Robert II d'Évreux, Count of Évreux 64 was born about 965 in Normandy, France and died in 1037 about age 72.

+ 89 M    iv. Richard II, Duke of Normandy 65 66 67 68 was born about 985 in Normandy, (France), died on 28 Aug 1027 in Fécamp, Normandy, France about age 42, and was buried in Fécamp, Normandy, France.

Richard next married someone.

His child was:

+ 90 F    i. <Papia> .

Richard had a relationship with < >, [Concubine of Richard I].48 This couple did not marry.

Richard next married Emma, of Paris, daughter of Hugh Capet, King of France and Unknown, in 960. Emma died about 968.

Marriage Notes: Betrothed about 945 and married 960

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-20 (Richard I)

74. Ongentheow, King in Sweden [Semi-legendary] 1 51 (Aun "the Old" Jorundsson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]63, Jorund Yngvasson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]53, Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary]44, Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died about 515. Other names for Ongentheow were Egil Aunsson King in Sweden, Egill King of Sweden, and Eigil King of Sweden.

Research Notes: Semi-legendary king of Sweden, in the house of the Scylfings.

From Wikipedia - Ongentheow :

Ongentheow, (Anglo-Saxon Ongenþeow, Ongenþio, Ongendþeow; Swedish Angantyr) (- ca 515) was the name of a semi-legendary Swedish king of the house of Scylfings , who appears in Anglo-Saxon sources. He is generally identified with the Swedish king Egil (also Swedish Egill, Eigil) who appears in Ynglingatal , Historia Norwegiae and in Ynglinga saga .[1][2][3][4]

The names are different and have little etymological connection. Ongenþeow would in Proto-Norse have been *Anganaþewaz, whereas Egil would have been *Agilaz. The reason why they are thought to have been the same is that they have the same position in the line of Swedish kings and are described as the fathers of Ohthere and grandfathers of Eadgils . As will be shown below, it can be argued that they are based on the same person and the same events, but not every scholar is open to the historicity of the characters in Beowulf , and in the Norse sagas .

Anglosaxon sources
In the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf Ongentheow is described as a fearsome warrior and it took two warriors Eofor and Wulf Wonreding to take him down.

The epic tells that the Geats under their new king Hæþcyn captured the Swedish queen, but old king Ongenþeow saved her, at a hill fort called Hrefnesholt , although they lost her gold.[5] Ongentheow killed Hæþcyn,[6] and besieged the Geats at Hrefnesholt.[7] The Geats were, however, rescued by Hygelac , Hæþcyn's brother,[8] who arrived the next day with reinforcements.[9] Having lost the battle, but rescued his queen, Ongenþeow and his warriors returned home.[10]

However, the war was not over. Hygelac, the new king of the Geats, attacked the Swedes.[11] The Geatish warriors Eofor and Wulf fought together against the hoary king Ongenþeow.[12] Wulf hit Ongentheow's head with his sword so that the old king bled over his hair, but the king hit back and wounded Wulf.[13] Then, Eofor retaliated by cutting through the Swedish king's shield and through his helmet,[14] giving Ongentheow a death-blow.[15] Eofor took the Swedish king's helmet, sword and breastplate and carried them to Hygelac.[16] When they came home, Eofor and Wulf were richly awarded,[17] and Eofor was given Hygelac's daughter.[18] Because of this battle, Hygelac is referred to as Ongentheow's slayer.[19]

Egil
In Ari Þorgilsson 's Íslendingabók and in Historia Norwegiae , he was called Egil Vendelcrow (Vendilcraca/Vendilkráka, a name traditionally given to those living at the royal estate of Vendel in Sweden). Snorri Sturluson , however, gave the name Vendelcrow to Egil's son Ottar (Ohthere ). In these sources, Egil was the son of Aun the Old , and like him, not very warlike. After he had made the thrall Tunni (or Tonne) responsible for the treasury , Tunni rebelled against Egil. They fought eight battles after which Egil fled to Denmark, according to the Ynglinga saga (Ynglingatal does not mention where he fled and Historia Norwegiae does not mention any escape at all). Snorri wrote that Fróði , the Danish king, aided Egil in defeating Tunni, and made Egil a tributary to the Danish king.
Egil was killed by a bull during the sacrifices at Gamla Uppsala .

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

Aukun's son was Egil Vendelkråke, whose own bondman, Tunne, drove him from his kingdom; and though a mere servant he joined in eight civil combats with his master and won supremacy in all of them, but in a ninth he was finally defeated and killed. Shortly afterwards however the monarch was gored and slaughtered by a ferocious bull. The successor to the throne was his son Ottar, [...][25] The even earlier source Íslendingabók also cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it also gives Egil as the successor of Aunn and the predecessor of Óttarr : xvi Aun inn gamli. xvii Egill Vendilkráka. xviii Óttarr.[26]

Comments
The two versions seem contradictory, but it has been shown that the two stories may very well describe the same event (Schück H. 1907, Nerman B. 1925), and that Ynglingatal was probably misinterpreted by Snorri due to a different dialectal meaning of the word farra.

If there is any authenticity behind the traditions, the origin of Ynglingatal was most probably a Swedish poem which has not survived (see also Sundquist 2004). In Old Swedish, farra did not mean "bull" but it meant "boar " (cf. English farrow meaning "young pig"). Moreover, in Old Norse Trjóna normally meant a pig's snout (modern Scandinavian tryne). Flæmingr meant "sword" (originally a Flemish sword imported by Vikings).
Moreover, the sword of the snout can hardly refer to the horns of a bull, but it is more natural to interpret it as the tusks of a boar. In English, the lines can be translated as but the giant beast coloured its tusk red on Egil.

In Anglo-Saxon , the name eofor meant "boar" and consequently Ynglingatal could very well relate of Eofor (the boar) killing Egil with kennings for boars. These kennings, sung originally by Swedes, were later misinterpreted by Norwegians and Icelanders as literal expressions due to the different dialectal meanings of farra.

Moreover, according to Schück, the name Tunni which has no meaning in Old Norse should in Proto-Norse have been *Tunþa and derived from *Tunþuz. Consequently, it would have been the same word as the Gothic Tunþus which meant "tooth". This would mean that the name of Egil's enemy, actually meant "tooth" and Tunni and the bull/boar would consequently have been the same enemy, i.e. Eofor.

Some scholars have suggested that the name Ongentheow is connected to the Danish king Ongendus, (fl. c. 700) who appears in one sentence of Alcuin 's life of Willibrord .[27][28]

Ongentheow married someone.

His child was:

+ 91 M    i. Ohthere, King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary] 1 69 was born about 515 and died about 530 about age 15.

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75. Halfdan "the Black" Gudrodsson 7 (Asa Haraldsdatter65, Harald "Red Beard"56, Herbrand47, Hildibrand37, Herbrand31, Hildibrand26, Hildi21, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 823 in <Vestfold, (Norway)> and died in 863 in Norway about age 40.

Halfdan married Ragnhild Sigurdsdatter,7 daughter of Sigurd "Hjort" Helgasson and Ingibjorg "Thyrne" Haraldsdatter, about 849 in Norway. Ragnhild was born about 830 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 92 M    i. Harald I "Fairhair" Halfdansson, King of Norway 7 was born about 850 in <Hedemark, Norway>, died in 933 about age 83, and was buried in Hauko, Rogaland, Norway.

76. Refill Bjornsson 42 (Bjorn "Ironside" Ragnarsson66, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 796 in Sweden.

Refill married someone.

His child was:

+ 93 M    i. Erik Refillsson 42 was born about 814 in Sweden.

77. Thora Sigurdsdatter 3 (Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 806 in <Jutland, Denmark>.

Thora married Helgi Olafsson,3 son of Olaf Geirstad-Alf Gudrødsson, King of Jutland and Vestfold [Legendary] and Unknown, about 819 in <Ireland>. Helgi was born about 802 in <Dublin, Dublin, Ireland>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 94 M    i. Ingjald "the White" Helgasson, Petty King in Ireland 3 was born about 820 in <Dublin, Dublin, Ireland>.

78. Knud Sigurdsson 42 (Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 814 in <Hord, Jutland>, Denmark. Another name for Knud was Harde-Knud Sigurdsson.

Knud married someone.

His child was:

+ 95 M    i. Geva Knudsson, King of Denmark 42 was born about 840 in Denmark, died about 940 in Jellinge, Vejle, Denmark about age 100, and was buried in Gormshoj, Jellinge, Vejle, Denmark.

79. Ragnhild Sigurdsdatter 7 (Sigurd "Hjort" Helgasson68, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 830 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>.

Ragnhild married Halfdan "the Black" Gudrodsson,7 son of Gudrød "the Hunter" Halfdansson, King of Vestfold [Semi-legendary] and Asa Haraldsdatter, about 849 in Norway. Halfdan was born about 823 in <Vestfold, (Norway)> and died in 863 in Norway about age 40.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 75)

80. Roger "the Spaniard" de Toeni 2 (Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 990 in <Tosni>, France, died about 1039 about age 49, and was buried in Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France. Other names for Roger were Roger "the Spaniard" de Conches and Roger de Toeni.

Roger married Godehilde Borrell.42 Godehilde was born about 995 in <Tosni>, (Eure, ) France and died after 1077. Another name for Godehilde was Godeheut Borrell.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 96 M    i. Ralph de Toeni, de Conches 42 was born about 1029 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England, died on 24 Mar 1102 about age 73, and was buried in Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France.

+ 97 F    ii. Alice de Toeni 2 was born about 1035 in <Tosni>, France and was buried in Lire Abbey, Normandy, France.

81. Olaf II "the Saint" Haraldsson, King of Norway 7 (Harald "Graenske" Gudrodsson70, Gudrod Bjornsson59, Bjorn "the Merchant" Haraldsson, Prince of Norway50, Svanhild Eysteinsdatter42, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 995 in <Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway>, died on 29 Jul 1030 in Stiklestad, Norway about age 35, and was buried on 3 Aug 1030 in St. Clemens-Kirke, Trondheim, Sor-Trondelag, Norway.

Olaf married Alfhild.7 Alfhild was born about 1002 in <Bergen, Bergen, Norway>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 98 M    i. Magnus I "the Good" Olafsson, King of Norway 7 was born about 1024 in <Norway> and died on 25 Oct 1047 about age 23.

82. Sigurd II "Digri" Hlodversson 7 (Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 960 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland>, died on 23 Apr 1014 in Battle of Clontarf, Dublin, Ireland about age 54, and was buried in Burial Mound, Hofry, Caithness, Scotland.

Sigurd married Anleta "Thora Donada" MacKenneth,7 daughter of Malcolm II, King of Scots and Unknown, about 988 in Scotland. Anleta was born about 968 in <Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland>.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 170-18 (Mael-Coluim)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 99 M    i. Thorfinn II "the Black" Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney 7 was born about 989 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died in 1064 in <Christ's Kirk, Birdsey, Scotland> about age 75.

Sigurd next married someone.

His child was:

+ 100 M    i. Brusi Sigurdsson 70 was born about 987 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died in 1031 in Orkney Islands, Scotland about age 44.

83. Hvarflad Hlodversdatter 3 (Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 962 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland>. Other names for Hvarflad were Nereid Hlodversdatter and Svalaug Hlodversdatter.

Hvarflad married Gille, Earl of the Hebrides 3 about 990. Gille was born about 958 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 101 M    i. Gille Adoman I Gilleson 3 was born about 976 in <Orkney, Scotland>.

84. Hedwig, of France 56 (Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 969 and died after 1013.

Hedwig married Régnier IV, Count of Hainaut,71 son of Régnier III, Count of Hainaut and Unknown, in 996. Régnier was born about 950 and died in 1013 about age 63.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Hainaut: 1013.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 102 M    i. Régnier V, Count of Hainaut 72 died after 1039.


85. Robert II "the Pious", King of France 57 58 (Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born on 27 Mar 972 in Orléans, Orléanais, (Loiret), France and died on 20 Jul 1031 in Meulan, Normandy, France at age 59. Other names for Robert were Robert Sanctus King of France, Robert Capet Sanctus and King of France.

Death Notes: Melun, France?

Research Notes: Count of Paris, King of France

From Wikipedia - Robert II of France:

Robert II (27 March 972 - 20 July 1031 ), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet , he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine .

Co-rule with father
Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy.[1] Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona , an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition.[2] Ralph Glaber , however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[3] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[4] Robert was eventually crowned on 30 December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.
Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV , with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.

Marital problems

As early as 989, having been rebuffed in his search for a Byzantine princess,[5]Hugh Capet arranged for Robert to marry the recently-widowed daughter of Berengar II of Italy , Rozala , who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen.[6] She was many years his senior. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders , with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha , daughter of Conrad of Burgundy , around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois , but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity , Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II , the marriage was annulled.
Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage: to Constance of Arles , the daughter of William I of Provence . She was an ambitious and scheming woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

Piety
Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety", resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

Children
Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:[7]
Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin
Adele of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.
Hugh Magnus , co-king (1017-1025)
Henry I , successor
Robert , became Duke of Burgundy
Odo (1013-c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy
Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders .
Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges

Sources
Lewis, Andrew W. "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France. " The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 4. (Oct., 1978), pp 906-927.
* Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 53-21, 101-21, 107-20, 107-21, 108-21, 128-21, 141-21, 141A-21, 146-19, 162-20, 185-2.
Jessee, W. Scott. A missing Capetian princess: Advisa, daughter of King Robert II of France (Medieval Prosopography), 1990

Noted events in his life were:

• King of France: 1 Jan 996-1031.

Robert married Rosela, of Ivrea 73 before Apr 988. Another name for Rosela was Susanna of Ivrea.

Research Notes: 1st wife of Robert II. Her second husband. Robert II repudiated her in 992.

Noted events in her life were:

• Repudiated: 922.

Robert next married Bertha, of Burgundy,74 daughter of Conrad I, King of Burgundy, King of West Franks and Mathilda, of France, in 995. Bertha was born about 964 and died after 1010.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Robert II. Widow of Eudes I.

Noted events in her life were:

• Repudiated: 998.

Robert next married Constance, of Provence,75 76 daughter of William II, Count of Arles and Provence and Adelaide "la Blanche", of Anjou, in 998. Constance was born about 986, died on 25 Jul 1032 in Melun, France about age 46, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Other names for Constance were Constance of Arles and Gisant of Arles.

Research Notes: Third wife of Robert II of France.

From Wikipedia - Constance of Arles :

Constance of Arles (also known as Constance of Provence) (986 - July 25 , 1034 ) was the third wife and queen of King Robert II of France . She was the daughter of William I , count of Provence and great-grandson of Charles-Constantine ; and Adelais of Anjou , daughter of Fulk II of Anjou . She was the sister of Count William II of Provence .

In 1003 , she was married to King Robert, after his divorce from his second wife, Bertha of Burgundy . The marriage was stormy; Bertha's family opposed her, and Constance was despised for importing her Provençal kinfolk. Robert's friend, Hugh of Beauvais, tried to convince the king to repudiate her in 1007 . Constance's response was to have Beauvais murdered by the knights of her kinsman, Fulk Nerra . In 1010 Robert even went to Rome, accompanied by his former wife Bertha, to seek permission to divorce Constance and remarry Bertha. Constance encouraged her sons to revolt against their father, and then favored her younger son, Robert, over her elder son, Henri.

During the famous trial of Herefast de Crepon (who was alleged to be involved with a heretical sect of canons, nuns, and clergy in 1022 [1]), the crowd outside the church in Orleans became so unruly that, according to Moore:
At the king's command, Queen Constance stood before the doors of the Church, to prevent the common people from killing them inside the Church, and they were expelled from the bosom of the Church. As they were being driven out, the queen struck out the eye of Stephen, who had once been her confessor, with the staff which she carried in her hand.

The symbolism, or reality, of putting an eye out is used often in medieval accounts to show the ultimate sin of breaking of one's oath, whether it be heresy, or treason to ones lordship, or in this case both. Stephen's eye was put out by the hand of a Queen wielding a staff (royal scepters were usually tipped with a cross) thus symbolically providing justice for the treasoned lord on earth and in heaven.

Constance and Robert had seven children:
Advisa, Countess of Auxerre, (c.1003-after 1063), married Count Renaud I of Nevers
Hugh Magnus, co-king (1007 -September 17 , 1025 )
Henri (May 4 , 1008 -August 4 , 1060 )
Adela, Countess of Contenance (1009 -June 5 , 1063 ), married (1) Duke Richard III of Normandy (2) Count Baldwin V of Flanders
Robert I, Duke of Burgundy (1011 -March 21 , 1076 )
Eudes (1013 -1056 )
Constance (1014 -unknown), married Manasses de Dammartin

At Constance's urging, her eldest son Hugh Magnus was crowned co-king alongside his father in 1017 . Hugh Magnus demanded his parents share power with him, and rebelled against his father in 1025 . He died suddenly later that year, an exile and a fugitive. Robert and Constance quarrelled over which of their surviving sons should inherit the throne; Robert favored their second son Henri , while Constance favored their third son, Robert . Despite his mother's protests, Henry was crowned in 1027 . Fulbert, bishop of Chartres wrote a letter claiming that he was "frightened away" from the consecration of Henry "by the savagery of his mother, who is quite trustworthy when she promises evil."

Constance encouraged her sons to rebel, and Henri and Robert began attacking and pillaging the towns and castles belonging to their father. Robert attacked Burgundy , the duchy he had been promised but had never received, and Henry seized Dreux . At last King Robert agreed to their demands and peace was made which lasted until the king's death.

King Robert died in 1031 , and soon Constance was at odds with both her elder son, Henri , and her younger son Robert . Constance seized her dower lands and refused to surrender them. Henri fled to Normandy, where he received aid, weapons, and soldiers from his brother Robert. He returned to besiege his mother at Poissy , but Constance escaped to Pontoise . She only surrendered when Henri began the siege of Le Puiset and swore to slaughter all the inhabitants.

Constance died in 1034 , and was buried beside her husband Robert at Saint-Denis Basilica .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 103 F    i. Adèle, of France, Countess of Auxerre 77 was born about 1003 and died about 1063 about age 60.

+ 104 M    ii. Hugh Magnus, of France was born in 1007 and died on 17 Sep 1025 at age 18.

+ 105 M    iii. Henry I, of France 78 79 was born on 4 May 1008 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France, died on 4 Aug 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France at age 52, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France.

+ 106 F    iv. Adele Capet, Princess of France 80 81 was born about 1009 and died about 8 Jan 1079 in Messines Monastery, Messines (Mesen), West Flanders, (Belgium) about age 70.

+ 107 M    v. Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy 82 83 was born about 1011 and died on 21 Mar 1076 about age 65.

+ 108 M    vi. Odo was born in 1013 and died about 1056 about age 43.

+ 109 F    vii. Constance Capet 84 85 was born about 1014 in France.

86. Emma, Princess of Normandy 61 62 (Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died in 1052.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 1-18 (Aethelred II)



Emma married Æthelred II "the Redeless", King of England,62 86 87 son of Edgar "the Peaceful", King of England and Ælfthryth, about 1002. Æthelred was born about 968 in <Wessex>, England, died on 23 Apr 1016 in <London, Middlesex>, England about age 48, and was buried in St. Paul's, London, Middlesex, England. Another name for Æthelred was Ethelred II "the Unready" King of England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Ethelred the Unready :

Ethelred II (c. 968 - April 23 , 1016 ), also known as Ethelred the Unready or Aethelred the Unready (Old English Æþelræd Unræd), was King of England (978 -1013 , and 1014 -1016 ). He was the son of Edgar , King of all England (959 -975 ) and Ælfthryth . The majority of his reign (991 -1016) was marked by a defensive war against Viking invaders...

Conflict with the Danes
England had experienced a period of peace after the reconquest of the Danelaw in the mid-10th century . However, a new wave of raids began in 980 and a sizable Danish force began a sustained campaign in 991 . During the next quarter of a century England was devastated by a succession of large Danish armies, either under the leadership of King Sweyn I of Denmark or of other commanders such as Olaf Tryggvason and Thorkell the Tall , which Ethelred's government failed to combat effectively. He was only able to halt the depredations of these armies by the payment of large sums of money known as Danegeld . Each payment led to the withdrawal of the Danes, but on each occasion a fresh onslaught began after a year or two, and each Danegeld payment was much larger than the last. Ethelred's most desperate response was the massacre of the Danes living in England on St Brice 's Day (November 13 ) 1002 . Finally in 1013 English resistance collapsed and Sweyn conquered the country, forcing Ethelred into exile, but after his victory Sweyn lived for only another five weeks. In 1014 , Canute the Great was proclaimed King of England by the Danish army in England, but was forced out of England that year. Canute launched a new invasion in 1015 . Subsequently, Ethelred's control of England was already collapsing once again when he died at London on 23 April 1016 . Ethelred was buried in St Paul's and was succeeded by his son, Edmund Ironside .

Marriages and issue

Ethelred married first Ælfgifu , daughter of Thored , the ealdorman of York , by whom he had six sons: Æthelstan Ætheling (died 1011), Edmund Ironside , Ecgberht Ætheling , Eadred Ætheling , Eadwig Ætheling (killed 1017) and Eadgar Ætheling the Elder . They also had as many as four daughters: Edith, who married Eadric Streona , ealdorman of Mercia , and Ælfgifu, who married Uchtred the Bold , ealdorman of Bamburgh . Less certainly there may also have been a daughter named Wulfhild married to Ulfcytel Snillingr , and perhaps a fourth daughter, whose name is not recorded, who was abbess of Wherwell .

His second marriage, in 1002, was to Emma of Normandy , whose grandnephew, William I of England , would later use this relationship as the basis of his claim on the throne. They had two sons, Eadweard (later King of England and known now as Edward the Confessor ) and Ælfred Ætheling . By this marriage, he also had Goda of England , who married Drogo of Mantes , Count of Vexin ...

Noted events in his life were:

• King of England: 978-1016.

Emma next married Canute, King of Denmark and England in 1017.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 1-18 (Aethelred II)

87. Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne 34 63 (Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 953 in <Brionne>, Normandy, (France) and died about 1015 about age 62. Another name for Geoffrey was Geoffroy Comte d'Eu et Brionne.

Research Notes: Possibly the father of Giselbert "Crispin."

Geoffrey married Haloise de Guînes.88 Haloise was born about 942.

Research Notes: Supposedly the mother of Giselbert "Crispin" (father uncertain).


The child from this marriage was:

+ 110 M    i. Giselbert "Crispin" de Brionne 34 88 89 was born about 1000 in <Normandy>, France and died in 1040 near Eschafour, <Normandy>, (France) about age 40.

88. Robert II d'Évreux, Count of Évreux 64 (Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 965 in Normandy, France and died in 1037 about age 72. Another name for Robert was Robert de Normandie.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Robert II (Archbishop of Rouen) :

Robert II was son of duke Richard I of Normandy and his second wife Gunnora . He was a younger brother of duke Richard II , and uncle of duke Robert II . He was archbishop of Rouen (989 to 1037), to which at that time his marriage was not an impediment, and also count of Évreux .

In the 990s, archishop Robert plotted to cause the overthrow of the Capetians from the throne they very recently had obtained.

The early years of duke Robert II's reign were turbulent: his elder brother Richard II had died suddenly after a year of ruling the duchy, and Robert II was naturally accused of fratricide. Archbishop Robert evidently believed it, and duke Robert II laid siege to him at Évreux, forcing him into exile: he laid all of Normandy under an interdict. For several years conditions worsened: with even Alan III of Brittany joining in the attack on the duke. But by 1031, "the situation had been largely retrieved, and the chief agent in effecting the recovery was the metropolitan archbishop of Rouen." Archbishop Robert was always closely involved in the government of the duchy. Without him, duke Robert II would never have been able to rule. His uncle's support was essential. Archbishop Robert was recalled from exile and the stabilization of Normandy began. A reconciliation took place: the interdict was lifted. The war with Brittany was ended by his mediation. From this time until his death in 1037 he was the dominant political influence in the duchy of Normandy.

Robert married Harleve of Rouen and had the following children by her:[1]
Richard, Count of Évreux (d. 1067).
Rudolph d'Évreux
daughter, married Gerard de Fleitel
William d'Évreux (may be fictitious)

Duke Robert II went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1035 and died in progress. According to duke Robert's will, archbishop Robert became the regent of the duchy and the main guardian of the little heir, Robert II's bastard son, William .

For a couple of years all was peaceful enough. But the death of archbishop Robert on 16 March 1037 ended the stability of the duchy. William the bastard's relatives sought to remove him, resulting in the long anarchy of his minority.

Noted events in his life were:

• Archbishop of Rouen: 989-1037.

Robert married Harleve, of Rouen.64 90 Harleve was born about 968 in <Normandy>, France. Another name for Harleve was Harlive de Rouen.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 111 M    i. Richard d'Évreux, Count of Évreux 90 91 92 was born about 986 in Rouen, Normandy, France and died in 1067 in Normandy, France about age 81.

89. Richard II, Duke of Normandy 65 66 67 68 (Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 985 in Normandy, (France), died on 28 Aug 1027 in Fécamp, Normandy, France about age 42, and was buried in Fécamp, Normandy, France. Other names for Richard were Richard II 4th Duc de Normandie and Richard II "the Good" Duke of Normandy.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch and thepeerage.com have b. abt. 963.

Research Notes: Duke of Normandy 20 Nov. 996-1026.

From Wikipedia - Richard II, Duke of Normandy :

Richard II (born 23 August 963, in Normandy , France - 28 August 1027, in Normandy), called the Good, was the son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora . He succeeded his father as Duke of Normandy in 996. Richard held his own against a peasant insurrection, and helped Robert II of France against the duchy of Burgundy . He also repelled an English attack on the Cotentin Peninsula that was led by Ethelred II of England. He pursued a reform of the Norman monasteries.

Richard attempted to improve relations with England through his sister's marriage to King Ethelred, but she was strongly disliked by the English. However, this connection later gave his grandson, William the Conqueror , part of his claim to the throne of England.

He married firstly (996) Judith (982-1017), daughter of Conan I of Brittany , by whom he had the following issue:
Richard (c. 1002/4), duke of Normandy
Adelaide (c. 1003/5), married Renaud I, Count of Burgundy
Robert (c. 1005/7), duke of Normandy
William (c. 1007/9), monk at Fécamp , d. 1025
Eleanor (c. 1011/3), married to Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders
Matilda (c. 1013/5), nun at Fecamp, d. 1033

Secondly he married Poppa of Envermeu, by whom he had the following issue:
Mauger (c. 1019), Archbishop of Rouen
William (c. 1020/5), count of Arques


Traditionally, Richard had a third wife named Astrid (Estritha), daughter of Sweyn Forkbeard , King of England , Denmark , and Norway , and Sigrid the Haughty . This is extremely unlikely, however, given the political situation.

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Normandy: 20 Nov 996.

Richard married Judith, of Brittany,65 93 94 daughter of Conan I, Count of Rennes, Duke of Brittany and Ermengarde, of Anjou, about 996 in Normandy, France. Judith was born about 982 in <Bretagne, (France)> and died on 16 Jun 1017 in Normandy, France about age 35. Another name for Judith was Judith de Bretagne.

Research Notes: First wife of Richard II. Founded abbey of Bernay, Normandy, abt 1026.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132A-22

From Wikipedia - Judith of Brittany :

Judith of Brittany (982 - 1017) was the daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany and the mother of Robert the Magnificent .

She was the first wife of Richard the Good, Duke of Normandy , whom she married in 996. They had six children:
Richard (c. 1002/4), duke of Normandy
Adelaide (c. 1003/5), married Renaud I, Count of Burgundy
Robert (c. 1005/7), duke of Normandy
William (c. 1007/9), monk at Fécamp , d. 1025
Eleanor (c. 1011/3), married to Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders
Matilda (c. 1013/5), nun at Fecamp, d. 1033

The duchess Judith died in 1017 and was buried in the abbey of Bernay, which she had founded.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 112 M    i. Richard III, Duke of Normandy 95 was born about 997 and died on 6 Aug 1028 about age 31.

+ 113 F    ii. Adelais, de Normandie 65 was born about 1007 in <Normandy, France> and died about 1037 in France about age 30.

+ 114 M    iii. Robert I, Duke of Normandy 96 97 98 99 was born about 1008 in Normandy, France and died on 22 Jul 1035 in Nicaea, Bythnia, (Turkey) about age 27.

Richard next married Astrid, of Denmark, daughter of Swen I, King of Denmark and Unknown, in 1017. Another name for Astrid was Margaret of Denmark.

Research Notes: Second wife of Richard II "the Good."

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-21 (Richard II)

Richard next married Poppa about 1024.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-21 (Richard II)

90. <Papia> (Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Illegitimate daughter of Richard I, d. 996, Duke of Normandy.

<Papia> married Richard FitzGilbert, Seigneur of Hugleville & Auffay,47 62 son of Gilbert de St. Valerie and Unknown,. Richard was born about 1005 in <France>. Another name for Richard was Richard de Hugleville.

Research Notes: From Ancestral Roots, Line 177-3 (Nesta):
"Seigneur of Hugleville and Auffay in Normandy, seen 1025-1053 (s. Gilbert de St. Valerie (Valery), seen 1011, advocate of St. Valerie, protector of the monastery of Fecamp)..."


The child from this marriage was:

+ 115 F    i. Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville 47 62 was born about 1030 in <Saint-Valéry-en-Caux>, Haute-Normandie, France.

91. Ohthere, King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary] 1 69 (Ongentheow, King in Sweden [Semi-legendary]74, Aun "the Old" Jorundsson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]63, Jorund Yngvasson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]53, Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary]44, Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 515 and died about 530 about age 15. Other names for Ohthere were Ohtere King of Sweden, Ottar Vendelkråka (Vendelcrow) King of Sweden, and Óttarr "Vendilkráka" Egilsson King in Sweden.

Research Notes: Semi-legendary king of Sweden, in the house of Ynglings.

From Wikipedia - Ohthere :

Ohthere, Ohtere (the name is sometimes misspelt Ohþere), Óttarr, Óttarr vendilkráka or Ottar Vendelkråka (Vendelcrow) (ca 515 - ca 530[1]) was a semi-legendary king of Sweden belonging to the house of Scylfings .

His name has been reconstructed as Proto-Norse * or * meaning "feared warrior".[2]

Beowulf
In the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf the name of Ohthere only appears in constructions referring to his father Ongenþeow (fæder Ohtheres),[3] mother (Onelan modor and Ohtheres),[4] and his sons Eadgils (suna Ohteres,[5] sunu Ohteres[6]) and Eanmund (suna Ohteres).[7]

When Ohthere and his actions are concerned, he is referred to as Ongenþeow's offspring together with his brother Onela . The section deals with Ohthere and Onela pillaging the Geats at the death of their king Hreðel , restarting the Swedish-Geatish wars :

Later, it is implied in the poem that Ohthere has died, because his brother Onela is king. Ohthere's sons Eadgils and Eanmund fled to the Geats and the wars began anew.

Scandinavian sources

Ynglingatal , Ynglinga saga , Íslendingabók and Historia Norvegiae all present Óttarr as the son of Egill (called Ongenþeow in Beowulf) and as the father of Aðísl/Aðils/athils/Adils (Eadgils ).

According to the latest source, Ynglinga saga , Óttarr refused to pay tribute to the Danish king Fróði for the help that his father had received. Then Fróði sent two men to collect the tribute, but Óttarr answered that the Swedes had never paid tribute to the Daner and would not begin with him. Fróði then gathered a vast host and looted in Sweden, but the next summer he pillaged in the east. When Óttarr learnt that Fróði was gone, he sailed to Denmark to plunder in return and went into the Limfjord where he pillaged in Vendsyssel . Fróði's jarls Vott and Faste attacked Óttarr in the fjord. The battle was even and many men fell, but the Daner were reinforced by the people in the neighbourhood and so the Swedes lost (a version apparently borrowed from the death of Óttarr's predecessor Jorund ). The Daner put Óttarr's dead corpse on a mound to be devoured by wild beasts, and made a wooden crow that they sent to Sweden with the message that the wooden crow was all that Óttarr was worth. After this, Óttarr was called Vendelcrow.

It is only Snorri who uses the epithet Vendelcrow, whereas the older sources Historia Norvegiae and Íslendingabók use it for his father Egill . Moreover, it is only in Snorri's work that story of Óttarr's death in Vendsyssel appears, and it is probably his own invention.[1

Historia Norvegiæ only informs that Ohthere was killed by the Danish brothers Ottar [sic.] and Faste in a Danish province called Vendel.

Ohthere's barrow
Ohthere's barrow (Swedish: Ottarshögen) (60°08'N 17°34'E? / ?60.133°N 17.567°E? / 60.133; 17.567 ) is located in Vendel parish, Uppland , Sweden . The barrow is 5 metres high and 40 metres wide. In the 17th century the barrow was known locally as Ottarshögen.[14]
The barrow was excavated in the period 1914-1916.[14] It showed the remains of both a man and a woman, and the finds were worthy of a king.[15] The Swedish archaeologist Sune Lindqvist[16] reported that in its centre there was a wooden vessel with ashes. There were few finds but they were well-preserved. There were some decorative panels similar to those found in the other Vendel era graves nearby. A comb with a case was found, as well as a golden Roman coin, a solidus , dated to be no later than 477. It had been perforated and was probably used as decoration, but it showed signs of wear and tear and had probably been worn for a longer time. Lindquist stated that the identification of the barrow as that of Ohthere could not receive more archaeological confirmation than those provided by the excavation.

Ohthere married someone.

His child was:

+ 116 M    i. Eadgils, King in Uppsala [Semi-Legendary] 1 100 died about 580.

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92. Harald I "Fairhair" Halfdansson, King of Norway 7 (Halfdan "the Black" Gudrodsson75, Asa Haraldsdatter65, Harald "Red Beard"56, Herbrand47, Hildibrand37, Herbrand31, Hildibrand26, Hildi21, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 850 in <Hedemark, Norway>, died in 933 about age 83, and was buried in Hauko, Rogaland, Norway.

Harald married Svanhild Eysteinsdatter,7 daughter of Eystein "Glumra" Ivarsson, Jarl of Oppland and Aseda Rognvaldsdatter,. Svanhild was born about 850 in <Maer, Nord-Trondelag, (Norway)>.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 42)

93. Erik Refillsson 42 (Refill Bjornsson76, Bjorn "Ironside" Ragnarsson66, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 814 in Sweden.

Erik married someone.

His child was:

+ 117 M    i. Emund Eriksson 42 was born about 832 in Sweden.

94. Ingjald "the White" Helgasson, Petty King in Ireland 3 (Thora Sigurdsdatter77, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 820 in <Dublin, Dublin, Ireland>.

Ingjald married someone.

His child was:

+ 118 M    i. Olaf "the White" Ingjaldsson, King of Ireland 3 was born about 840 in <Dyflinni, Ireland> and died in 871 in Dublin, Dublin, Ireland about age 31.

95. Geva Knudsson, King of Denmark 42 (Knud Sigurdsson78, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 840 in Denmark, died about 940 in Jellinge, Vejle, Denmark about age 100, and was buried in Gormshoj, Jellinge, Vejle, Denmark.

Geva married Thyre "Danebod" 42 about 897 in Denmark. Thyre was born about 844 in Denmark, died about 935 in Jellinge, Vejle, Denmark about age 91, and was buried in Jellinghojene, Jellinge, Vejle, Denmark.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 119 M    i. Harald "the Blue Tooth" Gormsson, King of Denmark 42 101 was born about 910 in Denmark and died on 1 Nov 987 about age 77.

96. Ralph de Toeni, de Conches 42 (Roger "the Spaniard" de80, Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1029 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England, died on 24 Mar 1102 about age 73, and was buried in Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France. Another name for Ralph was Ralph de Conches.

Ralph married Isabel de Montfort,42 daughter of Simon I de Montfort and Isabel de Broyes, about 1076 in Île-de-France, France. Isabel was born about 1058 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England. Other names for Isabel were Elizabeth Montford and Isabel Montford.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 120 M    i. Ralph de Toeni, de Conches 42 was born about 1079 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England, died about 1126 in Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France about age 47, and was buried in Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France.

97. Alice de Toeni 2 (Roger "the Spaniard" de80, Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1035 in <Tosni>, France and was buried in Lire Abbey, Normandy, France. Another name for Alice was Adelise de Toeni.

Alice married William FitzOsbern,2 son of Osbern and Emma, of Ivry, about 1051 in France. William was born about 1030 in <Poitiers>, Poitou, (Vienne), France, died on 20 Feb 1071 in Flanders about age 41, and was buried in Cormeilles Abbey, Normandy (Eure), France.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 121 F    i. Emma FitzOsbern 2 was born about 1059 in <Breteuil>, Normandy, France and died after 1095.

98. Magnus I "the Good" Olafsson, King of Norway 7 (Olaf II "the Saint" Haraldsson, King of Norway81, Harald "Graenske" Gudrodsson70, Gudrod Bjornsson59, Bjorn "the Merchant" Haraldsson, Prince of Norway50, Svanhild Eysteinsdatter42, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1024 in <Norway> and died on 25 Oct 1047 about age 23.

Magnus married someone.

His child was:

+ 122 F    i. Ragnhild Magnusdatter, Princess of Norway 7 was born about 1041 in <Norway>.

99. Thorfinn II "the Black" Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney 7 (Sigurd II "Digri"82, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 989 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died in 1064 in <Christ's Kirk, Birdsey, Scotland> about age 75.

Thorfinn married Ingeborg Finnsdatter,7 daughter of Finn Arnesson, Earl of Halland and Unknown, before 1038. Ingeborg was born about 1021 in <Osteraat, Yrje, Norway> and died about 1066 about age 45.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 123 M    i. Paul Thorfinnsson, Jarl of Orkney and Caithness 7 was born about 1040 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died in 1103 in Bergen, Hordaland, Norway about age 63.

100. Brusi Sigurdsson 70 (Sigurd II "Digri"82, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 987 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died in 1031 in Orkney Islands, Scotland about age 44. Another name for Brusi was Brucie Sigurdsson.

Brusi married Ostrida Regenwaldsdatter 70 about 1010 in Orkney Islands, Scotland. Ostrida was born about 990 in <Gothland, Sweden>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 124 M    i. Ragnvald Brusesson 70 was born about 1011 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland>, died in Dec 1046 in Papa Stronsay, Orkney Islands, Scotland about age 35, and was buried in Papa Westroy, Orkney, Scotland.

101. Gille Adoman I Gilleson 3 (Hvarflad Hlodversdatter83, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 976 in <Orkney, Scotland>.

Gille married someone.

His child was:

+ 125 M    i. Gillebride 3 was born about 1010 in <Scotland>.

102. Régnier V, Count of Hainaut 72 (Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died after 1039.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Hainaut: 1013.

Régnier married Mathilde, of Verdun,102 daughter of Herman von Enham, Count in Eifelgau, Count in Westphalia and Unknown, about 1015. Mathilde died about 1039.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 126 F    i. Beatrix, of Hainaut 103 was born about 998 in <Hainaut, Belgium>.

103. Adèle, of France, Countess of Auxerre 77 (Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1003 and died about 1063 about age 60.

Adèle married Renaud I, Count of Nevers 104 about 1015. Renaud died on 29 May 1040.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Nevers: 1000-1040.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 127 M    i. William I, Count of Nevers 105 was born about 1030 and died on 20 Jun 1100 about age 70.

104. Hugh Magnus, of France (Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1007 and died on 17 Sep 1025 at age 18.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Hugh Magnus of France :

Hugh (II) Magnus of France (French : Hugues le Grand) (1007 - 17 September 1025 ) was co-King of France under his father, Robert II , from 1017 until his death in 1025 . He was a member of the House of Capet , a son of Robert II by his third wife, Constance of Arles .
The first Capetian King of France, Hugh Capet , had ensured his family's succession to the throne by having his son, Robert II, crowned and accepted as King during his own lifetime; father and son had ruled together as King thenceforth until Hugh Capet's death. Robert II, when his son was old enough, determined to do the same. Hugh Magnus was thus crowned King of France on /19 June 1017 ,[1] and thenceforth ruled beside his father. However, when older, he rebelled against Robert.
Hugh is said to have been married (or betrothed) before his death to Halwisa (Hawisa?) or Elisabeth d'Avoye (the daughter of Henri l'Oiseteur), who later married Hamon Dapifer Crevecouer, Count of Corbeil.
Hugh died, perhaps of a fall from his horse,[2] at Compiègne in 1025/1026 while preparing a rebellion against his father, aged around 18 years old.[1]
Rodulfus Glaber was fulsome in his praise of the young king, writing: "My pen cannot express all of the great and good qualities that he showed...in all things he was better than the best. No elegy can ever equal his merits."
As a King of France, he would technically be Hugh II of France; however, he is rarely referred to as such.

References
^ a b Thys, Laurent, Histoire du Moyen Âge français, p. 88.
^ New Cambridge Medieval History, IV:124.
The Origins of Some Angelo-Norman Families by Lewis C. Loyd, Page 50.
The Doomesday Monachorum of Christ Church Canterbury, Page 55-6.

Sources
Heraldica



105. Henry I, of France 78 79 (Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born on 4 May 1008 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France, died on 4 Aug 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France at age 52, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry I of France :

Henry I (4 May 1008 - 4 August 1060 ) was King of France from 1031 to his death. The royal demesne of France reached its lowest point in terms of size during his reign and for this reason he is often seen as emblematic of the weakness of the early Capetians . This is not entirely agreed upon, however, as other historians regard him as a strong but realistic king, who was forced to conduct a policy mindful of the limitations of the French monarchy.

A member of the House of Capet , Henry was born in Reims , the son of King Robert II (972-1031) and Constance of Arles (986-1034). He was crowned King of France at the Cathedral in Reims on May 14 , 1027 , in the Capetian tradition, while his father still lived. He had little influence and power until he became sole ruler on his father's death.

The reign of Henry I, like those of his predecessors, was marked by territorial struggles. Initially, he joined his brother Robert , with the support of their mother, in a revolt against his father (1025 ). His mother, however, supported Robert as heir to the old king, on whose death Henry was left to deal with his rebel sibling. In 1032 , he placated his brother by giving him the duchy of Burgundy which his father had given him in 1016 .

In an early strategic move, Henry came to the rescue of his very young nephew-in-law, the newly appointed Duke William of Normandy (who would go on to become William the Conqueror ), to suppress a revolt by William's vassals. In 1047 , Henry secured the dukedom for William in their decisive victory over the vassals at the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes near Caen .

A few years later, when William, who was cousin to King Edward the Confessor of England (1042-66), married Matilda , the daughter of the count of Flanders , Henry feared William's potential power. In 1054 , and again in 1057 , Henry went to war to try to conquer Normandy from William, but on both occasions he was defeated. Despite his efforts, Henry I's twenty-nine-year reign saw feudal power in France reach its pinnacle.

Henry had three meetings with Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor -all at Ivois . In early 1043 , he met him to discuss the marriage of the emperor with Agnes of Poitou , the daughter of Henry's vassal. In October 1048 , the two Henries met again, but the subject of this meeting eludes us. The final meeting took place in May 1056 . It concerned disputes over Lorraine. The debate over the duchy became so heated that the king of France challenged his German counterpart to single combat. The emperor, however, was not so much a warrior and he fled in the night. But Henry did not get Lorraine.

King Henry I died on August 4 , 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie , France, and was interred in Saint Denis Basilica . He was succeeded by his son, Philip I of France , who was 7 at the time of his death; for six years Henry I's Queen, Anne of Kiev , ruled as regent.

He was also Duke of Burgundy from 1016 to 1032 , when he abdicated the duchy to his brother Robert Capet .

Marriages and family
Henry I was betrothed to Matilda, the daughter of the Emperor Conrad II (1024-39), but she died prematurely in 1034 . Henry I then married Matilda , daughter of Liudolf, Margrave of Frisia, but she died in 1044 , following a Caesarean section. Casting further afield in search of a third wife, Henry I married Anne of Kiev on May 19 , 1051 . They had four children:
Philip I (May 23, 1052 - July 30, 1108)
Emma (1054-?)
Robert (c. 1055-c. 1060)
Hugh the Great (1057-1102)

Noted events in his life were:

• King of France: 1031-1060.

• Count of Paris:

Henry married Anne, of Kiev,106 107 daughter of Yaroslav I, of Kiev and Ingegerd Olofsdotter, of Sweden, on 19 May 1051 in Cathedral de Rheims, Rheims, France. Anne was born between 1024 and 1032, died in 1075, and was buried in Villiers Abbey, La-Ferte-Alais, Essonne, (Île-de-France), France. Other names for Anne were Agnes of Kiev, Anna of Kiev, and Anna Yaroslavna.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 241-6 has m. 20 Jan 1044 or 1045. Wikipedia has 19 May 1051. Was 1044/45 the betrothal?

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots line 241-6 has d. aft. 1075

Research Notes: 3rd wife of Henry I of France.

From Wikipedia - Anne of Kiev :

Anne of Kiev or Anna Yaroslavna (between 1024 and 1032 - 1075 ), daughter of Yaroslav I of Kiev and his wife Ingegerd Olofsdotter , was the queen consort of France as the wife of Henry I , and regent for her son Philip I .

After the death of his first wife, Matilda, King Henry searched the courts of Europe for a suitable bride, but could not locate a princess who was not related to him within illegal degrees of kinship. At last he sent an embassy to distant Kiev , which returned with Anne (also called Agnes or Anna). Anne and Henry were married at the cathedral of Reims on May 19 , 1051 .

They had three sons:

Philip (May 23 , 1052 - July 30 , 1108 ) - Anne is credited with bringing the name Philip to Western Europe . She imported this Greek name (Philippos, from philos (love) and hippos (horse), meaning "the one that love horses") from her Eastern Orthodox culture.
Hugh (1057 - October 18 , 1102 ) - called the Great or Magnus, later Count of Crépi, who married the heiress of Vermandois and died on crusade in Tarsus , Cilicia .
Robert (c. 1055 -c. 1060 )

For six years after Henry's death in 1060 , she served as regent for Philip, who was only seven at the time. She was the first queen of France to serve as regent. Her co-regent was Count Baldwin V of Flanders . Anne was a literate woman, rare for the time, but there was some opposition to her as regent on the grounds that her mastery of French was less than fluent.
A year after the king's death, Anne, acting as regent, took a passionate fancy for Count Ralph III of Valois , a man whose political ambition encouraged him to repudiate his wife to marry Anne in 1062 . Accused of adultery, Ralph's wife appealed to Pope Alexander II , who excommunicated the couple. The young king Philip forgave his mother, which was just as well, since he was to find himself in a very similar predicament in the 1090s . Ralph died in September 1074 , at which time Anne returned to the French court. She died in 1075 , was buried at Villiers Abbey , La-Ferte-Alais , Essonne and her obits were celebrated on September 5 .

Sources
Bauthier, Robert-Henri. Anne de Kiev reine de France et la politique royale au Xe siècle, revue des Etudes Slaves, Vol. 57, 1985
Retrieved from ""


Children from this marriage were:

+ 128 M    i. Philip I, of France was born on 23 May 1052 and died on 30 Jul 1108 at age 56.

+ 129 F    ii. Emma 108 was born in 1054.

+ 130 M    iii. Robert was born about 1055 and died about 1060 about age 5.

+ 131 M    iv. Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France 109 110 was born in 1057 and died on 18 Oct 1102 in Tarsus, Cilicia, (Turkey) at age 45.

106. Adele Capet, Princess of France 80 81 (Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1009 and died about 8 Jan 1079 in Messines Monastery, Messines (Mesen), West Flanders, (Belgium) about age 70. Other names for Adele were Adèle of France, Countess of Contentin, Adele "the Holy" of Messines, Aelis of France, and Countess of Contentin.

Research Notes: Second daughter of Robert the Pious and Constance of Arles.

From Wikipedia - Adela of France, Countess of Flanders :

Adela Capet, Adèle of France or Adela of Flanders[1], known also as Adela the Holy or Adela of Messines; (1009 - 8 January 1079 , Messines ) was the second daughter of Robert II (the Pious), and Constance of Arles . As dowry to her future husband, she received from her father the title of Countess of Corbie.

Her family
She was a member of the House of Capet , the rulers of France. As the wife of Baldwin V , she was Countess of Flanders from 1036 to 1067.

She married first 1027 Richard III Duke of Normandy (997 † 1027). They never had children.

As a widow, she remarried in 1028 in Paris to Baldwin V of Flanders (1012 † 1067). Their children were:
Baldwin VI of Flanders , (1030 † 1070)
Matilda of Flanders (1032 † 1083). In 1053 she married William Duke of Normandy , the future king of England
Robert I of Flanders , (1033-1093)
Henry of Flanders (c. 1035)
Sir Richard of Flanders (c. 1050-1105)

Political influence
Adèle's influence lay mainly in her family connections. On the death of her brother, Henry I of France, the guardianship of his seven-year-old son Philip I fell jointly on his widow, Ann of Kiev , and on his brother-in-law, Adela's husband, so that from 1060 to 1067, they were Regents of France.

Church influence
Adèle had an especially great interest in Baldwin V's church-reform politics and was behind her husband's founding of several collegiate churches . Directly or indirectly, she was responsible for establishing the Colleges of Aire (1049), Lille (1050) and Harelbeke (1064) as well as the abbeys of Messines (1057) and Ename (1063). After Baldwin's death in 1067, she went to Rome, took the nun's veil from the hands of Pope Alexander II and retreated to the Benedictine convent of Messines, near Ypres . There she died, being buried at the same monastery. Her commemoration day is 8 September.

Adele married Baldwin V, de Lille, Count of Flanders,45 111 112 son of Baldwin IV "the Bearded", Count of Valenciennes & Count of Flanders and Ogive, de Luxembourg, in 1028 in Amiens. Baldwin was born in 1012 and died on 1 Sep 1067 in Lille, France at age 55. Another name for Baldwin was Baldwin V of Flanders.

Marriage Notes: May have been married in Paris.

Research Notes: Second husband of Adele de France

From Wikipedia - Baldwin V, Count of Flanders :

Baldwin V of Flanders (died 1 September 1067) was Count of Flanders from 1035 until his death.

He was the son of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders , who died in 1035.

History
In 1028 Baldwin married Adèle of France in Amiens, daughter of King Robert II of France ; at her instigation he rebelled against his father but in 1030 peace was sworn and the old count continued to rule until his death.

During a long war (1046-1056) as an ally of Godfrey the Bearded , Duke of Lorraine , against the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III , he initially lost Valenciennes to Hermann of Hainaut . However, when the latter died in 1051 Baldwin married his son Baldwin VI to Herman's widow Richildis and arranged that the sons of her first marriage were disinherited, thus de facto uniting the County of Hainaut with Flanders. Upon the death of Henry III this marriage was acknowledged by treaty by Agnes de Poitou , mother and regent of Henry IV .

From 1060 to 1067 Baldwin was the co-Regent with Anne of Kiev for his nephew-by-marriage Philip I of France , indicating the importance he had acquired in international politics.

Family
Baldwin and Adèle had five children:
Baldwin VI , 1030-1070
Matilda , c.1031-1083 who married William the Conqueror
Robert I of Flanders , c.1033-1093
Henry of Flanders c.1035
Sir Richard of Flanders c. 1050-1105

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Flanders: 1035-1067.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 132 M    i. Robert I, Count of Flanders 113 114 was born between 1029 and 1035 and died on 13 Oct 1093 in Kassel.

+ 133 F    ii. Matilda, of Flanders 115 116 was born about 1032 in Flanders, died on 2 Nov 1083 in Caen, Normandy, France about age 51, and was buried in Abbaye aux Dames, Caen, Normandy, France.

Adele next married Richard III, Duke of Normandy,95 son of Richard II, Duke of Normandy and Judith, of Brittany, on 10 Jan 1027. Richard was born about 997 and died on 6 Aug 1028 about age 31.

Death Notes: Died in 1027 or 1028.

Research Notes: Eldest son. First husband of Adele of France.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132A-23

From Wikipedia - Richard III, Duke of Normandy :

Richard III (997 - 1027) was the eldest son of Richard II , who died in 1027. Before succeeding his father, perhaps about 1020, he had been sent by his father in command of a large army, to attack bishop/count Hugh of Chalon in order to rescue his brother-in-law, Reginald , later Count of Burgundy , who the count/bishop had captured and imprisoned. He was betrothed to Adela, countess of Corbie (1009-June 5, 1063), second daughter of Robert II of France and Constance of Arles , but they never married.

After his father's death, he ruled the Duchy of Normandy only briefly, dying mysteriously, perhaps by poison, soon after his father. The duchy passed to his younger brother Robert I . Adela later married Baldwin V, Count of Flanders .

By unknown women, he had two known children:
Alice/Alix of Normandy who married Ranulf, Viscount of Bayeux.
Nicolas, the Lay Abbot of Rouen (b? - d. 27 Feb 1092). He helped his cousin, Duke William II the Conqueror with the contribution of 15 ships and 100 soldiers for the invasion of England in 1066.

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Normandy: 1026-1028.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 134 F    i. Judith, of Normandy 117 was born in 1028 and died on 4 Mar 1094 at age 66.

107. Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy 82 83 (Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1011 and died on 21 Mar 1076 about age 65. Other names for Robert were Robert I Duke of Burgundy and Robert Capet Duke of Burgundy.

Research Notes: Duke of Burgundy from 1032 to his death in 1076.

From Wikipedia - Robert I, Duke of Burgundy :

Robert I Capet (1011 - March 21 , 1076 ) was duke of Burgundy between 1032 to his death. Robert was son of King Robert II of France and brother of Henry I .
In 1025 , with the death of his eldest brother Hugh Magnus, he and Henry rebelled against their father and defeated him, forcing him back to Paris . In 1031 , after the death of his father the king, Robert participated in a rebellion against his brother, in which he was supported by his mother, Queen Constance d'Arles . Peace was only achieved when Robert was given Burgundy (1032 ).

Throughout his reign, he was little more than a robber baron who had no control over his own vassals, whose estates he often plundered, especially those of the Church. He seized the income of the diocese of Autun and the wine of the canons of Dijon . He burgled the abbey of St-Germain at Auxerre . In 1055 , he repudiated his wife, Helie of Semur, and assassinated her brother Joceran and murdered her father, his father-in-law, Lord Dalmace I of Semur , with his own hands. In that same year, the bishop of Langres , Harduoin, refused to dedicate the church of Sennecy so as not "to be exposed to the violence of the duke."
His first son, Hugh, died in battle at a young age and his second son, Henry , also predeceased him. He was succeeded by Henry's eldest son, his grandson, Hugh I .

Family
He married his first wife, Helie of Semur , about 1033 , and repudiated her in 1055. Robert and Helie had five children:
Hugh (1034-1059), killed in battle
Henry (1035-ca.1074)
Robert (1040-1113), poisoned; married Violante of Sicily, daughter of Roger I of Sicily
Simon (1045-1087)
Constance (1046-1093), married Alfonso VI of Castile
From his second wife, Ermengarde of Anjou, daughter of Fulk III of Anjou , he had one daughter:
Hildegard (c.1056-1104), married Duke William VIII of Aquitaine

Sources
Gwatking, H. M. , Whitney, J. P. , et al. Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III-Germany and the Western Empire. Cambridge University Press : London , 1930 .

Robert married Hélie,118 daughter of Dalmas I, Sire of Semur-en-Brionnais and Aremburge, about 1033. Hélie was born in 1016 and died 22 April after 1055 at age 39. Another name for Hélie was Eleanor.

Death Notes: Died a nun

Noted events in her life were:

• Repudiated: 1046.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 135 M    i. Henry, of Burgundy 119 120 121 was born about 1035 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died about 1071 about age 36.

+ 136 F    ii. Constance, of Burgundy 122 123 was born in 1046 and died in 1092 at age 46.

Robert next married Ermengarde, of Anjou,124 125 daughter of Geoffrey I "Grisgonelle", Count of Anjou and Adelaide, of Vermandois, about 1048. Ermengarde was born about 952 in <Anjou, France> and died on 27 Jun 992 about age 40. Other names for Ermengarde were Ermangarde d'Anjou and Ermengarde d'Anjou.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Robert the Old.

Robert next married Hildegarde, of Metz.126

Research Notes: Third wife of Robert the Old.

108. Odo (Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1013 and died about 1056 about age 43.

Research Notes: May have been mentally retarded.

Source: Wikipedia - Robert II of France

109. Constance Capet 84 85 (Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1014 in France. Another name for Constance was Constance Princess of France.

Research Notes: Married Manasses de Dammartin per Wikipedia.

Source: Wikipedia - Robert II of France and Constance of Arles

Constance married Manasses Calva Asina de Rameru,84 son of Hilduin II de Rameru and Unknown, about 1032 in Orléans, Orléanais, (Loiret), France. Manasses was born about 1010 in <Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died on 15 Nov 1057 in Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, Lorraine, France about age 47. Another name for Manasses was Manasses de Dammartin Count of Dammartin.

Death Notes: Was killed during the Siege of Bar-le-Duc.

Research Notes: Second husband of Beatrix of Hainaut


The child from this marriage was:

+ 137 M    i. Hugues de Dammartin, Count of Dammartin 84 127 was born about 1042 in <Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died in 1103 about age 61.

110. Giselbert "Crispin" de Brionne 34 88 89 (Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1000 in <Normandy>, France and died in 1040 near Eschafour, <Normandy>, (France) about age 40. Other names for Giselbert were Gilbert de Brionne and Gilbert "Crispin" de Brionne.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1000, Normandy, France.

Research Notes: His mother was apparently Haloise de Guînes. Father uncertain.

From Wikipedia - Gilbert, Count of Brionne :

Gilbert or Giselbert "Crispin", (1000-1040) was a Norman noble, Count of Eu , and Count of Brionne in northern France .

Parentage
The reference listed below states he was the son of Geoffrey, Count of Eu (b. 962) who was an illegitimate child of Richard the Fearless . Some sources say Gislebert was the son of Godfrey of Brionne and Eu , others that he was the son of Gilbert, Baron of Bec . Still others claim that his father was Crispin de Bec (b. 940). Gislebert's mother was apparently Haloise de Guînes (b. 942).

Life
Whatever his parentage, he inherited Brionne, becoming one of the most powerful landowners in Normandy . He married Gunnora d'Aunou (Gunmore d'Ainon) in 1012. He had children by his wife and a mistress. The name "Crispin" is said to have referred to the family's erect curly hair.

Gislebert was a generous benefactor to Bec Abbey founded by his former knight Herluin in 1031.

When Robert II, Duke of Normandy died in 1035 his illegitimate son William inherited his father's title. Several leading Normans, including Gilbert of Brionne, Osbern the Seneschal and Alan of Brittany, became William's guardians.

Death
A number of Norman barons including Raoul de Gacé would not accept an illegitimate son as their leader. In 1040 an attempt was made to kill William but the plot failed. Gilbert however was murdered while he was peaceably riding near Eschafour. It is believed two of his killers were Ralph of Wacy and Robert de Vitot. This appears to have been an act of vengeance for wrongs inflicted upon the orphan children of Giroie by Gilbert, and it is not clear what Raoul de Gacé had to do in the business. Fearing they might meet their father's fate, his sons Richard and his brother Baldwin were conveyed by their friends to the court of Baldwin, Count of Flanders.

Children
Gilbert was the great progenitor of the illustrious house of Candia of the Viscount of Geneva and in England of the illustrious house of de Clare , of the Barons Fitz Walter, and the Earls of Gloucester and Hertford .
Esilia Crispin , (1028-1072), m. William Malet , Seigneur of Granville, (ca. 1042).
Roger Crispin de Candiæ, (1029-10--), m. Lady of Burgundes , Seigneur of Chateau de Candie in Chambery , latter Viscount of Geneva; founder of the family de Candiæ.
Sir Richard Fitz Gilbert (1030-1090), m. Rohese Giffard (1034-aft. 1113)
Baldwin FitzGilbert (d. 1090)

Giselbert married Gunnora D'Aunou 34 128 in 1012. Gunnora was born about 984 in <France>. Other names for Gunnora were Gunnora D'Aunou and Gunnora d'Ainon.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 138 M    i. Richard I FitzGilbert, of Clare and Tonbridge 34 129 130 was born in 1030 in <Bienfaite>, Normandy, France, was christened in Brionne, Normandy, France, died before Apr 1088 in <Huntingdonshire, England>, and was buried in St. Neot's, Huntingdonshire, England.

111. Richard d'Évreux, Count of Évreux 90 91 92 (Robert II, Count of Évreux88, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 986 in Rouen, Normandy, France and died in 1067 in Normandy, France about age 81. Another name for Richard was Richard Count of Evreux.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Richard, Count of Évreux :

Richard, Count of Évreux (d. 1067) was the son of Robert II the Archbishop of Rouen and Count of Évreux and Harleve of Rouen .
He had the following children:
Guillaume (d. 1118, Count of Évreux)
Agnes (married Simon I de Montfort )

Noted events in his life were:

• Archbishop of Rouen:

Richard married Adaele de Toni 90 before 1030. Adaele was born about 1004 in <Normandy>, France.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 139 F    i. Agnes d'Évreux 90 91 was born about 1030 in Évreux, Normandy, France.

112. Richard III, Duke of Normandy 95 (Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 997 and died on 6 Aug 1028 about age 31.

Death Notes: Died in 1027 or 1028.

Research Notes: Eldest son. First husband of Adele of France.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132A-23

From Wikipedia - Richard III, Duke of Normandy :

Richard III (997 - 1027) was the eldest son of Richard II , who died in 1027. Before succeeding his father, perhaps about 1020, he had been sent by his father in command of a large army, to attack bishop/count Hugh of Chalon in order to rescue his brother-in-law, Reginald , later Count of Burgundy , who the count/bishop had captured and imprisoned. He was betrothed to Adela, countess of Corbie (1009-June 5, 1063), second daughter of Robert II of France and Constance of Arles , but they never married.

After his father's death, he ruled the Duchy of Normandy only briefly, dying mysteriously, perhaps by poison, soon after his father. The duchy passed to his younger brother Robert I . Adela later married Baldwin V, Count of Flanders .

By unknown women, he had two known children:
Alice/Alix of Normandy who married Ranulf, Viscount of Bayeux.
Nicolas, the Lay Abbot of Rouen (b? - d. 27 Feb 1092). He helped his cousin, Duke William II the Conqueror with the contribution of 15 ships and 100 soldiers for the invasion of England in 1066.

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Normandy: 1026-1028.

Richard had a relationship with < >, [Unknown mistress].131 This couple did not marry.

Their child was:

+ 140 F    i. Alice, of Normandy 7 132 was born about 1021 in <Normandy, France>.

Richard married Adele Capet, Princess of France,80 81 daughter of Robert II "the Pious", King of France and Constance, of Provence, on 10 Jan 1027. Adele was born about 1009 and died about 8 Jan 1079 in Messines Monastery, Messines (Mesen), West Flanders, (Belgium) about age 70. Other names for Adele were Adèle of France, Countess of Contentin, Adele "the Holy" of Messines, Aelis of France, and Countess of Contentin.

Research Notes: Second daughter of Robert the Pious and Constance of Arles.

From Wikipedia - Adela of France, Countess of Flanders :

Adela Capet, Adèle of France or Adela of Flanders[1], known also as Adela the Holy or Adela of Messines; (1009 - 8 January 1079 , Messines ) was the second daughter of Robert II (the Pious), and Constance of Arles . As dowry to her future husband, she received from her father the title of Countess of Corbie.

Her family
She was a member of the House of Capet , the rulers of France. As the wife of Baldwin V , she was Countess of Flanders from 1036 to 1067.

She married first 1027 Richard III Duke of Normandy (997 † 1027). They never had children.

As a widow, she remarried in 1028 in Paris to Baldwin V of Flanders (1012 † 1067). Their children were:
Baldwin VI of Flanders , (1030 † 1070)
Matilda of Flanders (1032 † 1083). In 1053 she married William Duke of Normandy , the future king of England
Robert I of Flanders , (1033-1093)
Henry of Flanders (c. 1035)
Sir Richard of Flanders (c. 1050-1105)

Political influence
Adèle's influence lay mainly in her family connections. On the death of her brother, Henry I of France, the guardianship of his seven-year-old son Philip I fell jointly on his widow, Ann of Kiev , and on his brother-in-law, Adela's husband, so that from 1060 to 1067, they were Regents of France.

Church influence
Adèle had an especially great interest in Baldwin V's church-reform politics and was behind her husband's founding of several collegiate churches . Directly or indirectly, she was responsible for establishing the Colleges of Aire (1049), Lille (1050) and Harelbeke (1064) as well as the abbeys of Messines (1057) and Ename (1063). After Baldwin's death in 1067, she went to Rome, took the nun's veil from the hands of Pope Alexander II and retreated to the Benedictine convent of Messines, near Ypres . There she died, being buried at the same monastery. Her commemoration day is 8 September.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 106)

113. Adelais, de Normandie 65 (Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1007 in <Normandy, France> and died about 1037 in France about age 30. Another name for Adelais was Judith of Normandy.

Adelais married Renaud I, Count Palantine of Burgundy,65 son of Otto Guillaume, Count of Burgundy and Ermentrude, Countess of Rheims, before 1023 in France. Renaud was born about 986 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 4 Sep 1057 in France about age 71. Another name for Renaud was Renaud I de Bourgogne.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 141 M    i. Guillaume I de Bourgogne 65 133 was born about 1040 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 12 Nov 1087 in France about age 47.

114. Robert I, Duke of Normandy 96 97 98 99 (Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1008 in Normandy, France and died on 22 Jul 1035 in Nicaea, Bythnia, (Turkey) about age 27. Other names for Robert were Robert (I, II, the Devil, Magnificent) de Normandie and Robert I 6th Duc de Normandie.

Birth Notes: Citing Alison Weir's Britains's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy, thepeerage.com has born c. 1008.

Death Notes: May have died on 2 July 1035.

Research Notes: Father of William the Conqueror and Adelaide (Adela) of Normandy.

From Wikipedia - Robert I, Duke of Normandy :

Robert the Magnificent[1] (June 22 , 1000 - 3 July 1035 ), also called Robert the Devil and Robert I or II, was the Duke of Normandy from 1027 until his death. He was the son of Richard II of Normandy and Judith , daughter of Conan I of Rennes . He was the father of William the Conqueror .

Life
When his father died, his elder brother Richard succeeded, whilst he became Count of Hiémois . When Richard died a year later, there were great suspicions that Robert had Richard murdered, hence his other nickname, "Robert le diable" ("the devil"). He is sometimes identified with the legendary Robert the Devil .

Robert aided King Henry I of France against Henry's rebellious brother and mother, and for his help he was given the territory of the Vexin . He also intervened in the affairs of Flanders , supported Edward the Confessor , who was then in exile at Robert's court, and sponsored monastic reform in Normandy .

By his mistress, Herleva of Falaise, he was father of the future William I of England (1028-1087). He also had an illegitimate daughter, but the only chronicler to explicitly address the issue, Robert of Torigny , contradicts himself, once indicating that she had a distinct mother from William, elsewhere stating that they shared the same mother. This daughter, Adelaide of Normandy (1030-c. 1083), married three times: to Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu , Lambert II, Count of Lens , and Odo II of Champagne .

After making his illegitimate son William his heir, he set out on pilgrimage to Jerusalem . According to the Gesta Normannorum Ducum he travelled by way of Constantinople , reached Jerusalem, and died on the return journey at Nicaea on 2 July 1035 . Some sources attribute his death to poison and date it to 1 or 3 July. His son William, aged about eight, succeeded him.

According to the historian William of Malmesbury , around 1086 William sent a mission to Constantinople and Nicaea, charging it with bringing his father's body back to be buried in Normandy. Permission was granted, but, having travelled as far as Apulia (Italy) on the return journey, the envoys learned that William himself had meanwhile died. They then decided to re-inter Robert's body in Italy.


Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Normandy: 1027-1035.

• Count of Hiémois: 1026.

• Succeeded: to the title of 6th Duc de Normandie, 8 Aug 1028.

Robert had a relationship with Harlette de Falaise,134 135 136 daughter of Fulbert de Falaise and Doda, de Falaise,. This couple did not marry. Harlette was born about 1003 in Falaise, Calvados, Normandy, France, died before 1050, and was buried in Abbey of St. Grestain, France. Other names for Harlette were Arlotte de Falaise, Arletta de Falaise, Arlette de Falaise, Herleva de Falaise, and Herleve de Falaise.

Birth Notes: Citing the Royal Genealogies Website, thepeerage.com has b. abt 1012. Wikipedia (Herleva) has abt 1003.

Burial Notes: From Wikipedia (Herleva):
According to Robert of Torigni , Herleva was buried at the abbey of Grestain, which was founded by Herluin and their son Robert around 1050. This would put Herleva in her forties around the time of her death. However, David C. Douglas suggests that Herleva probably died before Herluin founded the abbey because her name does not appear on the list of benefactors, whereas the name of Herluin's second wife, Fredesendis, does.

Research Notes: Mother of William I of England (William the Conqueror).

Source http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593882938 has b. 1003 in Falaise, Cavados, France. From that source:
Her son William I, King of England was illegitimate. aka (Herleve)

1 NAME Harlette /De Falaise/ 1 NAME Herleve (Arlette) /de Falaise/ 2SOUR S033320 3 DATA 4 TEXT Date of Import: Jan 17, 2001 1 BIRT 2 DATEABT. 1003 2 PLAC Falaise, Normandie 1 BIRT 2 DATE ABT. 1003 2 PLAC ofFalais, Calvados, France 2 SOUR S033320 3 DATA 4 TEXT Date of Import:Jan 17, 2001

[De La Pole.FTW]

Sources: A. Roots 121E, 130; RC 89, 160; Coe; Kraentzler 1156, 1163,1179, 1241, 1264, 1265, 1309, 1342, 1350, 1383; AIS; Davis; Ayers, p648.
Roots: Arlette (or Herleve/Herleva).
Coe: Arlette. AIS: Narlette of Falaise.
K: Harlette de Falaise.
Davis: Herleve, daughter of Fulbert, a tanner of Falaise.


Father: Fulbert THORGILSSON b: Abt 0986 in Falaise,Calvados,France
Mother: Doda UNKNOWN b: Abt 0988 in ,France

Marriage 1 Herluin DE CONTEVILLE b: Abt 1001 in Conteville,Seine Maritime,France
Note:
_UIDE180A329BD15BA45BDEC96201555521E3798
2 _PREF Y
Children
Odo UNKNOWN b: Abt 1030 in Conteville,Seine Maritime,France
Emma DE CONTEVILLE b: Abt 1033 in ,France
Robert DE CONTEVILLE b: 1037 in of Conteville, Seine Maritime, France
Muriel DE CONTEVILLE b: 1042 in Of Conteville,Normandy,France

Marriage 2 Robert I UNKNOWN b: Abt 1003 in ,Normandy,France
Married: Abt 1023 in not married 3
Note:
_UID2FB1974BB9DEBD4BBFE274FEEECDAECEABB8
2 _PREF Y
Children
William I UNKNOWN b: 14 Oct 1027 in Falaise Castle,Normandy,France
Adelaide UNKNOWN b: 1030 in Falais,Calvados,France
Ralph UNKNOWN b: Abt 1033 in ,, France

Sources:

Title: GEDCOM File : 2134392.ged
Date: 12 Jul 2002
Author: Mark Willis Ballard
Title: GEDCOM File : mwballard.ged
Note:
6928 N. Lakewood Avenue
773-743-6663
mwballard52@yahoo.com
Date: 4 Nov 2003
Title: De La Pole.FTW
Note:
Source Media Type: Other
Repository:
Name: Not Given


Their children were:

+ 142 M    i. William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, King of England 99 137 was born about 1028 in Falaise, Normandy, France and died on 9 Sep 1087 in Rouen, Normandy, France about age 59.

+ 143 F    ii. Adelaide, of Normandy, Countess of Aumale 138 139 140 was born about 1030 and died between 1081 and 1090.

115. Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville 47 62 (<Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1030 in <Saint-Valéry-en-Caux>, Haute-Normandie, France. Other names for Ada were Ada de Hugleville and Ada de Heugelville.

Ada married Geoffroy de Neufmarché,47 62 141 son of Thurcytel and Unknown,. Geoffroy was born about 1025 in <France>. Another name for Geoffroy was Geoffrey de Neufmarché.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 144 M    i. Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon 47 141 was born about 1050 in Le-Neuf-Marché-en-Lions and died about 1125 about age 75.

116. Eadgils, King in Uppsala [Semi-Legendary] 1 100 (Ohthere, King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]91, Ongentheow, King in Sweden [Semi-legendary]74, Aun "the Old" Jorundsson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]63, Jorund Yngvasson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]53, Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary]44, Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died about 580. Other names for Eadgils were Adhel King of Sweden, Adils Ottarsson King in Uppsala, Aðísl King of Sweden, and Athisl King of Sweden.

Research Notes: Semi-legendary king of Sweden, in the house of Yngling.

From Wikipedia - Eadgils :

Eadgils, Adils, Aðils, Adillus, Aðísl at Uppsölum, Athisl, Athislus, Adhel was a semi-legendary king of Sweden , who is estimated to have lived during the 6th century.[1]

Beowulf and Old Norse sources present him as the son of Ohthere and as belonging to the ruling Yngling (Scylfing) clan . These sources also deal with his war against Onela , which he won with foreign assistance: in Beowulf he gained the throne of Sweden by defeating his uncle Onela with Geatish help, and in two Scandinavian sources (Skáldskaparmál and Skjöldunga saga ), he is also helped to defeat Onela in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern , but with Danish help. However, Scandinavian sources mostly deal with his interaction with the legendary Danish king Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf), and Eadgils is mostly presented in a negative light as a rich and greedy king.

Name
The Norse forms are based an older (Proto-Norse ) *Aþag (where *aþa is short for *aþala meaning "noble, foremost" (German 'adel') and *g means "arrow shaft"[2]). However, the Anglo-Saxon form is not etymologically identical. The A-S form would have been *Ædgils, but Eadgils (Proto-Norse *Auða-g, *auða- meaning "wealth") was the only corresponding name used by the Anglo-Saxons[3]. The name Aðils was so exceedingly rare even in Scandinavia that among almost 6000 Scandinavian runic inscriptions, it is only attested in three runestones (U 35 , DR 221 and Br Olsen;215)[4].

Beowulf
The Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf , which was composed sometime between the 8th century and the 11th century, is beside the Norwegian skaldic poem Ynglingatal (9th century) the oldest source that mentions Eadgils.

It is implied in Beowulf that the Swedish king Ohthere died and was succeeded by his younger brother Onela , because Ohthere's two sons, Eadgils and Eanmund had to seek refuge with Heardred , Hygelac 's son and successor as king of the Geats [5]. This caused Onela to attack the Geats, and Heardred was killed. Onela returned home and Beowulf succeeded Heardred as the king of Geatland . In the following lines, Onela is referred to as the Scylfings helmet and the son of Ongenþeow , whereas Eadgils and Eanmund are referred to as the sons of Ohtere:

Later in the poem, it tells that during the battle, Eadgils' brother Eanmund was killed by Onela's champion Weohstan , Wiglaf 's father. In the following lines, Eanmund also appears as the son of Ohtere and as a brother's child:

Eadgils, however, survived and later, Beowulf helped Eadgils with weapons and warriors. Eadgils won the war and killed his uncle Onela. In the following lines, Eadgils is mentioned by name and as the son of Ohtere, whereas Onela is referred to as the king:

This event also appears in the Scandinavian sources Skáldskaparmál and Skjöldunga saga , which will be treated below.

Norwegian and Icelandic sources
The allusive manner in which Eadgils and his relatives are referred to in Beowulf suggests that the scop expected his audience to have sufficient background knowledge about Eadgils, Ohthere and Eanmund to understand the references. Likewise, in the roughly contemporary Norwegian Ynglingatal , Eadgils (Aðils) is called Onela's enemy (Ála[11] dólgr), which likewise suggests that the conflict was familiar to the skald and his audience.
The tradition of Eadgils and Onela resurfaces in several Old Norse works in prose and poetry, and another matter also appears: the animosity between Eadgils and Hrólfr Kraki , who corresponds to Hroðulf in Beowulf.

Ynglingatal
The skaldic poem Ynglingatal is a poetic recital of the line of the Yngling clan . They are also called Skilfingar in the poem (in stanza 19), a name that appears in its Anglo-Saxon form Scylfingas in Beowulf when referring to Eadgils' clan. It is presented as composed by Þjóðólfr of Hvinir by Snorri Sturluson in the Ynglinga saga.

Although its age has been debated, most scholars hold to date from the 9th century[12]. It survives in two versions: one is found in the Norwegian historical work Historia Norvegiæ in Latin , and the other one in Snorri Sturluson 's Ynglinga saga , a part of his Heimskringla . It presents Aðils (Eadgils) as the successor of Óttarr (Ohthere ) and the predecessor of Eysteinn . The stanza on Aðils refers to his accidental death when he fell from his horse:

Note that Eadgils' animosity with Onela also appears in Ynglingatal as Aðils is referred to as Ole's deadly foe (Ála dólgr). This animosity is treated in more detail in the Skjöldunga saga and Skáldskaparmál , which follow.

The Historia Norwegiæ , which is a terse summary in Latin of Ynglingatal, only states that Eadgils fell from his horse and died during the sacrifices. In this Latin translation, the Dísir are rendered as the Roman goddess Diana :
Cujus filius Adils vel Athisl ante ædem Dianæ, dum idolorum, sacrificia fugeret, equo lapsus exspiravit. Hic genuit Eustein, [...][15] His son Adils gave up the ghost after falling from his horse before the temple of Diana, while he was performing the sacrifices made to idols. He became sire to Øystein, [...][16] The same information is found the Swedish Chronicle from the mid-15th century, which calls him Adhel. It is probably based on the Ynglingatal tradition and says that he fell from his horse and died while he worshipped his god.

Íslendingabók
In Íslendingabók from the early 12th century, Eadgils only appears as a name in the listing of the kings of the Yngling dynasty as Aðísl at Uppsala . The reason what that the author, Ari Þorgilsson , traced his ancestry from Eadgils, and its line of succession is the same as that of Ynglingatal.

i Yngvi Tyrkjakonungr. ii Njörðr Svíakonungr. iii Freyr. iiii Fjölnir. sá er dó at Friðfróða. v Svegðir. vi Vanlandi. vii Visburr. viii Dómaldr. ix Dómarr. x Dyggvi. xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi. xv Jörundr. xvi Aun inn gamli. xvii Egill Vendilkráka. xviii Óttarr. xix Aðísl at Uppsölum. xx Eysteinn. xxi Yngvarr. xxii Braut-Önundr. xxiii Ingjaldr inn illráði. xxiiii Óláfr trételgja...[17]
As can be seen it agrees with the earlier Ynglingatal and Beowulf in presenting Eadgils as the successor of Óttarr (Ohthere ).

Skjöldunga saga
The Skjöldunga saga was a Norse saga which is believed to have been written in the period 1180-1200. The original version is lost, but it survives in a Latin summary by Arngrímur Jónsson .

Arngrímur's summary relates that Eadgils, called Adillus, married Yrsa with whom he had the daughter Scullda . Some years later, the Danish king Helgo (Halga ) attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa, not knowing that she was his own daughter, the result of Helgo raping Olava, the queen of the Saxons . Helgo raped Yrsa as well and took her back to Denmark, where she bore the son Rolfo (Hroðulf ). After a few years, Yrsa's mother, queen Olava, came to visit her and told her that Helgo was her own father. In horror, Yrsa returned to Adillus, leaving her son behind. Helgo died when Rolfo was eight years old, and Rolfo succeeded him, and ruled together with his uncle Roas (Hroðgar ). Not much later, Roas was killed by his half-brothers Rærecus and Frodo, whereupon Rolfo became the sole king of Denmark.
In Sweden, Yrsa and Adillus married Scullda to the king of Öland , Hiørvardus/Hiorvardus/Hevardus (Heoroweard ). As her half-brother Rolfo was not consulted about this marriage, he was infuriated and he attacked Öland and made Hiørvardus and his kingdom tributary to Denmark.
After some time, there was animosity between king Adillus of Sweden and the Norwegian king Ale of Oppland . They decided to fight on the ice of Lake Vänern . Adillus won and took his helmet, chainmail and horse. Adillus won because he had requested Rolfo's aid against king Ale and Rolfo had sent him his berserkers. However, Adillus refused to pay the expected tribute for the help and so Rolfo came to Uppsala to claim his recompense. After surviving some traps, Rolfo fled with Adillus' gold, helped by his mother Yrsa. Seeing that the Swedish king and his men pursued him, Rolfo "sowed" the gold on the Fyrisvellir , so that the king's men would pick up the gold, instead of continuing the pursuit.

As can be seen, the Skjöldunga saga retells the story of Eadgils fighting his uncle Onela , but in this version Onela is no longer Eadgils' uncle, but a Norwegian king of Oppland . This change is generally considered to be a late confusion between the core province of the Swedes, Uppland , and its Norwegian namesake Oppland[18]. Whereas, Beowulf leaves the Danish court with the suspicion that Hroðulf (Rolfo Krage, Hrólfr Kraki) might claim the Danish throne for himself at the death of Hroðgar (Roas, Hróarr), it is exactly what he does in Scandinavian tradition. A notable difference is that, in Beowulf, Eadgils receives the help of the Geatish king Beowulf against Onela, whereas it is the Danish king Hroðulf who provides help in Scandinavian tradition.

Skáldskaparmál
Skáldskaparmál was written by Snorri Sturluson , c. 1220, in order to teach the ancient art of kennings to aspiring skalds . It presents Eadgils, called Aðils, in two sections.

Snorri also presents the story of Aðils and Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf ) in order to explain why gold was known by the kenning Kraki's seed. Snorri relates that Aðils was in war with a Norwegian king named Áli (Onela ), and they fought in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern . Aðils was married to Yrsa , the mother of Hrólfr and so sent an embassy to Hrólfr asking him for help against Áli. He would receive three valuable gifts in recompense. Hrólfr was involved in a war against the Saxons and could not come in person but sent his twelve berserkers, including Böðvarr Bjarki . Áli died in the war, and Aðils took Áli's helmet Battle-boar and his horse Raven. The berserkers demanded three pounds of gold each in pay, and they demanded to choose the gifts that Aðils had promised Hrólfr, that is the two pieces of armour that nothing could pierce: the helmet battle-boar and the mailcoat Finn's heritage. They also wanted the famous ring Svíagris. Aðils considered the pay outrageous and refused.

When Hrólfr heard that Aðils refused to pay, he set off to Uppsala . They brought the ships to the river Fyris and rode directly to the Swedish king's hall at Uppsala with his twelve berserkers. Yrsa welcomed them and led them to their lodgings. Fires were prepared for them and they were given drinks. However, so much wood was heaped on the fires that the clothes started to burn away from their clothes. Hrólfr and his men had enough and threw the courtiers on the fire. Yrsa arrived and gave them a horn full of gold, the ring Svíagris and asked them to flee. As they rode over the Fyrisvellir , they saw Aðils and his men pursuing them. The fleeing men threw the gold on the plain so that the pursuers would stop to collect it. Aðils, however, continued the chase on his horse Slöngvir. Hrólfr then threw Svíagris and saw how Aðils stooped down to pick up the ring with his spear. Hrólfr exclaimed that he had seen the mightiest man in Sweden bend his back.

Ynglinga saga
The Ynglinga saga was written c. 1225 by Snorri Sturluson and he used Skjöldunga saga as a source when he told the story of Aðils[23]. Snorri relates that Aðils succeeded his father Óttar (Ohthere ) and betook himself to pillage the Saxons, whose king was Geirþjófr and queen Alof the Great. The king and consort were not at home, and so Aðils and his men plundered their residence at ease driving cattle and captives down to the ships. One of the captives was a remarkably beautiful girl named Yrsa , and Snorri writes that everyone was soon impressed with the well-mannered, pretty and intelligent girl. Most impressed was Aðils who made her his queen.

Some years later, Helgi (Halga ), who ruled in Lejre , attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa. As he did not know that Yrsa was his own daughter, he raped her, and took her back to Lejre , where she bore him the son Hrólfr kraki . When the boy was three years of age, Yrsa's mother, queen Alof of Saxony, came to visit her and told her that her husband Helgi was her own father. Horrified, Yrsa returned to Aðils, leaving her son behind, and stayed in Sweden for the rest of her life. When Hrólfr was eight years old, Helgi died during a war expedition and Hrólfr was proclaimed king.
Aðils waged a war against king Áli (Onela of Oppland , and they fought in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern . Áli died in this battle. Snorri writes that there was a long account of this battle in the Skjöldunga Saga, which also contained an account of how Hrólf came to Uppsala and sowed gold on the Fyrisvellir .

Snorri also relates that Aðils loved good horses and had the best horses in his days (interestingly, the contemporary Gothic scholar Jordanes noted that the Swedes were famed for their good horses). One horse was named Slöngvi and another one Raven, which he had taken from Áli. From this horse he had bred a horse also named Raven which he sent to king Godgest of Hålogaland , but Godgest could not manage it and fell from it and died, in Omd on the island of Andøya . Aðils himself died in a similar way at the Dísablót . Aðils was riding around the Disa shrine when Raven stumbled and fell, and the king was thrown forward and hit his skull on a stone. The Swedes called him a great king and buried him at Uppsala . He was succeeded by Eysteinn

Hrólfr Kraki's saga
Hrólfr Kraki's saga is believed to have been written in the period c. 1230 - c. 1450[24]. Helgi and Yrsa lived happily together as husband and wife, not knowing that Yrsa was Helgi's daughter. Yrsa's mother queen Oluf travelled to Denmark to tell her daughter the truth. Yrsa was shocked and although Helgi wanted their relationship to remain as it was, Yrsa insisted on leaving him to live alone. She was later taken by the Swedish king Aðils as his queen, which made Helgi even more unhappy. Helgi went to Uppsala to fetch her, but was killed by Aðils in battle. In Lejre , he was succeeded by his son Hrólfr Kraki .

After some time, Böðvarr Bjarki encouraged Hrólfr to go Uppsala to claim the gold that Aðils had taken from Helgi after the battle. Hrólfr departed with 120 men and his twelve beserkers and during a rest they were tested by a farmer called Hrani (Odin in disguise) who advised Hrólfr to send back all his troops but his twelve beserkers, as numbers would not help him against Aðils.

They were at first well received, but in his hall, Aðils did his best to stop Hrólfr with pit traps and hidden warriors who attacked the Danes. Finally Aðils entertained them but put them to a test where they had to endure immense heat by a fire. Hrólfr and his beserkers finally had enough and threw the courtiers, who were feeding the fire, into the fire and lept at Aðils. The Swedish king disappeared through a hollow tree trunk that stood in his hall.

Yrsa admonished Aðils for wanting to kill her son, and went to meet the Danes. She gave them a man named Vöggr to entertain them. This Vöggr remarked that Hrólfr had the thin face of a pole ladder, a Kraki. Happy with his new cognomen Hrólfr gave Vöggr a golden ring, and Vöggr swore to avenge Hrólfr if anyone should kill him. Hrólfr and his company were then attacked by a troll in the shape of a boar in the service of Aðils, but Hrólfr's dog Gram killed it.

They then found out that Aðils had set the hall on fire, and so they broke out of the hall, only to find themselves surrounded by heavily armed warriors in the street. After a fight, king Aðils retreated to summon reinforcements.

Yrsa then provided her son with a silver drinking horn filled with gold and jewels and a famous ring, Svíagris. Then she gave Hrólf and his men twelve of the Swedish king's best horses, and all the armour and provisions they needed.

Hrólfr took a fond farewell of his mother and departed over the Fyrisvellir . When they saw Aðils and his warriors in pursuit, they spread the gold behind themselves. Aðils saw his precious Svíagris on the ground and stooped to pick it up with his spear, whereupon Hrólf cut his back with his sword and screamed in triumph that he had bent the back of the most powerful man in Sweden.

Danish sources

Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundenses
The Chronicon Lethrense (and the included Annales Lundenses) tell that when the Danish kings Helghe (Halga ) and Ro (Hroðgar ) were dead, the Swedish king Hakon/Athisl[25] forced the Daner to accept a dog as king. The dog king was succeeded by Rolf Krage (Hrólfr Kraki ).

Gesta Danorum
The Gesta Danorum (book 2), by Saxo Grammaticus , tells that Helgo (Halga ) repelled a Swedish invasion, killed the Swedish king Hothbrodd , and made the Swedes pay tribute. However, he committed suicide due to shame for his incestuous relationship with Urse (Yrsa ), and his son Roluo (Hrólfr Kraki ) succeeded him.

The new king of Sweden, Athislus, thought that the tribute to the Daner might be smaller if he married the Danish king's mother and so took Urse for a queen. However, after some time, Urse was so upset with the Swedish king's greediness that she thought out a ruse to run away from the king and at the same time liberate him of his wealth. She encited Athislus to rebell against Roluo, and arranged so that Roluo would be invited and promised a wealth in gifts.

At the banquet Roluo was at first not recognised by his mother, but when their fondness was commented on by Athisl, the Swedish king and Roluo made a wager where Roluo would prove his endurance. Roluo was placed in front of a fire that exposed him to such heat that finally a maiden could suffer the sight no more and extinguished the fire. Roluo was greatly recompensed by Athisl for his endurance.

When the banquet had lasted for three days, Urse and Roluo escaped from Uppsala, early in the morning in carriages where they had put all the Swedish king's treasure. In order to lessen their burden, and to occupy any pursuing warriors they spread gold in their path (later in the work, this is referred to as "sowing the Fyrisvellir "), although there was a rumour that she only spread gilded copper. When Athislus, who was pursuing the escapers saw that a precious ring was lying on the ground, he bent down to pick it up. Roluo was pleased to see the king of Sweden bent down, and escaped in the ships with his mother.

Roluo later defeated Athislus and gave Sweden to young man named Hiartuar (Heoroweard ), who also married Roluo's sister Skulde . When Athislus learnt that Hiartuar and Skulde had killed Roluo, he celebrated the occasion, but he drank so much that he killed himself.

Archaeology

According to Snorri Sturluson , Eadgils was buried in one of the royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala , and he is believed to be buried in Adils' Mound (also known as the Western mound or Thor's mound) one of the largest mounds at Uppsala . An excavation in this mound showed that a man was buried there c. 575 on a bear skin with two dogs and rich grave offerings. There were luxurious weapons and other objects, both domestic and imported, show that the buried man was very powerful. These remains include a Frankish sword adorned with gold and garnets and a board game with Roman pawns of ivory . He was dressed in a costly suit made of Frankish cloth with golden threads, and he wore a belt with a costly buckle. There were four cameos from the Middle East which were probably part of a casket. The finds show the distant contacts of the House of Yngling in the 6th century.

Snorri's account that Adils had the best horses of his days, and Jordanes' account that the Swedes of the 6th century were famed for their horses find support in archaeology. This time was the beginning of the Vendel Age , a time characterised by the appearance of stirrups and a powerful mounted warrior elite in Sweden, which rich graves in for instance Valsgärde and Vendel .

Eadgils married Yrsa, of Saxony [Legendary].142 Other names for Yrsa were Urse of Saxony, Yrs of Saxony, and Yrse of Saxony.

Research Notes: Legendary.

From Wikipedia - Yrsa :

Yrsa, Yrse, Yrs or Urse (6th century[1]) was a tragic heroine of Scandinavian legend.

She appears in several versions relating to her husband, the Swedish king Eadgils , and/or to her father and rapist/lover/husband Halga (the younger brother of king Hroðgar who received Beowulf ) and their son Hroðulf . The consensus view is that the people surrounding Yrsa are the same people as those found in Beowulf [2], and the common claim in Beowulf studies that Hroðulf probably was the son of Halga is taken from the Yrsa tradition. Several translators (e.g. Burton Raffel ) and scholars have emended her name from a corrupt line (62) in the manuscript of Beowulf, although this is guesswork.

In the Ynglinga saga , Snorri Sturluson describes her personality as follows (Samuel Laing's translation):

"Yrsa was not one of the slave girls, and it was soon observed that she was intelligent, spoke well, and in all respects was well behaved. All people thought well of her, and particularly the king; and at last it came to this that the king celebrated his wedding with her, and Yrsa became queen of Sweden, and was considered an excellent woman.

Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundenses
The Chronicon Lethrense (and the included Annales Lundenses) tells that one day, the Danish king Helghe arrived in Halland /Lolland [3] and slept with Thore, the daughter of one of Ro's farmers. This resulted in Yrse. Much later, he met Yrse, and without knowing that she was his daughter, he made her pregnant with Rolf Krage. Lastly, he found out that Yrse was his own daughter, went east and killed himself.

Ro is the same personage as Hroðgar , who received Beowulf at Heorot . His co-king Helghe is the same as Hroðgar's brother Halga , and Rolf Krage is the same personage as Hroðgar's nephew Hroðulf . However, in Beowulf, it is never explained in what way they were uncle and nephew.

Gesta Danorum
The Gesta Danorum (book 2) reports that Helgo was the brother of the Danish king Ro, but whereas Ro was king of the Danish lands, Helgo had inherited the sea. One day during his sea roving, arrived at Thurø , where he found and raped the young girl Thora, who became pregnant with Urse. When Helgo after many years returned to Thurø, Thora avenged her lost virginity by sending Urse to Helgo who, unknowingly raped his own daughter. This resulted in Roluo Kraki.

During a Swedish invasion, Ro was killed by Hothbrodd , the king of Sweden. Helgo avenged his brother's death and made the Swedes pay tribute. However, he then chose to commit suicide due to his shame for his incestuous relationship with Urse, and their son Roluo Kraki succeeded him. Athislus, the new king of Sweden thought that the tribute to the Daner might be smaller if he married the Danish king's mother and so took Urse for a queen. However, after some time, Urse was so upset with the Swedish king's greediness that she thought out a ruse to run away from the king and at the same time liberate him of his wealth. She encited Athislus to rebell against Roluo, and arranged so that Roluo would be invited and promised a wealth in gifts.

When the banquet had lasted for three days, Urse and Roluo escaped from Uppsala, early in the morning in carriages where they had put all the Swedish king's treasure. In order to lessen their burden, and to occupy any pursuing warriors they spread gold in their path, although there was a rumour that she only spread gilded copper. When Athislus, who was pursuing the escapers saw that a precious ring was lying on the ground, he bent down to pick it up. Roluo was pleased to see the king of Sweden bent down, and escaped in the ships with his mother.

This account is more elaborate than that of Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundenses. Helgo is the same personage as Helghe/Halga . His brother the Danish king Ro is the same as Hroðgar , Roluo is the same as Hroðulf /Rolf Krage, and the Swedish king Athislus is the same as Eadgils , the Swedish king of Beowulf. Yrse is here called Urse, and the story of her son fleeing the Swedish king with all his treasure is also found in the following accounts. It is noteworthy that all the Danish sources, Chronicon Lethrense, Annales Lundenses and Gesta Danorum differ on where Halga found Yrsa, but make her Danish. The Icelandic sources that follow make her a Saxon , on the other hand, and not Danish.

Hrólfr Kraki's saga
In Hrólfr Kraki's saga , Helgi (i.e. Halga ) went to the Saxons wanting to woo their warlike queen Oluf. She was, however, not interested and humiliated Helgi by shaving his head and covering him with tar, while he was asleep, and sending him back to his ship. Some time later, Helgi returned and through a ruse, he kidnapped the queen for a while during which time he made her pregnant.

Having returned to her kingdom, the queen bore a child, a girl which she named Yrsa after her dog. Yrsa was set to live as a shepherd, until she was 12 years old, when she met her father Helgi who fell in love with her, not knowing it was his daughter. Oluf kept quiet about the parentage and saw it as her revenge that Helgi would wed his own daughter. Helgi and Yrsa had the son Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf).

Learning that Helgi and Yrsa lived happily together, queen Oluf travelled to Denmark to tell her daughter the truth. Yrsa was shocked and although Helgi wanted their relationship to remain as it was, Yrsa insisted on leaving him to live alone. She was later taken by the Swedish king Aðils (Eadgils ) as his queen, which made Helgi even unhappier.

Missing Yrsa, Helgi went to Uppsala to fetch her, but was killed by Aðils in battle. Yrsa was naturally upset that the man who was closest to her was killed by her husband, and promised Aðils that his berserkers would all be slain if she could help it. She was no happier in the king's company and she was not interested in making up with him either. Later, when a young Swedish warrior named Svipdag arrived to test his skills, she greatly supported him in his fights with the berserkers who eventually were all slain. Svipdag chose not to remain with king Aðils and instead he sought service with Yrsa's son Hrólfr who had succeeded Helgi as the king of Denmark.

After some time, when Aðils owed Hrólfr not only the gold he had taken from Helgi during the battle, but also tribute for his help fighting king Áli (i.e. Onela of Beowulf ) in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern , Hrólfr arrived at Uppsala to gather his tribute. Aðils did his best to stop Hrólfr through different ruses, but had to go away to gather reinforcements. While the Swedish king was gone, Yrsa provided her son with more gold than was due to him. Then she gave Hrólfr and his men twelve of the Swedish king's best horses (Aðils was famous for his well-bred horses), and all the armour and provisions they needed.

Hrólfr took a fond farewell of his mother and departed over the Fyrisvellir . When they saw Aðils and his warriors in pursuit, they spread the gold behind themselves. Aðils saw his precious Svíagris on the ground and stooped to pick it up with his spear, whereupon Hrólfr cut his back with his sword and screamed in triumph that he had bent the back of the most powerful man in Sweden.

Later, Hrólfr was killed by his brother-in-law Hjörvarðr (i.e. the Heoroweard of Beowulf ) through treason and when the battle was over Hrólfr's sister the half-elven Skuld ruled Denmark. Yrsa exacted revenge by sending a large Swedish army ledd by Vogg who captured Skuld before she could summon her army. Skuld was tortured to death and Hrólfr's daughters took over the rule of Denmark.

This account resembles that of the Gesta Danorum, but is more elaborate. A notable difference is that Yrsa is no longer Danish but Saxon, and that Yrsa stayed in Sweden, when her son Hroðulf fled Eadgils with the gold.

Skjöldunga saga

The Skjöldunga saga [4][5] relates that Helgo (Halga ) was the king of Denmark together with his brother Roas (Hroðgar ). Helgo raped Olava, the queen of the Saxons , and she bore a daughter named Yrsa. The girl later married king Adillus (Eadgils ), the king of Sweden. Yrsa and Adillus had the daughter Scullda .

Some years later, Helgo attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa. He raped Yrsa, his own daughter, and took her back to Denmark, where she bore the son Rolfo (Hroðulf ). After a few years, Yrsa's mother, queen Olava, came to visit her and told her that Helgo was her own father. In horror, Yrsa returned to Adillus, leaving her son behind. Helgo died when Rolfo was eight years old, and Rolfo succeeded him, and ruled together with his uncle Roas. Not much later, Roas was killed by his half-brothers Rærecus and Frodo (Froda ), whereupon Rolfo became the sole king of Denmark.

In Sweden, Yrsa and Adillus married their Scullda to the king of Öland , Hiørvardus (also called Hiorvardus and Hevardus, and who corresponds to Heoroweard in Beowulf ). As her half-brother Rolfo was not consulted about this marriage, he was infuriated and he attacked Öland and made Hiørvardus and his kingdom tributary to Denmark.
Adillus requested Rolfo's aid against the Norwegian king Ale (Onela ). Rolfo sent his berserkers, but when the war had been won, Adillus refused to pay. Rolfo came to Uppsala and after some adventures he could flee with Adillus' gold, helped by his mother Yrsa, and he "sowed" it on the Fyrisvellir .

This account differs from Hrólf Kraki's saga in the respect that Yrsa was first peacefully married to Eadgils, and later captured by Halga, who raped her and made her pregnant with Hroðulf. In Hrólfr Kraki's saga, she was first captured by Halga who had Hroðulf with him. Learning that Halga was her father, she returned to Saxland from where Eadgils kidnapped her. In Hrólfr Kraki's saga, Helgi dies when more or less trying to save her from Eagdils, while the Skjöldunga saga presents her marriage with Eadgils as a happier one, and Halga died in a different war expedition.

Ynglinga saga
The Skjöldunga saga [6] was used by Snorri Sturluson as a source when he told the story of Aðils (Eadgils ) and Yrsa. What remains of the Skjöldunga saga is a Latin summary by Arngrímur Jónsson , and so the two versions are basically the same, the main difference being that Arngrímur's version is more terse.
Snorri relates that Aðils betook himself to pillage the Saxons, whose king was Geirþjófr and queen Alof the Great. The king and consort were not at home, and so Aðils and his men plundered their residence at ease driving cattle and captives down to the ships. One of the captives was a remarkably beautiful girl named Yrsa, and Snorri writes that everyone was soon impressed with the well-mannered, pretty and intelligent girl. Most impressed was Aðils who made her his queen.

Some years later, Helgi (Halga ), who ruled in Lejre , attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa. He raped Yrsa, his own daughter, and took her back to Lejre , where she bore him the son Hrólfr (Hroðulf ). When the boy was three years of age, Yrsa's mother, queen Alof of Saxony, came to visit her and told her that her husband Helgi was her own father. Horrified, Yrsa returned to Aðils, leaving her son behind, and stayed in Sweden for the rest of her life. When Hrólfr was eight years old, Helgi died during a war expedition and Hrólfr was proclaimed king.

Snorri finishes his account by briefly mentioning that the Skjöldunga saga contained an extensive account of how Hrólfr came to Uppsala and sowed gold on the Fyrisvellir .

Skáldskaparmál
In the Skáldskaparmál , Yrsa's husband king Aðils (Eadgils ) requested Yrsa's son Hrólfr's help against the Norwegian king Áli (Onela ). Hrólfr was busy fighting the Saxons but sent his berserkers.

When Hrólfr heard that Aðils refused to pay, he set off to Uppsala . They brought the ships to the river Fyris and rode directly to the Swedish king's hall at Uppsala with his twelve berserkers. Yrsa welcomed them and led them to their lodgings. Fires were prepared for them and they were given drinks. However, so much wood was heaped on the fires that the clothes started to burn away from their clothes. Hrólfr and his men had enough and threw the courtiers on the fire. Yrsa arrived and gave them a horn full of gold, the ring Svíagris and asked them to flee. As they rode over the Fyrisvellir , they saw Aðils and his men pursuing them. The fleeing men threw their gold on the plain so that the pursuers would stop to collect the gold. Aðils, however, continued the chase on his horse Slöngvir. Hrólfr then threw Svíagris and saw how Aðils stooped down to pick up the ring with his spear. Hrólfr exclaimed that he had seen the mightiest man in Sweden bend his back.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 145 M    i. Eysteinn, King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary] 1 143 was born about 600 in Sweden.

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117. Emund Eriksson 42 (Erik Refillsson93, Refill Bjornsson76, Bjorn "Ironside" Ragnarsson66, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 832 in Sweden. Another name for Emund was Edmund Eriksson.

Emund married someone.

His child was:

+ 146 M    i. Erik Edmundsson 42 was born about 849 in Sweden and died about 900 about age 51.

118. Olaf "the White" Ingjaldsson, King of Ireland 3 (Ingjald "the White" Helgasson, Petty King in Ireland94, Thora Sigurdsdatter77, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 840 in <Dyflinni, Ireland> and died in 871 in Dublin, Dublin, Ireland about age 31. Another name for Olaf was Olof "Hviti" Ingjaldsson King of Ireland.

Olaf married Aud "Deep Minded" Ketilsdatter 7 about 857 in Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. Aud was born about 834 in <Raumsdal, Telemark, Norway> and died in 900 in Hvammi, Dala, Iceland about age 66. Another name for Aud was Unn Ketilsdatter.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 147 M    i. Thorstein "the Red" Olafsson 3 was born about 858 in <Dublin, Dublin, Ireland> and died in 888 in Hvammi, Dala, Iceland about age 30.

119. Harald "the Blue Tooth" Gormsson, King of Denmark 42 101 (Geva Knudsson, King of Denmark95, Knud Sigurdsson78, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 910 in Denmark and died on 1 Nov 987 about age 77. Other names for Harald were Harald I of Denmark and Harald I "Bluetooth" King of Denmark.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Harald I of Denmark :

Harald Bluetooth Gormson (Old Norse : 'Haraldr Blátönn', Danish : Harald Blåtand, Norwegian : Harald Blåtann, Swedish : Harald Blåtand) (born c. 935) was the son of King Gorm the Old and of Thyra Dannebod . He died in 985 or 986 having ruled as King of Denmark from around 958 and king of Norway for a few years probably around 970. Some sources state that his son Sweyn forcibly deposed him as king.

The Jelling stones
Harald Bluetooth caused the Jelling stones to be erected to honour his parents.[1] Encyclopedia Britannica (Britannica) considers the runic inscriptions as the most well known in Denmark.[2] The biography of Harald Bluetooth is summed up by this runic inscription from the Jelling stones:
"Harald, king, bade these memorials to be made after Gorm, his father, and Thyra, his mother. The Harald who won the whole of Denmark and Norway and turned the Danes to Christianity."

Conversion and Christianisation of Denmark

The conversion of the Danes or, rather, the conversion of King Harald Bluetooth, is a contested bit of history, not least because medieval writers such as Widukind of Corvey and Adam of Bremen give conflicting accounts of how it came about.
We know from the runestone erected at Jelling Monument that Harald claimed to have converted the Danes himself. In his "History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen," finished in 1076, Adam of Bremen claimed that Harald was himself forcibly converted by Otto I , after a defeat in battle.[3] In the Icelandic saga about the Kings of Norway called the Heimskringla , this story was changed somewhat to have Harald be converted, along with Earl Hakon , by Otto II .

However, Widukind of Corvey, writing nearly 100 years before Adam and during the lives of Otto I and Harald, mentioned no such episode in his Res gestae saxonicae sive annalium libri tres or "Deeds of the Saxons". Considering that this history was at least partly written to promote the greatness of Otto and his family, this silence is damning to Adam of Bremen's claim. Widukind himself claims that Harald was converted by a "cleric by the name of Poppa" who, when asked by Harald whether he would be tested as to his faith in Christ, supposedly carried "a great weight of iron" heated by a fire without being burned.[4] A similar story does appear in Adam of Bremen's history, but about Eric of Sweden , who had supposedly conquered Denmark (there is no evidence that this happened anywhere else), and a self-immolating cleric named Poppo.[5] The story of this otherwise unknown Poppo or Poppa's miracle and baptism of Harald is also depicted on the gilded altar piece in the Church of Tandrup in Denmark, a detail of which is at the top of this article. The altar itself has been dated to about 1200.[6] Adam of Bremen's claim regarding Otto I and Harald appears to have been inspired by an attempt to manufacture a historical reason for the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen to claim jurisdiction over Denmark (and thus the rest of Scandinavia); in the 1070s, the Danish King was in Rome asking for Denmark to have its own arch-bishop, and Adam's account of Harald's supposed conversion (and baptism of both him and his "little son" Sweyn , with Otto serving as Sweyn's godfather) is followed by the unambiguous claim that "At that time Denmark on this side of the sea, which is called Jutland by the inhabitants, was divided into three dioceses and subjected to the bishopric of Hamburg."[7]

As noted above, Harald's father, Gorm the Old had died in 958, and he had been buried in a mound with many grave goods, after the pagan practice. The mound was itself from c. 500 BCE, but Harald had it built higher over his father's grave, and added a second mound to the south. Mound-building was a newly revived custom in the tenth century, possibly as a "self-conscious appeal to old traditions in the face of Christian customs spreading from Denmark's southern neighbors, the Germans."[8]
But after his conversion, in about the 960s, Harald had his father's body disinterred and reburied in the church he built next to the now empty mound, and erected the now famous Jelling stones described above.

Reign
During his reign, Harald oversaw the reconstruction not only of the Jelling runic stones but of other projects as well. Some believe that these projects were a way for him to preserve the economic and military control of his country. During that time, ring forts were built in five strategic locations: Trelleborg on Sjælland , Nonnebakken on Fyn , Fyrkat in central Jylland , Aggersborg near Limfjord , and Trelleborg near the city of Trelleborg in Scania in present-day Sweden . All five fortresses had similar designs: "perfectly circular with gates opening to the four corners of the earth, and a courtyard divided into four areas which held large houses set in a square pattern"[10] A sixth Trelleborg is located in Borgeby , in Scania in present-day Sweden. This one has been dated to the vicinity of 1000 AD and has a similar design, so it too may have been built by king Harald.
He also constructed the oldest known bridge in southern Scandinavia, known as the Ravninge Bridge in Ravninge meadows, which was 5m wide and 760m long.

While absolute quiet prevailed throughout the interior, he was even able to turn his thoughts to foreign enterprises. Again and again he came to the help of Richard the Fearless of Normandy (in the years 945 and 963), while his son conquered Samland and, after the assassination of King Harald Graafeld of Norway, he also managed to force the people of that country into temporary subjection to himself.
The Norse sagas presents Harald in a rather negative light. He was forced twice to submit to the renegade Swedish prince Styrbjörn the Strong of the Jomsvikings - first by giving Styrbjörn a fleet and his daughter Tyra , the second time by giving up himself as hostage and an additional fleet. Styrbjörn brought this fleet to Uppsala in Sweden in order to claim the throne of Sweden. However, this time Harald broke his oath and fled with his Danes in order to avoid facing the Swedish army at the Battle of the Fýrisvellir .
As a consequence of Harald's army having lost to the Germans in the shadow of Danevirke in 974, he no longer had control of Norway and Germans having settled back into the border area between Scandinavia and Germany. The German settlers were driven out of Denmark in 983 by an alliance consisting of Obodrite soldiers and troops loyal to Harald. Soon after, Harald was killed fighting off a rebellion led by his son Sweyn. He was believed to have died in 986 , although there are many other accounts that claim he died in 985.

Marriages and issue

Gyrid Olafsdottir , probably by 950.
Thyra Haraldsdotter , married Styrbjörn Starke
Sveyn Forkbeard . Born about 960. Usually given as the son of Harald and Gyrid, though it is said in some of the older sagas that he was an illegitimate son.
Hakon. Born in 961.
Gunhilde . She married Pallig , Jarl and Ealdorman in Devon. They both died in the St. Brice's Day massacre in November 1002.
Thora (Tova) the daughter of Mistivir in 970. She raised the Sønder Vissing Runestone after her mother.


Harald married Gyrid Olafsdottir 42 144 by 950. Gyrid was born about 930 in Denmark. Other names for Gyrid were Gunhild and Gyrithe Olafsdatter.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 148 F    i. Thyra Haraldsdatter, Queen of Norway 42 was born about 947 in <Denmark> and died on 18 Sep 1000 in Norway about age 53.

+ 149 M    ii. Svend I "Forked Beard", King of Denmark, Norway and England 42 was born about 960 in Denmark, died on 2 Feb 1014 in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England about age 54, and was buried in Hellig Trefoldigheds Kirke, Roskilde, Roskilde, Denmark.

120. Ralph de Toeni, de Conches 42 (Ralph de, de Conches96, Roger "the Spaniard" de80, Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1079 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England, died about 1126 in Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France about age 47, and was buried in Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France. Another name for Ralph was Ralph de Conches.

Ralph married Alice Huntingdon,42 145 daughter of Waltheof II, Earl of Northumberland and Judith, of Lens, in 1103 in England. Alice was born about 1085 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died after 1126. Other names for Alice were Adelise and Adeliza Huntingdon.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 150 M    i. Roger de Toeni, de Conches 42 was born about 1104 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died before 1162.

121. Emma FitzOsbern 2 (Alice de Toeni97, Roger "the Spaniard" de80, Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1059 in <Breteuil>, Normandy, France and died after 1095.

Emma married Ralph, Seigneur de Gael,2 son of Ralph, Earl of Norfolk and Unknown, in 1075 in Exning, <Suffolk>e, England. Ralph was born before 1040 in Gael, Brittany, France and died after 1095.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 151 M    i. Ralph de Gael, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Suffolk & Cambridge .146 147

122. Ragnhild Magnusdatter, Princess of Norway 7 (Magnus I "the Good" Olafsson, King of Norway98, Olaf II "the Saint" Haraldsson, King of Norway81, Harald "Graenske" Gudrodsson70, Gudrod Bjornsson59, Bjorn "the Merchant" Haraldsson, Prince of Norway50, Svanhild Eysteinsdatter42, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1041 in <Norway>.

Ragnhild married Haakon Ivarsson,7 son of Ivar "Hvide" and Unknown, in 1062 in Norway. Haakon was born about 1031 in <Norway>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 152 F    i. Ragnhild Haakonsdatter 7 was born about 1044 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland>.

123. Paul Thorfinnsson, Jarl of Orkney and Caithness 7 (Thorfinn II "the Black", Earl of Orkney99, Sigurd II "Digri"82, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1040 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died in 1103 in Bergen, Hordaland, Norway about age 63. Another name for Paul was Paal Thorfinnsson Jarl of Orkney and Caithness.

Paul married Ragnhild Haakonsdatter,7 daughter of Haakon Ivarsson and Ragnhild Magnusdatter, Princess of Norway,. Ragnhild was born about 1044 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 153 M    i. Haakon Paalsson 7 was born about 1070 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died in 1122 in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland about age 52.

124. Ragnvald Brusesson 70 (Brusi100, Sigurd II "Digri"82, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1011 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland>, died in Dec 1046 in Papa Stronsay, Orkney Islands, Scotland about age 35, and was buried in Papa Westroy, Orkney, Scotland. Another name for Ragnvald was Rognvald Brusesson.

Death Notes: Killed

Ragnvald married Arlogia,70 daughter of Waldemar, Duke of Russia and Unknown, about 1034 in <Russia>. Arlogia was born about 1015 in <Russia>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 154 M    i. Robert de Brusse 70 was born about 1036 in <Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland> and died between 1080 and 1098.

125. Gillebride 3 (Gille Adoman I Gilleson101, Hvarflad Hlodversdatter83, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1010 in <Scotland>.

Gillebride married someone.

His child was:

+ 155 M    i. Somerled I Gillebrideson 3 was born about 1030 in <Scotland>.

126. Beatrix, of Hainaut 103 (Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 998 in <Hainaut, Belgium>.

Beatrix married Ebles I, Count of Rheims & Roucy, Archbishop of Rheims,148 149 son of Giselbert, Count of Roucy and Unknown,. Ebles was born about 980 in <Roucy, Marne, France> and died on 11 May 1033 about age 53.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f93/a0019300.htm has b. 994.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 156 F    i. Adele de Roucy 150 151 was born about 1014 in <Roucy, Aisne, France> and died about 1062 about age 48.

Beatrix next married Manasses Calva Asina de Rameru,84 son of Hilduin II de Rameru and Unknown,. Manasses was born about 1010 in <Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died on 15 Nov 1057 in Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, Lorraine, France about age 47. Another name for Manasses was Manasses de Dammartin Count of Dammartin.

Death Notes: Was killed during the Siege of Bar-le-Duc.

Research Notes: Second husband of Beatrix of Hainaut

127. William I, Count of Nevers 105 (Adèle, of France, Countess of Auxerre103, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1030 and died on 20 Jun 1100 about age 70.

William married Ermengarde,152 daughter of Renaud, Count of Tonnerre and Unknown, in 1045.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 157 M    i. Renaud II de Nevers, Count of Nevers and Auxerre 153 154 was born about 1047 in <Nevers, Nievre>, France and died on 5 Aug 1089 about age 42.

128. Philip I, of France (Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born on 23 May 1052 and died on 30 Jul 1108 at age 56.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Anne of Kiev:

Philip (May 23 , 1052 - July 30 , 1108 ) - Anne is credited with bringing the name Philip to Western Europe . She imported this Greek name (Philippos, from philos (love) and hippos (horse), meaning "the one that love horses") from her Eastern Orthodox culture.

129. Emma 108 (Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1054.

130. Robert (Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1055 and died about 1060 about age 5.

Research Notes: Source: Anne of Kiev. Died in childhood

131. Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France 109 110 (Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1057 and died on 18 Oct 1102 in Tarsus, Cilicia, (Turkey) at age 45. Other names for Hugh were Hugh of Vermandois, Hugues "le Grand" de France, Hugh Magnus, and Hugh de Vermandois.

Death Notes: Died on crusade.

Research Notes: Duke of France and Burgundy, Marquis of Orleans, Count of Amiens, Chaumont, Paris, Valois, and Vermandois. He was a leader of the First Crusade.

First husband of Adelaide de Vermandois.

From Wikipedia - Hugh of Vermandois :

Hugh of Vermandois (1053 - October 18 , 1101 ), was son to King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev , and the younger brother of King Philip I of France . He was in his own right Count of Vermandois . William of Tyre called him "Hugh Magnus", Hugh the Great, but he was an ineffectual leader and soldier, great only in his boasting. Indeed, Sir Steven Runciman is certain that "Magnus" is a copyist's error, and should be "minus", "the younger" (referring to Hugh as younger brother of the King of France).

In early 1096 Hugh and Philip began discussing the First Crusade after news of the Council of Clermont reached them in Paris . Although Philip could not participate, as he had been excommunicated , Hugh was said to have been influenced to join the Crusade after an eclipse of the moon on February 11 , 1096.

That summer Hugh's army left France for Italy , where they would cross the Adriatic Sea into territory of the Byzantine Empire , unlike the other Crusader armies who were travelling by land. On the way, many of the soldiers led by fellow Crusader Emicho joined Hugh's army after Emicho was defeated by the Hungarians , whose land he had been pillaging. Hugh crossed the Adriatic from Bari in Southern Italy , but many of his ships were destroyed in a storm off the Byzantine port of Dyrrhachium .
Hugh and most of his army was rescued and escorted to Constantinople , where they arrived in November of 1096. Prior to his arrival, Hugh sent an arrogant, insulting letter to Eastern Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus , according to the Emperor's biography by his daughter (the Alexiad), demanding that Alexius meet with him:

"Know, O King, that I am King of Kings, and superior to all, who are under the sky. You are now permitted to greet me, on my arrival, and to receive me with magnificence, as befits my nobility."

Alexius was already wary of the armies about to arrive, after the unruly mob led by Peter the Hermit had passed through earlier in the year. Alexius kept Hugh in custody in a monastery until Hugh swore an oath of vassalage to him.

After the Crusaders had successfully made their way across Seljuk territory and, in 1098 , captured Antioch , Hugh was sent back to Constantinople to appeal for reinforcements from Alexius. Alexius was uninterested, however, and Hugh, instead of returning to Antioch to help plan the siege of Jerusalem , went back to France. There he was scorned for not having fulfilled his vow as a Crusader to complete a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and Pope Paschal II threatened to excommunicate him. He joined the minor Crusade of 1101 , but was wounded in battle with the Turks in September, and died of his wounds in October in Tarsus .

Family and children
He married Adele of Vermandois, the daughter of Herbert IV of Vermandois and Adele of Valois .They had nine children:
Count Raoul I of Vermandois
Henry, senior of Chaumont-en-Vexin , (d. 1130 ).
Simon, Bishop of Noyon
Elizabeth de Vermandois , married
Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester ;
William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey
Matilde de Vermandois, married Raoul I of Beaugency
Constance de Vermandois, married Godefroy de la Ferte-Gaucher
Agnes de Vermandois, married Margrave Boniface del Vasto . Mother of Adelaide del Vasto .
Beatrix de Vermandois, married Hugh III of Gournay-en-Bray
Emma de Vermandois


Hugh married Adelaide de Vermandois, Countess of Vermandois and Valois,155 156 157 daughter of Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois and Valois and Adela, of Valois and Vexin, before 1080. Adelaide was born about 1065 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France> and died on 28 Sep 1120 in <Vermandois> about age 55. Another name for Adelaide was Adele of Vermandois.

Marriage Notes: After 1067 and before 1080?
FamilySearch has m. abt 1064.

Death Notes: Possibly d. 1124

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

[Adele of Vermandois] was the heiress of the county of Vermandois, and descendant of a junior patrilineal line of descent from Charlemagne . The first Count of Vermandois was Pepin of Vermandois . He was a son of Bernard of Italy , grandson of Pippin of Italy and great-grandson of Charlemagne and Hildegard .

As such, Elizabeth had distinguished ancestry and connections. Her father was a younger brother of Philip I of France and her mother was among the last Carolingians . She was also distantly related to the Kings of England , the Dukes of Normandy , the Counts of Flanders and through her Carolingian ancestors to practically every major nobleman in Western Europe .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 158 F    i. Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester 155 158 was born about 1081 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France>, died on 13 Feb 1131 in England about age 50, and was buried in Lewes, Sussex, England.

+ 159 M    ii. Raoul I, Count of Vermandois .

+ 160 M    iii. Henry, of Chaumont-en-Vexin died in 1130.

+ 161 M    iv. Simon, Bishop of Noyon .

+ 162 F    v. Matilde de Vermandois .

+ 163 F    vi. Constance de Vermandois .

+ 164 F    vii. Agnes de Vermandois .

+ 165 F    viii. Beatrix de Vermandois .

+ 166 F    ix. Emma de Vermandois .

132. Robert I, Count of Flanders 113 114 (Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born between 1029 and 1035 and died on 13 Oct 1093 in Kassel. Another name for Robert was Robert "the Friesian."

Birth Notes: Wikipedia has b. 1033.

Death Notes: May have died on 3 Oct 1093.

Research Notes: Second son of Baldwin V of Flanders. Second husband of Gertrude of Saxony.

From Wikipedia - Robert I, Count of Flanders :

Robert I of Flanders (1029/1032 - 13 October 1093 in Kassel ), known as Robert the Frisian, was count of Flanders from 1071 to 1092.


History
He was the younger son of Baldwin V of Flanders and Adèle , a daughter of King Robert II of France .

Robert was originally intended to secure the northern borders of Flanders by his marriage to Gertrude of Saxony , Dowager Countess of Holland, but after his brother's death in 1070 he displaced his nephews and became count of Flanders.

Family
By Gertrude of Saxony he had five children:
Robert II
Adela (d. 1115), who first married king Canute IV of Denmark , and was the mother of Charles the Good , later count of Flanders. She then married Roger Borsa , duke of Apulia .
Gertrude, who married 1) Henry III, Count of Louvain and had 4 children.[1] 2) Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine , and was the mother of Thierry of Alsace , also later count of Flanders
Philip of Loo, whose illegitimate son William of Ypres was also a claimant to the county of Flanders
Ogiva, abbess of Messines

Count of Flanders
Robert's nephew Arnulf III (son of Baldwin VI of Flanders ) succeeded his father in 1070 and was supported by his mother Richilde, Countess of Mons and Hainaut . However, Robert challenged Arnulf's succession to the throne of Flanders and began rallying support mainly in northern Flanders (where the bulk of Arnulf's forces were located). Arnulf's ranks contained individuals such as Count Eustace II of Boulogne , Count Eustace III of Boulogne , and Godfrey of Bouillon .

Moreover, Arnulf was supported by King Philip I of France since Philip's aunt, Adela , married Baldwin V of Flanders . A contingent of ten Norman knights led by William FitzOsborn were among the forces sent by Philip to aid Arnulf. Robert's forces attacked Arnulf's numerically superior army at Cassel before it could organize. Arnulf himself was killed along with William FitzOsborn while Richilde was captured by Robert's forces. However, Robert himself was captured by Eustace II. Ultimately, Richilde was exchanged for Robert's freedom.[1] As a result of the battle Robert became count of Flanders.

Robert married Gertrude, of Saxony,159 160 daughter of Bernard II, Duke in Saxony and Eilika, of Schweinfurt, in 1063. Gertrude was born about 1030 and died on 4 Aug 1113 about age 83. Another name for Gertrude was Gertrude Billung.

Research Notes: Widow of Florent I (Floris I), Count of Holland.

From Wikipedia - Gertrude of Saxony :

Gertrude of Saxony (also known as Gertrude Billung) (c. 1030 - August 4 , 1113 ), was the daughter of Bernard II, Duke of Saxony and Eilika of Schweinfurt . She married Floris I, Count of Holland (c. 1017 - June 28 , 1061 ) c. 1050, and upon his death, her son Dirk V became Count of Holland . Since he was still young, she became regent.

When Dirk V came into power, William I, Bishop of Utrecht , took advantage of the situation, occupying territory that he had claimed in Holland . Gertrude and her son withdrew to the islands of Frisia (Zeeland), leaving William to occupy the disputed lands.

In 1063 Gertrude married Robert of Flanders (Robert the Frisian), the second son of Baldwin V of Flanders . This act gave Dirk the Imperial Flanders as an appanage - including the islands of Frisia west of the Frisian Scheldt . She and her husband then acted as co-regents for the young count.

Family and children
She had a total of seven children with Floris I:
Albrecht (b. ca. 1051), a canon in Liege .
Dirk V (ca. 1052, Vlaardingen -17 June 1091 ).
Pieter (b. ca. 1053), a canon in Liége.
Bertha (ca. 1055-1094, Montreuil-sur-Mer ), who married Philip I of France in 1072.
Floris (b. ca. 1055), a canon in Liége.
Machteld (b. ca. 1057)
Adela (b. ca. 1061), who married Count Baudouin I of Guînes .

From her second marriage to Robert I she had five children:
Robert II of Flanders (c. 1065 - October 5 , 1111 ).
Adela (d.1115), who first married king Canute IV of Denmark , and was the mother of Charles the Good , later count of Flanders. She then married Roger Borsa , duke of Apulia .
Gertrude, who married Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine , and was the mother of Thierry of Alsace , also later count of Flanders.
Philip of Loo, whose illegitimate son William of Ypres was also a claimant to the county of Flanders.
Ogiva, abbess of Messines.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 167 F    i. Gertrude, of Flanders 161 was born about 1070 and died in 1117 about age 47.

133. Matilda, of Flanders 115 116 (Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1032 in Flanders, died on 2 Nov 1083 in Caen, Normandy, France about age 51, and was buried in Abbaye aux Dames, Caen, Normandy, France. Another name for Matilda was Maud of Flanders.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots gives both abt. 1031 and 1032.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots gives 1 Nov 1083 and 2 Nov 1083.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Matilda of Flanders :

Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 - 2 November 1083) was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England and the wife of William I the Conqueror .

She was the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Flanders , and Adèle (1000-1078/9), daughter of Robert II of France .

At 4'2" (127 cm) tall, Matilda was England's smallest queen, according to the Guinness Book of Records . According to legend, Matilda (or "Maud") told the representative of William, Duke of Normandy (later king of England as William the Conqueror), who had come asking for her hand, that she was far too high-born (being descended from King Alfred the Great of England) to consider marrying a bastard. When that was repeated to him, William rode from Normandy to Bruges , found Matilda on her way to church, dragged her off her horse by her long braids, threw her down in the street in front of her flabbergasted attendants, and then rode off. Another version of the story states that William rode to Matilda's father's house in Lille, threw her to the ground in her room (again, by the braids), and hit her (or violently shook her) before leaving. Naturally Baldwin took offense at this but, before they drew swords, Matilda settled the matter [1] by deciding to marry him, and even a papal ban (on the grounds of consanguinity ) did not dissuade her. They were married in 1053.

There were rumours that Matilda had been in love with the English ambassador to Flanders , a Saxon named Brihtric, who declined her advances. Whatever the truth of the matter, years later when she was acting as Regent for William in England, she used her authority to confiscate Brihtric's lands and throw him into prison, where he died.

When William was preparing to invade England, Matilda outfitted a ship, the Mora, out of her own money and gave it to him. For many years it was thought that she had some involvement in the creation of the Bayeux Tapestry (commonly called La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde in French), but historians no longer believe that; it seems to have been commissioned by William's half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux , and made by English artists in Kent .

Matilda bore William eleven children, and he was believed to have been faithful to her, at least up until the time their son Robert rebelled against his father and Matilda sided with Robert against William. After she died, in 1083 at the age of 51, William became tyrannical, and people blamed it on his having lost her. Contrary to the belief that she was buried at St. Stephen's, also called l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes in Caen , Normandy , where William was eventually buried, she is intombed at l'Abbaye aux Dames , which is the Sainte-Trinité church, also in Caen. Of particular interest is the 11th century slab, a sleek black stone decorated with her epitaph, marking her grave at the rear of the church. It is of special note since the grave marker for William was replaced as recently as the beginning of the 19th century. In 1961, their graves were opened and their bones measured, proving their physical statures. [2]

Children
Some doubt exists over how many daughters there were. This list includes some entries which are obscure.
Robert Curthose (c. 1054 - 1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano , daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano
Adeliza (or Alice) (c. 1055 - ?), reportedly betrothed to Harold II of England (Her existence is in some doubt.)
Cecilia (or Cecily) (c. 1056 - 1126), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen
William Rufus (1056 - 1100), King of the English
Richard, Duke of Bernay (1057 - c. 1081), killed by a stag in New Forest
Adela (c. 1062 - 1138), married Stephen, Count of Blois
Agatha (c. 1064 - c. 1080), betrothed to (1) Harold of Wessex , (2) Alfonso VI of Castile
Constance (c. 1066 - 1090), married Alan IV Fergent , Duke of Brittany ; poisoned, possibly by her own servants
Matilda (very obscure, her existence is in some doubt)
Henry Beauclerc (1068-1135), King of England, married (1) Edith of Scotland , daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland , (2) Adeliza of Louvain
NOTE:
Gundred
(c. 1063 - 1085), wife of William de Warenne (c. 1055 - 1088), was formerly thought of as being yet another of Matilda's daughters, with speculation that she was William I's full daughter, a stepdaughter, or even a foundling or adopted daughter. However, this connection to William I has now been firmly debunked--see Gundred's discussion page for further information.
Matilda was a seventh generation direct descendent of Alfred the Great . Her marriage to William strengthened his claim to the throne. All sovereigns of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom have been descended from her, as is the present Queen Elizabeth II .




Matilda married William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, King of England,99 137 son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy and Harlette de Falaise, in 1053 in Cathedral de Notre Dame, Normandie, France. William was born about 1028 in Falaise, Normandy, France and died on 9 Sep 1087 in Rouen, Normandy, France about age 59. Other names for William were William of Normandy and William I King of England.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia (William the Conqueror) and thepeerage.com give b. in 1027 or 1028.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 168 F    i. Adela, of Normandy 162 163 was born between 1062 and 1067 and died about 8 Mar 1137.

+ 169 M    ii. Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England 164 165 was born between May 1068 and May 1069 in <Selby, Yorkshire>, England and died on 1 Dec 1135 in St. Denis-le-Fermont, France.

134. Judith, of Normandy 117 (Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1028 and died on 4 Mar 1094 at age 66.

Judith married Tostig, Earl of Northumbria.166 Tostig died on 25 Sep 1066.

Research Notes: First husband of Judith of Normandy.

Judith next married Welf IV, Duke of Bavaria 167 in 1071. Welf died on 6 Nov 1101.

Research Notes: Second husband of Judith of Normandy.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 170 M    i. Henry I, Duke of Bavaria 168 was born in 1074 and died on 13 Dec 1126 at age 52.

135. Henry, of Burgundy 119 120 121 (Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1035 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died about 1071 about age 36. Another name for Henry was Henri Comte de Bourgogne.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 27 Jan. 1066/7 and d. 27 Jan.1066/1074. Wikipedia has d. abt. 1071.

Research Notes: His wife was NOT named Sibylle of Barcelona, daughter of Berenger Ramon I, according to Wikipedia.

From Wikipedia - Henry of Burgundy :

Henry of Burgundy (1035 - c. 1071 ) was the son and heir of Robert I , duke of Burgundy . He died shortly before his father and failed to succeed in Burgundy. The name of his wife is unknown (that it was Sibil has been discredited) as is her origin, although a connection to the Counts of Barcelona has been hypothesized. Their children were:
Hugh I, Duke of Burgundy (1057-1093)
Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy (1058-1103)
Robert, bishop of Langres (1059-1111)
Helie, a nun (b. 1061)
Beatrice (b. 1063), married Guy I, count of Vignory
Reginald, abbot of St Pierre (1065-1092)
Henry, Count of Portugal (1066-1112), who became a vassal of León and ruler of the county of Portugal in 1093; his son would be Afonso Henriques , first king of Portugal

Noted events in his life were:

• "Le damoiseau de Bourgogne":

Henry married < >, [Not Sibylle of Barcelona].

Children from this marriage were:

+ 171 M    i. Hugh I, Duke of Burgundy was born in 1057 and died in 1093 at age 36.

+ 172 M    ii. Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy 169 170 was born about 1058 and died on 23 Mar 1103 in Cilicia about age 45.

+ 173 M    iii. Robert, Bishop of Langres was born in 1059 and died in 1111 at age 52.

+ 174 F    iv. Beatrice, of Burgundy 171 was born about 1063 and died after 1110.

+ 175 M    v. Reginald, Abbot of St. Pierre was born in 1065 and died in 1092 at age 27.

+ 176 M    vi. Henry, of Burgundy, Count of Portugal 121 172 173 was born in 1069 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 1 Nov 1112 at age 43.

+ 177 F    vii. Helie .

136. Constance, of Burgundy 122 123 (Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1046 and died in 1092 at age 46.

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. 1093

Research Notes: Second wife of Alfonso VI.

From Wikipedia - Constance of Burgundy :

Constance of Burgundy (1046 - 1093), was the daughter of Duke Robert I of Burgundy and Helie de Semur-en-Brionnais .
She built a monastery in Burgos for Adelelmus in 1079. She married Alfonso VI of Castile on May 8 , 1079 . They had two children:
Urraca of Castile (1079 - March 8 , 1126 ).
Elvira of Castile. Considered to have died young.

Constance married Alfonso VI "the Brave", of Castile, King of Castile and Leon,121 174 175 son of Ferdinand I, King of Castile and Léon and Sancha, Princess of Léon, in 1081. Alfonso was born before Jun 1040 in <Burgos, Castile>, Spain and died on 29 Jun 1109 in Toledo, Castile, Spain. Another name for Alfonso was Alfonso I of Castile.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. 1039

Research Notes: Second husband of Constance of Burgundy.

From Wikipedia - Alfonso VI of León and Castile :

Alfonso VI (before June 1040 - June 29 /July 1 , 1109 ), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile from 1072 following the death of his brother Sancho II . In 1077 he proclaimed himself "Emperor of all Spain ". Much romance has gathered around his name.

Early life
As the second and favorite son of King Ferdinand I of León and Princess Sancha of León , Alfonso was allotted León, while Castile was given to his eldest brother Sancho , and Galicia to his youngest brother García . Sancho was assassinated in 1072. García was dethroned and imprisoned for life the following year.

In the cantar de gesta The Lay of the Cid , he plays the part attributed by medieval poets to the greatest kings, and to Charlemagne himself. He is alternately the oppressor and the victim of heroic and self-willed nobles - the idealized types of the patrons for whom the jongleurs and troubadours sang. He is the hero of a cantar de gesta which, like all but a very few of the early Spanish songs, like the cantar of Bernardo del Carpio and the Infantes of Lara , exists now only in the fragments incorporated in the chronicle of Alfonso the Wise or in ballad form.

His flight from the monastery of Sahagún (Safagún in Leonese language ), where his brother Sancho endeavoured to imprison him, his chivalrous friendship for his host Almamun of Toledo , caballero aunque moro, "a knight although a Moor ", the passionate loyalty of his vassal, Pero (Pedro) Ansúrez, and his brotherly love for his sister Urraca of Zamora , may owe something to the poet who took him as a hero.

They are the answer to the poet of the nobles who represented the king as having submitted to taking a degrading oath at the hands of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid ) to deny intervention in his brother's death in the church of Santa Gadea at Burgos , and as having then persecuted the brave man who defied him.

Marriages and children
Alfonso married at least five times and had two mistresses and a fiancée:

In 1067, two brothers from Iberia are said to have competed for the hand of Agatha , one of the daughters of William I of England and Matilda of Flanders and formerly fiancee of Harold Godwinson . Alfonso proved successful, and was betrothed to Agatha. A nun at the time, Agatha is said to have prayed for death rather than being forced to marry Alphonso, and she died before the marriage could take place.

In 1069, Alfonso married Agnes of Aquitaine , daughter of William VIII of Aquitaine and his second wife Mateoda. They last appear together in May 1077, and then Alfonso appears alone. This suggests that she had died, although Orderic Vitalis reports that in 1109 Alfonso's 'relict' Agnes remarried to Elias I of Maine , leading some to speculate that Alfonso and Agnes had divorced due to consanguinity . It seems more likely that Orderic gave the wrong name to Alfonso's widow, Beatrice. Agnes and Alfonso had no children.

Apparently between his first and second marriages he formed a liaison with Jimena Muñoz , a "most noble" (nobilissima) concubine "derived from royalty" (real generacion). She appears to have been put aside, given land in Ulver, at the time of Alfonso's remarriage. By her Alfonso had two illegitimate daughters, Elvira and Teresa .

His second wife, who he married by May 1080, was Constance of Burgundy , daughter of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy . This marriage initially faced papal opposition, apparently due to her kinship with Agnes. Her reign as queen brought significant Cluniac influences into the kingdom. She died in September or October, 1093, the mother of Alfonso's eldest legitimate daughter Urraca , and of five other children who died in infancy.

Either late in Constance's reign or shortly after her death, Alfonso formed a liaison with a second mistress, Zaida of Seville , said by Iberian Muslim sources to be daughter-in-law of Al Mutamid , the Muslim King of Seville. She fled the fall of Seville for Alfonso's kingdom in 1091, and soon became his lover, having by him Alfonso's only son, Sancho , who, though illegitimate was apparently not born of an adulterous relationship, and hence born after the death of Constance. He would be named his father's heir. Several modern sources have suggested that Zaida, baptised under the name of Isabel, is identical with Alfonso's later wife, queen Isabel (or that she was a second queen Isabel who he married in succession to the first). Zaida/Isabel died in childbirth, but the date is unknown, and it is unclear whether the child being delivered was Sancho, an additional illegitimate child, otherwise unknown, or legitimate daughter Elvira (if Zaida was identical to Queen Isabel).

By April 1095, Alfonso married Bertha. Chroniclers report her as being from Tuscany , Lombardy , or alternatively, say she was French. Several theories have been put forward regarding her origin. Based on political considerations, proposals make her daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy or of Amadeus II of Savoy . She had no children and died in late 1099 (Alfonso first appears without her in mid-January 1100).

Within months, by May 1100, Alfonso again remarried, to Isabel, having by her two daughters, Sancha, (wife of Rodrigo González de Lara ), and Elvira , (who married Roger II of Sicily ). A non-contemporary tomb inscription says she was daughter of a "king Louis of France ", but this is chronologically impossible. It has been speculated that she was of Burgundian origin, but others conclude that Alfonso married his former mistress, Zaida, who had been baptized as Isabel. (In a novel twist, Reilly suggested that there were two successive queens named Isabel: first the French (Burgundian) Isabel, mother of Sancha and Elvira, with Alfonso only later marrying his mistress Zaida (Isabel), after the death of or divorce from the first Isabel.) Alfonso was again widowed in mid-1107.

By May 1108, Alfonso married his last wife, Beatrice . She, as widow of Alfonso, is said to have returned home to France, but nothing else is known of her origin unless she is the woman Orderic named as "Agnes, daughter of William, Duke of Poitou", who as relict of Alfonso, (Agnetem, filiam Guillelmi, Pictavorum ducis, relictam Hildefonsi senioris, Galliciae regis), remarried to Elias of Maine. If this is the case, she is likely daughter of William IX of Aquitaine and niece of Alfonso's first wife. Beatrice had no children by Alfonso.

Alfonso's designated successor, his son Sancho, was slain after being routed at the Battle of Uclés in 1108, making Alfonso's eldest legitimate daughter, the widowed Urraca as his heir. In order to strengthen her position as his successor, Alfonso began negotiations for her to marry her second cousin, Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre , but died before the marriage could take place, Urraca succeeding.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 178 F    i. Urraca, of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon 65 176 177 was born about 1082 in <Burgos, Castile>, Spain and died on 8 Mar 1126 in Saldana, Palencia, Spain about age 44.

137. Hugues de Dammartin, Count of Dammartin 84 127 (Constance Capet109, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1042 in <Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died in 1103 about age 61.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Dammartin-en-Goële :

History
Dammartin is historically important as the seat of a county of which the holders played a considerable part in French history . The earliest recorded count of Dammartin was a certain Hugh, who made himself master of the town in the 10th century; but his dynasty was replaced by another family in the 11th century. Reynald I (Renaud ), count of Dammartin (d. 1227), who was one of the coalition crushed by King Philip Augustus at the battle of Bouvines (1214), left two co-heiresses, of whom the elder, Maud (Matilda or Mahaut), married Philip Hurepel , son of Philip Augustus, and the second, Alix, married Jean de Trie , in whose line the county was reunited after the death of Philip Hurepel's son Alberic. The county passed, through heiresses, to the houses of Fayel and Nanteuil , and in the 15th century was acquired by Antoine de Chabannes (d. 1488), one of the favorites of King Charles VII , by his marriage with Marguerite, heiress of Reynald V of Nanteuil-Aci and Marie of Dammartin. This Antoine de Chabannes, count of Dammartin in right of his wife, fought under the standard of Joan of Arc , became a leader of the Ecorcheurs , took part in the war of the public weal against Louis XI , and then fought for him against the Burgundians . The collegiate church at Dammartin was founded by him in 1480, and his tomb and effigy are in the chancel.

His son, Jean de Chabannes , left three heiresses, of whom the second left a daughter who brought the county to Philippe de Boulainvilliers , by whose heirs it was sold in 1554 to the dukes of Montmorency . In 1632 the county was confiscated by Louis XIII and bestowed on the princes of Conde .

Hugues married Roaide, Countess of Bulles.84 Roaide was born about 1046 in Bulles, Oise, France.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 179 F    i. Aelis de Dammartin 121 was born about 1084 in Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne, France.

138. Richard I FitzGilbert, of Clare and Tonbridge 34 129 130 (Giselbert "Crispin" de110, Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1030 in <Bienfaite>, Normandy, France, was christened in Brionne, Normandy, France, died before Apr 1088 in <Huntingdonshire, England>, and was buried in St. Neot's, Huntingdonshire, England. Other names for Richard were Richard FitzGilbert de Bienfaite, Richard de Clare, Richard FitzGilbert de Clare of Clare and Tonbridge, Richard I Fitz Gilbert of Clare and Tonbridge, and Richard de Tonbridge.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1024, Bienfaite, Normandy, France.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots, line 130-27 (Maud de St. Liz) has d. abt. 1090; line 184-2 has d. bef Apr 1088.
http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019582.htm has d. 1090 in Huntingdon, England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Richard Fitz Gilbert :

Richard FitzGilbert (c. 1030 - 1090), was a Norman lord who participated in the Norman conquest of England in 1066. He was the founder of the English noble family, the de Clares .

Victor at Hastings
Known as "de Bienfaite", "de Clare", and "de Tonbridge", he accompanied his reputed kinsman William, Duke of Normandy into England . He served at the Battle of Hastings , and assisted William in subduing the Anglo-Saxons .

Rewards
He was rewarded with 176 lordships and large grants of land in England, including the right to build the castles of Clare and of Tonbridge . Richard Fitz Gilbert took the name Earl of Clare from one of his lordships in Suffolk , where parts of the wall of Clare Castle still stand.

He served as Joint Chief Justiciar in William's absence, and played a major part in suppressing the revolt of 1075.

Rebel Baron
On William 's death, Richard and other great Norman barons, including Odo of Bayeux , Robert, Count of Mortain , William fitzOsbern and Geoffrey of Coutances, led a rebellion against the rule of William Rufus in order to place Robert Curthose on the throne. However, most Normans in England remained loyal. William Rufus and his army successfully attacked the rebel strongholds at Tonbridge , Pevensey and Rochester .

Death and succession
He died in St. Neot's Priory in 1090. His land was inherited by his son, Gilbert Fitz Richard .

Family
He was the son of Gilbert "Crispin", Count of Brionne .

The reference listed below states that Richard's great grandfather was Richard I of Normandy . Richard's father is also sometimes listed as Robert I "the Devil" , father of William the Conqueror . Sources as far back as the Annals of the Four Masters claim that Richard's great-grandson, Richard "Strongbow", was the direct descendant of Robert "the Devil". Gilbert "Crispin" was a descendant of Robert's cousin, but not Robert himself.

The modern Irish county of County Clare was historically part of the North Munster Gaelic kingdom of Thomond , dominated by the O'Briens, Kings of Thomond. The region was granted to the De Clare family in 1275 and they became Lords of Thomond. When the boundaries of the modern County Clare were fixed by Sir Henry Sidney in 1565, it was named after the De Clares .

Surrey
Richard's Surrey lands had a value of £241: 30% of the value of his English lands. Within Surrey, Richard Fitz Gilbert owned manors in the following places: Albury , Beddington , Bletchingley , Buckland , Chelsham , Chessington , Chipstead , Chivington, Effingham , Apps in Elmbridge , Farleigh , Immerworth (Kingston upon Thames ), Long Ditton , Mickleham , Molesey , Ockley , Old Malden , Shalford , Streatham , Tandridge , Tolworth , Tooting , Walton-on-Thames , Warlingham , Tillingdon, and Woldingham .


Noted events in his life were:

• Seigneur of Bienfaite & Orbec, Normandy:

• Lord of Clare, Suffolk:

Richard married Rohese Giffard,179 180 daughter of Walter II Giffard, 1st Earl of Buckingham and Agnes Ribemont, about 1054. Rohese was born about 1034 in Longueville, Normandy, France and died after 1113. Another name for Rohese was Rohese Gifford.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 180 F    i. Rohese FitzRichard de Clare 34 181 was born about 1055 in Tunbridge, Kent, England and died in 1121 in England about age 66.

+ 181 M    ii. Robert Fitz Richard, Lord of Little Dunmow, Essex 182 183 was born in 1064 and died about 1136 about age 72.

+ 182 M    iii. Gilbert FitzRichard, de Clare 184 185 186 187 was born about 1065 in <Clare, Suffolk>, England and died about 1115 in <England> about age 50.

139. Agnes d'Évreux 90 91 (Richard, Count of Évreux111, Robert II, Count of Évreux88, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1030 in Évreux, Normandy, France. Another name for Agnes was Agnes of Évreux.

Agnes married Simon I de Montfort,90 91 188 son of Amauri, Seigneur de Montfort and Bertrade de Gometz, about 1058 in Normandy, France. Simon was born about 1025 in Montfort L'Amaury, Île-de-France, France, died in 1087 about age 62, and was buried in Épernon, Normandy, France. Other names for Simon were Simon I kEEP Seigneur of Montfort l'Amauri and Simon de Montfort.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Simon I de Montfort :

Simon I de Montfort born about 1025 in Montfort l'Amaury , Ile de France , France and died 1087 . He is buried in Epernon , Normandy , France. He was the son of Amaury de Montfort (c 1000-1031) and Bertrade de Gometz .

Progeny
Simon I first married Isabel de Broyles (b. 1034, Broyes, Marne, France), daughter of Hugh Bardoul. Their children were:
Amauri de Montfort (c. 1056-1089)
Isabel (Elizabeth) de Montfort (b. 1057), who married Raoul II de Tosny .[1]
Simon I's second marriage was to Agnes d'Evreux (b. 1030), daughter of Richard d'Evreux of Rouen, Normandy. Their children were:
Bertrade de Montfort (c. 1059-1117), became Queen of France.
Richard de Montfort (c. 1066-1092), slain in attack on abbey at Conches.
Simon II de Montfort (c. 1068-1101)
Amaury III of Montfort (c. 1070-1137), married Richude (Richilde) de Hainault and Agnes de Garland.
Guillaume de Montfort (c. 1073-1101)
Adeliza de Montfort (b. 1075)[2]

----------------
From Wikipedia - Épernon :

Épernon is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir department and Centre region of France . It lies some 27 km northeast of Chartres , at the confluence of the Drouette and the Guesle .

History
Épernon was originally the home of the counts of Montfort and Amaury . In the 11th century, they raised the fortresses of Épernon and Montfort for the protection of the Château de St Léger and granted a charter to the town. Four doors gave access to the medieval city: the door of Chartres, the door of Geolle, the door of Paris and the door of Beauce . Above the doors an inscription paid homage to the village that previously existed there: Autrist fut jadis mon nom/A présent on me nomme Espierremont (Autrist was once my name/now my name is Espierremont). Charters of the 12th and 13th century variously refer to the town as Sparno and Sparnonum, but by the 14th century it had evolved to Esparnon and Espernon, very close to its present appellation.

In the 13th century it became an independent lordship, which remained attached to the crown of Navarre till, in the 16th century, it was sold by Henry III of France to Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette , for whom it was raised to the rank of a duchy in 1581. De Nogaret's second son, Bernard (1592-1661), succeeded his father to the dukedom and after his death, the title was borne by the families of Goth and of Pardaillan .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 183 F    i. Bertrade, de Montfort 189 was born about 1070 and died on 14 Feb 1117 in <Fontevraud Abbey> about age 47.

+ 184 M    ii. Amaury de Montfort 90 was born about 1070 in <Montfort Amaury, Île-de-France, France> and died in 1137 about age 67.

140. Alice, of Normandy 7 132 (Richard III, Duke of Normandy112, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1021 in <Normandy, France>. Another name for Alice was Alix de Normandie.

Research Notes: Illegitimate daughter of Richard III.

Alice married Ranulph I, Vicomte of the Bessin,7 190 son of Anschitil, Vicomte of the Bessin and Unknown,. Ranulph was born about 1017 in <Bayeux, Calvados, Normandy, France>. Another name for Ranulph was Ranulf Count of Bayeux.

Research Notes: Fought at the Battle of Val-es-Dunes in 1047

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132A-24 (Alice of Normandy)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 185 M    i. Ranulph II, Vicomte of Bayeux in Normandy 7 191 192 was born about 1048 in <Normandy, France> and died after Apr 1089.

141. Guillaume I de Bourgogne 65 133 (Adelais, de Normandie113, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1040 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 12 Nov 1087 in France about age 47. Another name for Guillaume was William I "the Great" Count Palantine of Burgundy, Count of Mâcon.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 11 Nov 1087

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132-24

Guillaume married Stephanie, de Longwy 84 193 between 1049 and 1057. Stephanie was born about 1035 in <Longwy, Meurthe-et-Moselle>, France and died after 1088. Other names for Stephanie were Etiennette of Barcelona and Stephanie of Barcelona.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132-24 (William I).

From Line 144-22 (William I): "Stephanie, parentage NN. (Note: Prof. David H. Kelley believes her parentage unproven (2003). De Vajay, in Annales de Bourgogne vol. 32 (1960) 258-261, identifies Stephanie (Etiennette) as dau. of Clemence de Foix & Albert de Longwy, Duke of Lorraine, d. 1048. Clemence is identified as dau. of Bernard I Roger, Comte de Foix, d. 1035, & Garside de Bigorre; & Bernard as son of Roger I de Carcassonne & wife Adelaide. Moriarty, cit., supplies pedigree charts for these families, but does not agree with de Vajay as to her identity. Garnier (table XXVIII) shows her as dau. of Raymond II, Count of Barcelona)."
----
FamilySearch gives her name as Stephanie (Etiennette) of Barcelona, daughter of Raimund Berenger II (III), Count of Barcelona and Mathilda (Maud) d'Apulia.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 186 M    i. Raymond, of Burgundy, Count of Amous 194 195 was born about 1060 in <Dijon>, France and died on 26 Mar 1107 in Grajal do Campos, Léon, Spain about age 47.

+ 187 F    ii. Ermentrude, of Burgundy 84 196 was born about 1060 in Burgundy, France and died after 8 Mar 1105.

+ 188 F    iii. Gisele, of Burgundy 121 197 was born about 1070 in <Bourgogne, Champagne, France> and died after 1133.

+ 189 F    iv. Sibylle, of Burgundy-Ivrea 198 died after 1103.


142. William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, King of England 99 137 (Robert I, Duke of Normandy114, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1028 in Falaise, Normandy, France and died on 9 Sep 1087 in Rouen, Normandy, France about age 59. Other names for William were William of Normandy and William I King of England.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia (William the Conqueror) and thepeerage.com give b. in 1027 or 1028.

William married Matilda, of Flanders,115 116 daughter of Baldwin V, de Lille, Count of Flanders and Adele Capet, Princess of France, in 1053 in Cathedral de Notre Dame, Normandie, France. Matilda was born about 1032 in Flanders, died on 2 Nov 1083 in Caen, Normandy, France about age 51, and was buried in Abbaye aux Dames, Caen, Normandy, France. Another name for Matilda was Maud of Flanders.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots gives both abt. 1031 and 1032.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots gives 1 Nov 1083 and 2 Nov 1083.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Matilda of Flanders :

Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 - 2 November 1083) was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England and the wife of William I the Conqueror .

She was the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Flanders , and Adèle (1000-1078/9), daughter of Robert II of France .

At 4'2" (127 cm) tall, Matilda was England's smallest queen, according to the Guinness Book of Records . According to legend, Matilda (or "Maud") told the representative of William, Duke of Normandy (later king of England as William the Conqueror), who had come asking for her hand, that she was far too high-born (being descended from King Alfred the Great of England) to consider marrying a bastard. When that was repeated to him, William rode from Normandy to Bruges , found Matilda on her way to church, dragged her off her horse by her long braids, threw her down in the street in front of her flabbergasted attendants, and then rode off. Another version of the story states that William rode to Matilda's father's house in Lille, threw her to the ground in her room (again, by the braids), and hit her (or violently shook her) before leaving. Naturally Baldwin took offense at this but, before they drew swords, Matilda settled the matter [1] by deciding to marry him, and even a papal ban (on the grounds of consanguinity ) did not dissuade her. They were married in 1053.

There were rumours that Matilda had been in love with the English ambassador to Flanders , a Saxon named Brihtric, who declined her advances. Whatever the truth of the matter, years later when she was acting as Regent for William in England, she used her authority to confiscate Brihtric's lands and throw him into prison, where he died.

When William was preparing to invade England, Matilda outfitted a ship, the Mora, out of her own money and gave it to him. For many years it was thought that she had some involvement in the creation of the Bayeux Tapestry (commonly called La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde in French), but historians no longer believe that; it seems to have been commissioned by William's half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux , and made by English artists in Kent .

Matilda bore William eleven children, and he was believed to have been faithful to her, at least up until the time their son Robert rebelled against his father and Matilda sided with Robert against William. After she died, in 1083 at the age of 51, William became tyrannical, and people blamed it on his having lost her. Contrary to the belief that she was buried at St. Stephen's, also called l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes in Caen , Normandy , where William was eventually buried, she is intombed at l'Abbaye aux Dames , which is the Sainte-Trinité church, also in Caen. Of particular interest is the 11th century slab, a sleek black stone decorated with her epitaph, marking her grave at the rear of the church. It is of special note since the grave marker for William was replaced as recently as the beginning of the 19th century. In 1961, their graves were opened and their bones measured, proving their physical statures. [2]

Children
Some doubt exists over how many daughters there were. This list includes some entries which are obscure.
Robert Curthose (c. 1054 - 1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano , daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano
Adeliza (or Alice) (c. 1055 - ?), reportedly betrothed to Harold II of England (Her existence is in some doubt.)
Cecilia (or Cecily) (c. 1056 - 1126), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen
William Rufus (1056 - 1100), King of the English
Richard, Duke of Bernay (1057 - c. 1081), killed by a stag in New Forest
Adela (c. 1062 - 1138), married Stephen, Count of Blois
Agatha (c. 1064 - c. 1080), betrothed to (1) Harold of Wessex , (2) Alfonso VI of Castile
Constance (c. 1066 - 1090), married Alan IV Fergent , Duke of Brittany ; poisoned, possibly by her own servants
Matilda (very obscure, her existence is in some doubt)
Henry Beauclerc (1068-1135), King of England, married (1) Edith of Scotland , daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland , (2) Adeliza of Louvain
NOTE:
Gundred
(c. 1063 - 1085), wife of William de Warenne (c. 1055 - 1088), was formerly thought of as being yet another of Matilda's daughters, with speculation that she was William I's full daughter, a stepdaughter, or even a foundling or adopted daughter. However, this connection to William I has now been firmly debunked--see Gundred's discussion page for further information.
Matilda was a seventh generation direct descendent of Alfred the Great . Her marriage to William strengthened his claim to the throne. All sovereigns of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom have been descended from her, as is the present Queen Elizabeth II .


(Duplicate Line. See Person 133)

143. Adelaide, of Normandy, Countess of Aumale 138 139 140 (Robert I, Duke of Normandy114, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1030 and died between 1081 and 1090. Other names for Adelaide were Adela of Normandy, Countess of Aumale and Adeliza Countess of Aumale.

Research Notes: Sister of William I the Conqueror, also illegitimate.

Adelaide married Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu, son of Hugh II, Count of Pontieu and Bertha, of Aumale,. Enguerrand died in 1053 in Arques.

Death Notes: Slain at Battle of Arques

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 130-24 (Adelaide)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 190 F    i. Judith, of Lens 42 145 199 was born in 1054 in <Lens, Artois>, France.

Adelaide next married Lambert, of Boulogne, Count of Lens in Artois. Lambert died in 1054 in Lille, France.

Death Notes: Slain in the Battle of Lille

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 130-24 (Adelaide)

Adelaide next married Eudes, Count of Champagne and Aumale, Earl of Holderness 200 between 1054 and 1056.

144. Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon 47 141 (Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1050 in Le-Neuf-Marché-en-Lions and died about 1125 about age 75. Another name for Bernard was Bernard of Newmarket, Lord of Brecon.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1070

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Bernard de Neufmarché :

Bernard of Neufmarché or Newmarket (c. 1050 - c. 1125) was "the first of the original conquerors of Wales ."[1] He was a minor Norman lord who rose to power in the Welsh Marches before successfully undertaking the invasion and conquest of the Kingdom of Brycheiniog between 1088 and 1095. Out of the ruins of the Welsh kingdom he created the Anglo-Norman lordship of Brecon .

Coming to England
Because Bernard's family had attachments to the monastery of Saint-Evroul-sur-Ouche , the monkish chronicler Orderic Vitalis of that foundation had special knowledge of him and his family, though this still does not reduce the general obscurity of his origins or his life when compared to the richer Marcher lords , like the great Roger of Montgomery .[2] Bernard was the son of the minor and incompetent Norman baron Geoffrey de Neufmarché and Ada de Heugelville,[3] and he was born at the castle of Le-Neuf-Marché-en-Lions on the frontier between Normandy and Beauvais .[4] His ancestors on his mother's side had founded the town of Aufay south of Dieppe on the Sie , while his paternal grandfather, Turketil had served the young William II of Normandy as a guardian and was killed in that capacity. On his mother's side he also descended from Richard II of Normandy .[5]

The question of Bernard's participation in the Battle of Hastings and therefore in the Norman Invasion is subject to debate.[4] While Bernard had close family connexions to the port of Saint-Valery-sur-Somme from which William's invading fleet launched, Bernard himself was not the ruler of that city and need not have been in the fleet. He had later connexions with Battle Abbey : he established a cell of that abbey in Brecon, but that may have been an analogous foundation intended to mark his conquest of Brycheiniog.[6] Bernard's peculiar absence from the Domesday Book more or less damns the case for his presence at Hastings, for it is impossible that a noble participant in the victorious battle should not have received land to be recorded in Domesday if he was still living in 1087.[6]


Rise to power
Bernard was finally rewarded by the king, then William II of Normandy, in 1086 or 1087. He received lands in Herefordshire and lands which had devolved to the crown with the deaths of Gilbert fitz Thorold and Alfred of Marlborough .[7] Gilbert's lands were concentrated in Herefordshire and included the manors of Bach , Middlewood , and Harewood in the Golden Valley and the castles of Dorstone , Snodhill , and Urishay connecting Clifford Castle to Ewyas Harold , which belonged to Alfred's lordship.[8] Among Bernard's acquisitions from Gilbert was the domus defensabilis of Eardisley . From Alfred he received Pembridge , Burghill , and Brinsop .[6] Of these it should be noted that Snodhill was not founded until the twelfth century and then became the caput of the honour of Chandos . Bernard was also established in Speen and Newbury in Berkshire and Brinsop and Burghill in Herefordshire sometime before 1079. Both these latter vills were held from his honour of Brecon in the twelfth century. Bernard's ommission from Domesday is especially peculiar there. It is possible that he had some kind of exemption.

Probably as a consequence of his rapid rise in the marches, Bernard attracted the attention of Osbern fitz Richard , who gave him his daughter, Agnes (Nest), whose mother was the Welsh princess Nest, daughter of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn and Edith of Mercia ,[3] in marriage sometime before 1099.[9] She brought with her a dowry of Berrington and Little Hereford .
All of Bernard's estates lay in the valley of the river Wye and along an old Roman road which led from Watling Street to Y Gaer and on into Brycheiniog. The military possibilities of that road could only have encouraged his subsequent ventures into Wales.[10]

Conquest of Brycheiniog
Bernard joined the rebellion of the marcher lords against William Rufus at Lent in 1088.[11] Bernard escaped without recorded punishment and the king probably conceded the marcher lords the right to expand their lands by conquest at the expense of the Welsh buffer kingdoms of Brycheiniog, Morgannwg , and Gwynllwg .[12] Shortly after the settlement with the king, Bernard spearheaded an invasion of Brycheiniog which was to lead eventually to its conquest. Before the end of the year, though, he had captured Glasbury , for he issued a charter for lands near that place to the abbey of Saint Peter's at Gloucester (Autumn 1088).[6]

The chronology of events at this juncture is often confused. Bernard may well have already been in power in Brycheiniog by 1088 if he had already inherited a claim to it after the defeat of Roger de Breteuil , Earl of Hereford , in 1075. In 1088 the king, William Rufus, confirmed a previous charter of Bernard's stating that he had already made an exchange "within his lordship of Brycheiniog" at Glasbury. He also already held Castell Dinas which had probably been built by the Earl of Hereford before 1075.

After the initial conquest of 1088, Bernard continued warring with Brycheiniog until 1090, probably supported by Richard fitz Pons , the lord of Clifford.[13] Talgarth was captured early and a castle was constructed at Bronllys where the rivers Dulais and Llyfni meet, a site probably central to the llys of the tywysog of the commote of Bronllys.[13] By 1091 Bernard had reached the valley of the Usk , which was at the centre of the kingdom which was to become his own principality.

There is some discrepancy in this description of events also. Richard Fitz Pons was lord of Llandovery , which he had reached probably through Glamorgan , already by 1088. Bronllys Castle may not have been built until 1144, when Roger Fitzmiles , Earl of Hereford, is first recorded granting it as a five knights' fee mesne barony to Walter de Clifford , son of Richard Fitz Pons.

According to much later accounts and reconstructions, the accuracy of which is very dubious but which contain some references to verifiable history, the king of Brycheiniog, Bleddyn ap Maenarch , allied with the king of Deheubarth , Rhys ap Tewdwr , in 1093 (or perhaps 1094) and tried to attack the forces of Bernard which were building a castle at Brecon on the Usk and Honddu in the centre of a great plain in his kingdom where several Roman viae met.[14] Bleddyn led a charge up the hill, but the Normans defeated the Welsh and Rhys was killed in battle. Brecknock Priory , which was later founded at the site of the battle, may have been built on the spot where Rhys supposedly fell.[15] Bleddyn died not long after and Bernard was able to advance over the whole of Brycheiniog.

Reliable historical records refer to no king of Brycheiniog after a Tewdwr ab Elise who died after 934. Certainly there is no contemporary reference to a Bleddyn ap Maenarch. The Welsh Bruts simply state that "Rhys ap Tewdwr, king of Deheubarth, was slain by the Frenchmen who were inhabiting Brycheiniog." This passage lends evidence to the belief that the conquest of Brycheiniog was mostly finished by Eastertide 1093 and that the main effect of the battle of Brecon was to open the way to the conquest of Deheubarth.

Pacification and administration of Brycheiniog
He followed the Usk down to Ystradyw and took it, which incited the bishops of Llandaff to protest because the annexation of Ystradyw removed it from their diocese and brought it into the lordship of Brecon, which was under the episcopal authority of Saint David's .[16] In Spring 1094, the southern Welsh rose in revolt against the Normans that had come to dominate them. Brycheiniog was unaffected and the Normans of that region launched a counterattack from Ystrad Tywy and Cantref Bychan which devastated Kidwelly and Gower but did not put down the revolt.[16] In 1095 it spread to Brycheiniog and the Welsh of the countryside, allied with their compatriots of Gwynllwg and Gwent took back control of the province while the Normans were forced into their fortified centres.
Two expeditions from Glamorgan came to the rescue of the garrisons of Brycheiniog. The first was crushed in battle at Celli Carnant , but the second defeated the rebels at Aber Llech .[17] What followed was the complete encastellation of Brycheiniog. Among the castles possibly built during Bernard's lordship to defend the entrances to Brycheiniog from the southeast were Tretower , Blaen Llyfni (not attested before 1207-1215), and Crickhowell .

Bernard also extensively enfeoffed his followers with Welsh land.[17] Richard fitz Pons may have been enfeoffed at Cantref Selyff on the western border of Brycheiniog and immediately he began in miniature the process whereby Bernard had come to rule Brycheiniog.[17] However, Richard's son Walter is the first recorded landholder at Cantref Selyff. Furthermore, Bernard enfeoffed the sons of the king he had displaced in the less habitable land, thereby creating a loyal Welsh aristocracy and extracting more out of his land than the Normans otherwise knew how to do.[18] The Normans lived predominantly in the valleys and lowlands in an agrarian society while the Welsh kept to the hills and mountains living pastorally, thus creating an overall economic gain.[19] Among Bleddyn's sons, Gwrgan received Blaen Llyfni and Aberllyfni while Caradog received an unnamed hill country, and Drymbenog, Bleddyn's brother, was given land neighbouring that of Richard fitz Pons.

Death and succession
By the time of his death around 1125, Bernard had established a flourishing borough around his castle of Brecon. Henry I had married Bernard's daughter Sybil to Miles Fitz Walter , the sheriff of Gloucestershire , in 1121 and passed a significant portion of Bernard's honour to him as a dowry, including Hay-on-Wye Castle.[20] According to Giraldus Cambrensis this was because Mahel de Neufmarché the son and heir of Bernard had mutilated the paramour of his mother. In vengeance his mother, Princess Nesta, swore to King Henry I that her son was illegitimate. Henry was therefore able by law and custom to pass over Mahel and give the land to his friend and confident Miles Fitz Walter with Bernard's legal heiress in marriage.

Bernard married Nesta,62 201 daughter of Osborn Fitz Richard, of Richard's Castle, Hereford and Nest verch Gruffydd,. Nesta was born about 1079 in Herefordshire, England. Other names for Nesta were Nest and Nest verch Osbern.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 191 F    i. Sibyl de Neufmarché 62 202 was born about 1096 in <Aberconwy, Wales> and died after 1143 in Gloucestershire, England.

145. Eysteinn, King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary] 1 143 (Eadgils, King in Uppsala [Semi-Legendary]116, Ohthere, King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]91, Ongentheow, King in Sweden [Semi-legendary]74, Aun "the Old" Jorundsson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]63, Jorund Yngvasson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]53, Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary]44, Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 600 in Sweden. Other names for Eysteinn were Östen King of Sweden and Eystein Adilsson King in Sweden.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eysteinn :

Eysteinn (d. ca 600) was the son of Eadgils and Yrsa of Saxony . He was the father of Ingvar .

Snorri Sturluson relates that Eysteinn ruled Sweden at the time when Hrólf Kraki died in Lejre . It was a troubled time when many sea kings ravaged the Swedish shores. One of those kings was named Sölve and he was from Jutland (but according to Historia Norwegiae he was Geatish , see below). At this time Sölve was pillaging in the Baltic Sea and so he arrived in Lofond (probably the island of Lovön or the Lagunda Hundred ), where Eysteinn was at a feast. It was night-time and Sölve and his men surrounded the house and set it on fire burning everyone inside to death. Then Sölve arrived at Sigtuna (Old Sigtuna ) and ordered the Swedes to accept him as king. The Swedes refused and gathered an army that fought against Sölve and his men, but they lost after eleven days. The Swedes had to accept him as king for a while until they rebelled and killed him.

Thorsteins saga Víkingssonar makes Eysteinn the father of Anund and grandfather of Ingjald and consequently skips Ingvar's generation. It adds a second son to Eysteinn named Olaf, who was the king of Fjordane in Norway .

Eysteinn married someone.

His child was:

+ 192 M    i. Ingvar "the Tall" Eysteinsson, King in Sweden [Legendary] 203 died about 620.

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146. Erik Edmundsson 42 (Emund Eriksson117, Erik Refillsson93, Refill Bjornsson76, Bjorn "Ironside" Ragnarsson66, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 849 in Sweden and died about 900 about age 51. Another name for Erik was Erik Emundsson.

Erik married someone.

His child was:

+ 193 M    i. Bjorn "the Old" Eriksson, King of Sweden 42 was born about 867 in <Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden> and died about 950 about age 83.

147. Thorstein "the Red" Olafsson 3 (Olaf "the White" Ingjaldsson, King of Ireland118, Ingjald "the White" Helgasson, Petty King in Ireland94, Thora Sigurdsdatter77, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 858 in <Dublin, Dublin, Ireland> and died in 888 in Hvammi, Dala, Iceland about age 30.

Thorstein married Thurid Eyvindsdatter,7 daughter of Eyvind "the Easterling" Bjarnasson and Rafertach MacCearbhall, about 868 in Dala, Iceland. Thurid was born about 847 in <Amle, Sogn Og Fjordane, Norway>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 194 F    i. Groa Thorsteinsdatter 3 was born about 873 in <Hvammi, Dala, Iceland>.

148. Thyra Haraldsdatter, Queen of Norway 42 (Harald "the Blue Tooth" Gormsson, King of Denmark119, Geva Knudsson, King of Denmark95, Knud Sigurdsson78, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 947 in <Denmark> and died on 18 Sep 1000 in Norway about age 53.

Thyra married Styrbjorn "the Strong" Olafsson, Prince of Sweden,42 son of Olof "Mitkg" Bjornsson, King of Sweden and Ingeberg Thrandsdotter,. Styrbjorn was born about 903 in Sweden and died in 985 in Fyrisval, Uppsala, Sweden about age 82.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 195 M    i. Thorgil "Sprakaleg" Styrjornsson 42 was born about 970 in <Uppsala, Uppsala>, Sweden.

149. Svend I "Forked Beard", King of Denmark, Norway and England 42 (Harald "the Blue Tooth" Gormsson, King of Denmark119, Geva Knudsson, King of Denmark95, Knud Sigurdsson78, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 960 in Denmark, died on 2 Feb 1014 in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England about age 54, and was buried in Hellig Trefoldigheds Kirke, Roskilde, Roskilde, Denmark. Another name for Svend was Sveyn "Forkbeard."

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - "Sveyn Forkbeard . Born about 960. Usually given as the son of Harald and Gyrid, though it is said in some of the older sagas that he was an illegitimate son."

Svend married Swietoslava,42 daughter of Mieszko, Prince of Poland and Dbubravka, Princess of Bohemia, in 998. Swietoslava was born about 970 in <Poznan, Poznan>, Poland and died after 2 Feb 1014. Another name for Swietoslava was Sygryda.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 196 F    i. Estrid Svensdatter, Princess of Denmark 42 was born about 997 in Denmark and was buried in Cathedral, Roskilde, Roskilde, Denmark.

150. Roger de Toeni, de Conches 42 (Ralph de, de Conches120, Ralph de, de Conches96, Roger "the Spaniard" de80, Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1104 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died before 1162. Another name for Roger was Roger de Conches.

Roger married Ida, of Hainault.187 Ida was born about 1109 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England. Other names for Ida were Gertrude of Hainault and Ida de Hainault.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 197 M    i. Ralph de Toeni, de Conches 42 was born about 1130 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died in 1162 about age 32.

151. Ralph de Gael, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Suffolk & Cambridge 146 147 (Emma FitzOsbern121, Alice de Toeni97, Roger "the Spaniard" de80, Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Another name for Ralph was Ralph de Gauder.

Noted events in his life were:

• Seigneur of Montfort de Gael:

• Unknown:

Ralph married Emma,204 daughter of William Fitz Osbern, Earl of Hereford and Unknown,.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 198 M    i. Ralph de Gael de Montfort 205 was born about 1078 in Montfort, Normandy, France.

152. Ragnhild Haakonsdatter 7 (Ragnhild Magnusdatter, Princess of Norway122, Magnus I "the Good" Olafsson, King of Norway98, Olaf II "the Saint" Haraldsson, King of Norway81, Harald "Graenske" Gudrodsson70, Gudrod Bjornsson59, Bjorn "the Merchant" Haraldsson, Prince of Norway50, Svanhild Eysteinsdatter42, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1044 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland>.

Ragnhild married Paul Thorfinnsson, Jarl of Orkney and Caithness,7 son of Thorfinn II "the Black" Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney and Ingeborg Finnsdatter,. Paul was born about 1040 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died in 1103 in Bergen, Hordaland, Norway about age 63. Another name for Paul was Paal Thorfinnsson Jarl of Orkney and Caithness.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 123)

153. Haakon Paalsson 7 (Paul, Jarl of Orkney and Caithness123, Thorfinn II "the Black", Earl of Orkney99, Sigurd II "Digri"82, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1070 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland> and died in 1122 in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland about age 52. Another name for Haakon was Haco Paalsson.

Haakon married Helga Maddannsdatter,7 daughter of Moddan, Earl of Caithness and Unknown, about 1103 in Orkney Islands, Scotland. Helga was born about 1080 in <Caithness, Scotland>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 199 F    i. Ingebiorg Hakonsdatter 7 was born about 1106 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland>.

154. Robert de Brusse 70 (Ragnvald124, Brusi100, Sigurd II "Digri"82, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1036 in <Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland> and died between 1080 and 1098.

Robert married Emma, de Brittany,70 daughter of Alan, Count of Brittany and Unknown,. Emma was born about 1034 in Brittany, (France) and died about 1094 about age 60.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 200 M    i. Adam Brus 70 was born about 1051 in <Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland> and died between 1080 and 1098.

155. Somerled I Gillebrideson 3 (Gillebride125, Gille Adoman I Gilleson101, Hvarflad Hlodversdatter83, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1030 in <Scotland>.

Somerled married someone.

His child was:

+ 201 M    i. Imergi Somerledson 3 was born about 1050 in <Scotland>.

156. Adele de Roucy 150 151 (Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1014 in <Roucy, Aisne, France> and died about 1062 about age 48. Other names for Adele were Adela de Roucy, Alice de Roucy, and Alix de Roucy.

Adele married Hilduin III de Rameru, Count of Montdidier,206 207 son of Hilduin II de Rameru and Unknown, about 1031. Hilduin was born between 1010 and 1021 in <Montdidier, Somme, France> and died about 1063. Other names for Hilduin were Hildiun Comte de Montdidier et Roucy, Hilduin IV de Rameru Count of Montdidier and Count of Roucy.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. abt 1010; http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f92/a0019295.htm has b. 1021.

Research Notes: Hilduin III or IV, Count of Montdidier, Count of Roucy, Seigneur of Rameru

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Roucy: 1032.

• Lord of Rameru: 1061.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 202 F    i. Adela, de Rameru .208

+ 203 F    ii. Beatrix de Mondidier 209 died 2 Sep aft 1129.

+ 204 F    iii. Marguerite de Rameru 210 211 212 was born between 1045 and 1050 in <Montdidier, Somme, France> and died about 1110.

+ 205 M    iv. Andre I de Rameru, and d'Arcis-sur-Aube 213 died in 1118.

157. Renaud II de Nevers, Count of Nevers and Auxerre 153 154 (William I, Count of Nevers127, Adèle, of France, Countess of Auxerre103, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1047 in <Nevers, Nievre>, France and died on 5 Aug 1089 about age 42. Another name for Renaud was Renaud Comte de Nevers.

Renaud married Ida, de Forez,153 214 daughter of Artald III, Count of Lyon and Forez and Unknown,. Ida was born about 1051 in <Le Forez, Provence>, France and died in 1085 about age 34. Another name for Ida was Hawide de Forez.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 206 F    i. Ermengarde, de Nevers 153 215 was born about 1073 in <Courtenay, Loiret>, France and died in 1095 in France about age 22.

158. Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester 155 158 (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1081 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France>, died on 13 Feb 1131 in England about age 50, and was buried in Lewes, Sussex, England. Other names for Isabel were Elizabeth de Vermandois, Isabella de Vermandois, and Isabel de Vermandois.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1085 in Valois, France

Research Notes: From: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Elizabeth de Vermandois, or Elisabeth or Isabel de Vermandois (c. 1081 -13 February 1131 ), is a fascinating figure about whose descendants and ancestry much is known and about whose character and life relatively little is known. She was twice married to influential Anglo-Norman magnates, and had several children (among whose descendants are numbered many kings and some queens of England and Scotland). Her Capetian and Carolingian ancestry was a source of much pride for some of these descendants (who included these arms as quarterings in their coats-of-arms[1] ). However, the lady herself led a somewhat controversial life.

Family
Elizabeth de Vermandois was the third daughter of Hugh Magnus and Adele of Vermandois. Her paternal grandparents were Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev . Her maternal grandparents were Herbert IV of Vermandois and Adele of Vexin .
Her mother was the heiress of the county of Vermandois, and descendant of a junior patrilineal line of descent from Charlemagne . The first Count of Vermandois was Pepin of Vermandois . He was a son of Bernard of Italy , grandson of Pippin of Italy and great-grandson of Charlemagne and Hildegard .

As such, Elizabeth had distinguished ancestry and connections. Her father was a younger brother of Philip I of France and her mother was among the last Carolingians . She was also distantly related to the Kings of England , the Dukes of Normandy , the Counts of Flanders and through her Carolingian ancestors to practically every major nobleman in Western Europe .

Countess of Leicester
In 1096, while under age (and probably aged 9 or 11), Elizabeth married Robert de Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester . Meulan was over 35 years her senior, which was an unusual age difference even for this time period. He was a nobleman of some significance in France, having inherited lands from his maternal uncle Henry, Count of Meulan, and had fought bravely and with distinction at his first battle, the Battle of Hastings in 1066 then aged only 16. His parents Roger de Beaumont , Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemar and Adeline of Meulan , heiress of Meulan had died long before; Roger had been a kinsman and close associate of William the Conqueror . Meulan had inherited lands in Normandy after his father died circa 1089, and had also been given lands in the Kingdom of England after his participation in the Norman conquest of England . However, at the time of the marriage, he held no earldom in England while his younger brother was already styled Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick .

Planche states that the bride (Elizabeth) agreed willingly to the marriage, although this means little in the context. Despite the immense age difference, this was a good marriage for its times. Meulan was a respected advisor to three reigning monarchs: William II of England ), Robert Curthose of Normandy and Philip I of France .

According to Middle Ages custom, brides were often betrothed young - 8 being the legal age for betrothal and 12 for marriage (for women). The young betrothed wife would often go to her husband's castle to be raised by his parents or other relatives and to learn the customs and ways of her husband's family. The actual wedding would not take place until much later. Some genealogists speculate that the usual age at which a noble bride could expect the marriage to be consummated would be 14. This is consistent with the date of birth of Elizabeth's first child Emma in 1102 when she would be about 15 to 17.

The marriage produced several children, including most notably two sons who were twins (born 1104 ), and thus remarkable in both surviving and both becoming important noblemen. They are better known to historians of this period as the Beaumont twins, or as Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and his younger twin Robert Bossu (the Humpback) or Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . (Readers of Ellis Peters' Cadfael historical mystery series will find both twins mentioned frequently).

Another notable child of this marriage was Elisabeth or Isabel de Beaumont, one of the youngest mistresses of Henry I of England and later mother (by her first marriage) of Richard Strongbow .

Some contemporaries were surprised that the aging Count of Meulan (b circa 1049/1050) was able to father so many children, given how busy he was with turmoil in England and Normandy from 1102 to 1110 (or later) and acting as Henry I's unofficial minister. One explanation is offered below; another might simply be an indication of his good health and energy (expended mostly in dashing from one troublespot in Normandy to England back to Normandy).

William II of England died suddenly in a purported hunting accident, and was hastily succeeded not by the expected heir but by the youngest brother Henry . This seizure of the throne led to an abortive invasion by the older brother Duke Robert of Normandy, followed by an uneasy truce between the brothers, followed by trouble in both England and Normandy for some time (stirred up by Duke Robert, and by an exiled nobleman Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury ). Finally, Henry invaded Normandy and in the Battle of Tinchebray (September 28 , 1106 ) destroyed organized opposition to his takeover of Normandy and imprisoned his ineffectual older brother for his lifetime. Meulan and his brother Warwick were apparently supporters of Henry during this entire period, and Meulan was rewarded with the earldom of Leicester in 1103 . By 1107, Meulan was in possession of substantial lands in three domains. In 1111, he was able to revenge himself on the attack on his seat Meulan by Louis VI of France . He avenged himself by harrying Paris .

Countess of Surrey
Elizabeth, Countess of Meulan apparently tired of her aging husband at some point during the marriage. The historian Planche says (1874) that the Countess was seduced by or fell in love with a younger nobleman, William de Warenne (c. 1071 -11 May 1138 ) himself the thwarted suitor of Edith of Scotland , Queen consort of Henry I of England. Warenne, whose mother Gundred has been alleged (in modern times) to be the Conqueror's daughter and stepdaughter by some genealogists, was said to want a royal bride, and Elizabeth fitted his requirements, even though she was also another man's wife.

In 1115, the Countess was apparently carried off or abducted by Warenne, which abduction apparently concealed a long-standing affair. There was some kind of separation or divorce between Meulan and his wife, which however did not permit her to marry her lover. The elderly Count of Meulan died, supposedly of chagrin and mortification in being thus publicly humiliated, in the Abbey of Preaux, Normandy on 5 June 1118 , leaving his properties to his two elder sons whom he had carefully educated.

Elizabeth married, secondly, William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey , sometime after the death of her first husband. By him, it is alleged, she already had several children (all born during her marriage to Meulan). She also had at least one daughter born while she was living out of wedlock with Warenne (1115-1118). It is unclear whether this daughter was Ada de Warenne, wife of Henry of Scotland or Gundrede de Warenne, wife of Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick (her half-brothers' first cousin).

The later life of Elizabeth de Vermandois is not known. Her sons by her first marriage appear to have a good relationship with their half-brother William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey although on opposing sides for much of the wars between Stephen and Matilda . Her eldest son Waleran, Count of Meulan was active in supporting the disinherited heir William Clito , son of Robert Curthose until captured by King Henry. He was not released until Clito's death without issue in 1128. Her second son Robert inherited his father's English estates and the earldom of Leicester and married the heiress of the Fitzosbern counts of Breteuil. Her daughter Isabel however became a king's concubine or mistress at a young age; it is unclear whether her mother's own life or her eldest brother's political and personal travails in this period played any part in this decision. Before her mother died, Isabel had become wife of Gilbert de Clare , later (1147) Earl of Pembroke, so had adopted a more conventional life like her mother.

There are no known biographies of Elizabeth de Vermandois, nor any known fictional treatments of her life.

Children and descendants
During her first marriage (1096-1115) to Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (d 5 June 1118), Elizabeth had 3 sons (including twin elder sons) and 6 daughters:
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 ) whose fate is unknown. She was betrothed as an infant to Aumari, nephew of William, Count of Evreux, but the marriage never took place. She probably died young, or entered a convent.[2]
Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (born 1104 ) married and left issue.
Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (born 1104 ) married and left issue (his granddaughter Hawisa or Isabella of Gloucester was the unfortunate first wife of King John .
Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford (born c. 1106 ) lost his earldom, left issue
Adeline de Beaumont (b ca 1107), married two times:
Hugh IV, 4th Lord of Montfort-sur-Risle to whom she was married firstly by her brother Waleran;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)
Aubree (or Alberee) de Beaumont (b ca 1109), married by her brother Waleran to Hugh II of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais (possibly son of Hugh I of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais and his wife Mabille de Montgomerie, 2nd daughter of Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury )
Maud de Beaumont (b ca 1111), married by her brother Waleran to William Lovel, or Louvel or Lupel, son of Ascelin Goel, Lord of Ivri.
Isabel de Beaumont (b Aft. 1102), a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke by whom she was mother of Richard Strongbow , who invaded Ireland 1170 ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland (this marriage is not conclusively proven)
In her second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.
Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh;
Ralph de Warenne (dsp)
Gundrada de Warenne , (Gundred) who married first
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick and had issue; second (as his 2nd wife)
William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Warenne and Surrey and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen's garrison from Warwick Castle; and they had issue.

Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.

The second earl had married Isabella, daughter of Hugh, Count of Vermandois, widow of Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester. The arms of Warenne "checky or and azure" were adopted from the Vermandois coat after this marriage.

The original Vermandois arms were "checky or and sable" but there was no black tincture in early medieval heraldry until sable was discovered, being the crushed fur of this animal. A very deep indigo was used instead which faded into blue so the Vermandois arms becams "checky argent and or".
The Vermandois arms were inherited by the earls of Warenne and Surrey, the Newburgh earls of Warwick, the Beauchamp earls of Warwick and Worcester and the Clifford earls of Cumberland.

Isabel married Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan,2 216 217 son of Roger de Beaumont, Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemer and Adeline, of Meulan, between 1096 and 1101. The marriage ended in divorce. Robert was born about 1049 in Pont-Audemer, Beaumont, Normandy, France, died on 5 Jun 1118 in Leicestershire, England about age 69, and was buried in Preaux, Normandy, France. Another name for Robert was Robert de Meulan.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 53-24 has m. 1096. Wikipedia has m. abt. 1101.

Noted events in their marriage were:

• Betrothal: to Robert de Meulan, 1096.

Research Notes: First husband of Isabel de Vermandois.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 50-24 (Isabel de Vermandois) has "b. abt 1049, d. 5 Jun 1118, Lord of Beaumont, Pont-Audemer and Brionne, Count of Meulan, cr. 1st Earl of Leicester, Companion of William the Conqueror at Hastings 1066, son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline (or Adelise), dau. of Waleran, Count of Meulan..."

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester

Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan (1049 - June 5 , 1118 ) was a powerful English and French nobleman, revered as one of the wisest men of his age. Chroniclers speak highly of his eloquence, his learning, and three kings of England valued his counsel.
He accompanied William the Conqueror to England in 1066 , where his service earned him more than 91 lordships and manors. When his mother died in 1081 , Robert inherited the title of Count of Meulan in Normandy , also the title of Viscount Ivry and Lord of Norton. He did homage to Philip I of France for these estates and sat as French Peer in the Parliament held at Poissy .

At the Battle of Hastings Robert was appointed leader of the infantry on the right wing of the army.

He and his brother Henry were members of the Royal hunting party in the New Forest , when William Rufus received his mysterious death wound, 2 August 1100 . He then pledged alligience to William Rufus' brother, Henry I of England , who created him Earl of Leicester in 1107.

On the death of William Rufus, William, Count of Evreux and Ralph de Conches made an incursion into Robert's Norman estates, on the pretence that they had suffered injury through some advice that Robert had given to the King; their raid was very successful for they collected a vast booty.
According to Henry of Huntingdon , Robert died of shame after "a certain earl carried off the lady he had espoused, either by some intrigue or by force and stratagem." His wife Isabella remarried in 1118 to William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey .


Family and children
He was the eldest son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline of Meulan , daughter of Waleran III, Count de Meulan , and an older brother of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick .

In 1096 he married (Isabel) Elizabeth de Vermandois , daughter of Hugh Magnus and a scion of the French royal family. Their children were:
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 )
Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (born 1104 )
Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (born 1104 )
Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford (born c. 1106 )
Adeline de Beaumont, married two times:
Hugh IV of Montfort-sur-Risle ;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)
Aubree de Beaumont, married Hugh II of Château-neuf-Thimerais.
Maud de Beaumont, married William Lovel. (b. c. 1102)
Isabel de Beaumont, a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland

Sources
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 50-24, 50-25, 53-24, 53-25, 66-25, 114-29, 140-24, 184-4, 215-24, 215-25
Edward T. Beaumont, J.P. The Beaumonts in History. A.D. 850-1850. Oxford.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 207 F    i. Isabel de Beaumont 218 was born between 1100 and 1107 and died after 1172.

+ 208 F    ii. Emma de Beaumont was born in 1102.

+ 209 M    iii. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 2 219 220 was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. (Relationship to Father: Biological, Relationship to Mother: Biological)

+ 210 M    iv. Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 90 221 was born in 1104 in <Meulan, Île-de-France>, France, died on 10 Apr 1166 in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France at age 62, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France.

+ 211 M    v. Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford was born about 1106.

+ 212 M    vi. Adeline de Beaumont 155 was born about 1107.

+ 213 F    vii. Aubree de Beaumont 155 was born about 1109.

+ 214 F    viii. Maud de Beaumont was born about 1111.

Isabel next married William II de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey,157 222 223 son of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey and Gundred, Countess of Surrey, after 1118. William was born about 1065 in <Sussex, England>, died on 11 May 1138 in <England> about age 73, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England. Other names for William were William Earl of Warren and Surrey, William Earl Warenne, and William Earl of Warenne.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey
William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey (died 1138 ), was the son of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey and his first wife Gundred . He is more often referred to as Earl Warenne or Earl of Warenne than as Earl of Surrey.

Sometime around 1093 he tried to marry Matilda (or Edith) , daughter of king Malcolm III of Scotland . She instead married Henry I of England , and this may be the cause of William's great dislike of Henry I, which was to be his apparent motivator in the following years.
He accompanied Robert Curthose in his 1101 invasion of England , and afterwards lost his English lands and titles and was exiled to Normandy . There he complained to Curthose that he expended great effort on the duke's behalf and had in return lost most of his possessions. Curthose's return to England in 1103 was apparently made to convince his brother to restore William's earldom. This was successful, though Curthose had to give up all he had received after the 1101 invasion, and subsequently
William was loyal to king Henry.

To further insure William's loyalty Henry considered marrying him to one of his many illegitimate daughters. He was however dissuaded by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, for any of the daughters would have been within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity . The precise nature of the consanguinous relationship Anselm had in mind has been much debated, but it is most likely he was referring to common descent from the father of duchess Gunnor.

William was one of the commanders on Henry's side (against Robert Curthose) at the Battle of Tinchebray in 1106. Afterwards, with his loyalty thus proven, he became more prominent in Henry's court.

In 1110, Curthose's son William Clito escaped along with Helias of Saint-Saens , and afterwards Warenne received the forfeited Saint-Saens lands, which were very near his own in upper Normandy. By this maneuver king Henry further assured his loyalty, for the successful return of Clito would mean at the very least Warenne's loss of this new territory.
He fought at the Battle of Bremule in 1119, and was at Henry's deathbed in 1135.

Family
In 1118 William acquired the royal-blooded bride he desired when married Elizabeth de Vermandois . She was a daughter of count Hugh of Vermandois , a son of Henry I of France , and was the widow of Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester .
By Elizabeth he had three sons and two daughters:
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey ;
Reginald de Warenne , who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh ;
Ralph de Warenne
Gundrada de Warenne , who married first Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick , and second William, lord of Kendal , and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen 's garrison from Warwick Castle ;
Ada de Warenne , who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon

References
C. Warren Hollister, "[The Taming of a Turbulent Earl: Henry I and William of Warenne ]", Historical Reflections 3 (1976) 83-91
C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (2001)
The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, ed. M. Chibnall, vol. 2, p. 264 (Oxford, 1990).

**********
From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

In her second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.
Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh;
Ralph de Warenne (dsp)
Gundrada de Warenne , (Gundred) who married first
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick and had issue; second (as his 2nd wife)
William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Warenne and Surrey and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen's garrison from Warwick Castle; and they had issue.
Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 215 M    i. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 2 219 220 was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. (Relationship to Father: Step, Relationship to Mother: Biological)

+ 216 F    ii. Gundred de Warenne 224 225 was born about 1117 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England, died after 1166 in Warwickshire, England, and was buried in Kelso, Roxburgh, Scotland.

+ 217 M    iii. William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne 226 was born in 1118 and died in 1148 at age 30.

+ 218 F    iv. Ada de Warenne 155 223 227 died about 1178.

+ 219 M    v. Reginald de Warenne .

+ 220 M    vi. Ralph de Warenne .

159. Raoul I, Count of Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Another name for Raoul was Count Raoul of Vermandois.

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

160. Henry, of Chaumont-en-Vexin (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died in 1130.

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

161. Simon, Bishop of Noyon (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

162. Matilde de Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois
Married Raoul I of Beaugency

163. Constance de Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

Married Godefroy de la Ferte-Gaoucher

164. Agnes de Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

Married Margrave Boniface del Vasto. ;Mother of Adelaide del Vasto

165. Beatrix de Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

Married Hugh III of Gournay-en-Bray

166. Emma de Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

167. Gertrude, of Flanders 161 (Robert I, Count of Flanders132, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1070 and died in 1117 about age 47.

Gertrude married Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine,228 229 son of Gerard IV, Count of Alsace, Duke of Upper Lorraine and Hedwig, of Namur,. Thierry died in 1115. Other names for Thierry were Dietrich II Duke of Lorraine and Theodoric II "the Valiant" Duke of Lorraine.

Research Notes: Second husband of Gertrude of Flanders.

From Wikipedia - Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine :

Theodoric II (died 1115), called the Valiant, was the duke of Lorraine from 1070 to his death. He was the son and successor of Gerhard and Hedwige de Namur. He is sometimes numbered Theodoric I if the dukes of the House of Ardennes , who ruled in Upper Lorraine from 959 to 1033, are ignored in favour of the dukes of Lower Lorraine as predecessors of the later dukes of Lorraine.

In fact, Sophia, the daughter of Duke Frederick II of the House of Ardennes, who had inherited the counties of Bar and Montbéliard , had a husband named Louis , who contested the succession. In order to receive the support of his brother, he gave him the county of Vaudémont and convened an assembly of nobles, who elected him duke over Louis. Soon Louis was dead, but his son, Theodoric II of Bar , claimed the succession anyway. However, Emperor Henry IV confirmed Theodoric the Valiant in the duchy. Probably for this reason, Theodoric remained faithful to the emperors throughout his rule. He fought the Saxons while they were at war with the Emperor between 1070 and 1078 and he opposed the popes Gregory VII and Urban II when they were in conflict with the Emperor.

In 1095, he planned to take up the Cross (i.e., go on Crusade , specifically the First ), but his ill health provoked him to drop out, nevertheless convincing his barons to go east. Thereafter, he took little part in imperial affairs, preferring not to intervene between Henry IV and his son Henry , or against Lothair of Supplinburg , duke of Saxony .

Family and children
His first wife was Hedwige (d. 1085 or 1090), daughter of Frederick, count of Formbach , they married around 1075.

They had the following issue:
Simon , his successor in Lorraine
Gertrude (d. 1144), married Floris II of Holland

His second wife was Gertrude (1080-1117), daughter of Robert I of Flanders and Gertrude of Saxony .

They had the following issue:
Theodoric (1100-1168), lord of Bitche and count of Flanders (1128-1168)
Henry I (d. 1165), bishop of Toul
Ida, married Sigefroy (d. 1104), count of Burghausen
Ermengarde, married Bernard de Brancion
Gisela, married Frederick, count of Saarbrücken


The child from this marriage was:

+ 221 M    i. Thierry I, of Lorraine, Count of Flanders 230 231 was born about 1099 and died on 17 Jan 1168 about age 69.

168. Adela, of Normandy 162 163 (Matilda, of Flanders133, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born between 1062 and 1067 and died about 8 Mar 1137. Other names for Adela were Adela of England and Adela of Blois.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Adela of Normandy :

Adela of Normandy also known as Adela of Blois and Adela of England "and also Adela Alice Princess of England" (c. 1062 or 1067 - 8 March 1137?) was, by marriage, Countess of Blois , Chartres , and Meaux . She was a daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders . She was also the mother of Stephen, King of England and Henry of Blois , Bishop of Winchester .

Her birthdate is generally believed to have been between 1060 and 1064; however, there is some evidence she was born after her father's accession to the English throne in 1066. She was the favourite sister of King Henry I of England ; they were probably the youngest of the Conqueror's children. She was a high-spirited and educated woman, with a knowledge of Latin .

She married Stephen Henry , son and heir to the count of Blois , sometime between 1080 and 1084, probably in 1083. Stephen inherited Blois, Chartres and Meaux in 1089, and owned over 300 properties, making him one of the wealthiest men of his day. He was a pious and revered leader who managed huge areas of France which inherited from his father and added to by his sharp administrations. He was, essentially a king in his own right. Stephen-Henry joined the First Crusade , along with his brother-in-law Robert Curthose . Stephen's letters to Adela form a uniquely intimate insight into the experiences of the Crusade's leaders. The Count of Blois returned to France in 1100 bringing with him several cartloads of maps, jewels and other treasures, which he deposited at Chartres. He was, however, under an obligation to the pope for agreements made years earlier and returned to Antioch to participate in the crusade of 1101 . He was ultimately killed in an ill advised charge at the Battle of Ramla . Rumors of his cowardice and defection under fire are untrue and unfounded and have been proven to be propaganda generated by later biased historians. Stephen-Henry was often referred to as "le Sage," and was a great patron of Troubadours and writers.

Adela and Stephen's children are listed here as follows. Their birth order is uncertain.
Guillaume (William)(d. 1150), Count of Chartres married Agnes of Sulli (d. aft 1104) and had issue.
Theobald II, aka Thibaud IV Count of Champagne
Odo of Blois, aka Humbert. died young.
Stephen of Blois {King of England}.
Lucia-Mahaut , married Richard d'Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester . Both drowned on 25 November 1120.
Agnes of Blois, married Hugh de Puiset and were parents to Hugh de Puiset .
Eléonore of Blois (d. 1147) married Raoul I of Vermandois (d.1152) & had issue they were divorced in 1142.
Alix of Blois (d. 1145) married Renaud (d.1134)III of Joigni & had Issue
Lithuise of Blois (d. 1118) married Milo I of Montlhéry (Divorced 1115)
Philip (d. 1100) Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne
Henry of Blois b.1101- d. 1171 (oblate child raised at Cherite sur Loire (Cluny Abbey) 1103.

Adela was regent for her husband during his extended absence as a leader of the First Crusade (1095-1098), and when he returned in disgrace it was at least in part at her urging that he returned to the east to fulfil his vow of seeing Jerusalem .[citation needed ] She was again regent in 1101, continuing after her husband's death on this second crusading expedition in 1102, for their children were still minors. Orderic Vitalis praises her as a "wise and spirited woman" who ably governed her husband's estates in his absences and after his death.

She employed tutors to educate her elder sons, and had her youngest son Henry pledged to the Church at Cluny . Adela quarrelled with her eldest son Guillaume, "deficient in intelligence as well as degenerate", and had his younger brother Theobald replace him as heir. Her son Stephen left Blois in 1111 to join his uncle's court in England.

Adela retired to Marcigny in 1120, secure in the status of her children. Later that same year, her daughter Lucia-Mahaut , was drowned in the wreck of the White Ship alongside her husband. She lived long enough to see her son Stephen seize the English throne, and took pride in the ascension of her youngest child Henry Blois to the bishophric of Winchester, but died soon after on 8 March 1135 in Marsilly, Charente, Poitou-Charentes, France.

Adela married Stephen, of Blois, Count of Blois 232 233 about 1080. Stephen was born about 1045 and died on 19 May 1102 in Ramla, (Israel) about age 57. Other names for Stephen were Stephen II of Blois and Stephen II Henry Count of Blois.

Death Notes: Killed in the battle of Ramla.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Stephen II, Count of Blois L

Stephen II Henry (c. 1045 - 19 May 1102 ), (in French , Étienne Henri), Count of Blois and Count of Chartres , was the son of Theobald III , count of Blois , and Garsinde du Maine. He married Adela of Normandy , a daughter of William the Conqueror around 1080 in Chartres .

Count Stephen was one of the leaders of the First Crusade , often writing enthusiastic letters to Adela about the crusade 's progress. He returned home in 1098 during the lengthy siege of Antioch , without fulfilling his crusading vow to forge a way to Jerusalem . He was pressured by Adela into making a second pilgrimage, and joined the minor crusade of 1101 in the company of others who had also returned home prematurely. In 1102, Stephen was killed in the Battle of Ramla at the age of fifty-seven.

Family and children
Stephen and Adela's children were:
William, Count of Sully (d.1150), Count of Chartres married Agnes of Sulli (d. aft 1104) and had issue.
Theobald II, Count of Champagne
Odo, died young.
Stephen, King of England
Lucia-Mahaut , married Richard d'Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester . Both drowned on 25 November 1120 .
Agnes, married Hugh III of Le Puiset
Eléonore (d. 1147) married Raoul I of Vermandois (d. 1152) and had issue; they were divorced in 1142.
Alix (d. 1145) married Renaud III of Joigni (d. 1134) and had issue
Lithuise (d. 1118) married Milo de Brai , Viscount of Troyes (divorced 1115)
Henry, Bishop of Winchester
Humbert, died young.

Lithuise
, who married Milon of Troyes , viscount of Troyes , was possibly his sister and not his daughter, judging from the dates of her children.

He had an illegitimate daughter Emma, who was the mother of William of York , archbishop of York .[1]

Noted events in his life were:

• Leader of the First Crusade:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 222 M    i. Stephen, of Blois, King of England 234 235 was born about 1096 in Blois, Loire-et-Cher, France, died on 25 Oct 1154 in Dover Priory, Dover, England about age 58, and was buried in Faversham Abbey.

+ 223 F    ii. Lithuaise .236

169. Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England 164 165 (Matilda, of Flanders133, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born between May 1068 and May 1069 in <Selby, Yorkshire>, England and died on 1 Dec 1135 in St. Denis-le-Fermont, France. Other names for Henry were Henry I King of England and Henry I Beauclerc King of England.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots line 124-25 has b. 1070.

Research Notes: Fourth son of William the Conqueror.

From Wikipedia - Henry I of England :

Henry I (c. 1068/1069 - 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror . He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose , to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the administrative and legislative machinery of the time.

Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties , which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged Magna Carta , which subjected the King to law.

The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury . He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship . His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda , but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy .

Early life
Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069, probably in Selby in Yorkshire . His mother, Queen Matilda , was descended from Alfred the Great (but not through the main West Saxon Royal line). Queen Matilda named the infant Prince Henry, after her uncle, Henry I of France . As the youngest son of the family, he was almost certainly expected to become a Bishop and was given rather more extensive schooling than was usual for a young nobleman of that time. The Chronicler William of Malmesbury asserts that Henry once remarked that an illiterate King was a crowned ass. He was certainly the first Norman ruler to be fluent in the English language .

William I's second son Richard was killed in a hunting accident in 1081, so William bequeathed his dominions to his three surviving sons in the following manner:
Robert received the Duchy of Normandy and became Duke Robert II
William Rufus received the Kingdom of England and became King William II
Henry Beauclerc received 5,000 pounds in silver

The Chronicler Orderic Vitalis reports that the old King had declared to Henry: "You in your own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater than both your brothers in wealth and power."

Henry tried to play his brothers off against each other but eventually, wary of his devious manoeuvring, they acted together and signed an Accession Treaty. This sought to bar Prince Henry from both Thrones by stipulating that if either King William or Duke Robert died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reunited under the surviving brother.

Seizing the throne of England

When, on 2 August 1100 , William II was killed by an arrow in yet another hunting accident in the New Forest, Duke Robert had not yet returned from the First Crusade . His absence allowed Prince Henry to seize the Royal Treasury at Winchester, Hampshire , where he buried his dead brother. There are suspicions that, on hearing that Robert was returning alive from his crusade with a new bride, Henry decided to act and arranged the murder of William by the French Vexin Walter Tirel .[1] Thus he succeeded to the throne of England, guaranteeing his succession in defiance of William and Robert's earlier agreement. Henry was accepted as King by the leading Barons and was crowned three days later on 5 August at Westminster Abbey . He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appeasement: he issued a Charter of Liberties which is considered a forerunner of the Magna Carta .

First marriage

On 11 November 1100 Henry married Edith , daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling and the great-granddaughter of Edward the Confessor 's paternal half-brother Edmund Ironside , the marriage united the Norman line with the old English line of Kings. The marriage greatly displeased the Norman Barons, however, and as a concession to their sensibilities Edith changed her name to Matilda upon becoming Queen. The other side of this coin, however, was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace.

The chronicler William of Malmesbury described Henry thus: "He was of middle stature, greater than the small, but exceeded by the very tall; his hair was black and set back upon the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy."

Conquest of Normandy
In the following year, 1101, Robert Curthose , Henry's eldest brother, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. In the Treaty of Alton , Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King of England and return peacefully to Normandy , upon receipt of an annual sum of 2000 silver marks, which Henry proceeded to pay.

In 1105, to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and the drain on his fiscal resources from the annual payment, Henry led an expeditionary force across the English Channel .

Battle of Tinchebray
On the morning of 28 September 1106, exactly 40 years after William had made his way to England, the decisive battle between his two surviving sons, Robert Curthose and Henry Beauclerc, took place in the small village of Tinchebray. This combat was totally unexpected and unprepared. Henry and his army were marching south from Barfleur on their way to Domfront and Robert was marching with his army from Falaise on their way to Mortain. They met at the crossroads at Tinchebray and the running battle which ensued was spread out over several kilometres. The site where most of the fighting took place is the village playing field today. Towards evening Robert tried to retreat but was captured by Henry's men at a place three kilometres (just under two miles) north of Tinchebray where a farm named "Prise" (taken) stands today on the D22 road. The tombstones of three knights are nearby on the same road.

King of England and Ruler of Normandy
After Henry had defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray he imprisoned Robert, initially in the Tower of London , subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Cardiff. One day whilst out riding Robert attempted to escape from Cardiff but his horse was bogged down in a swamp and he was recaptured. To prevent further escapes Henry had Robert's eyes burnt out. Henry appropriated the Duchy of Normandy as a possession of the Kingdom of England and reunited his father's dominions. Even after taking control of the Duchy of Normandy he didn't take the title of Duke, he chose to control it as the King of England.

In 1113, Henry attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by betrothing his eldest son, William Adelin , to the daughter of Fulk of Jerusalem (also known as Fulk V), Count of Anjou, then a serious enemy. They were married in 1119. Eight years later, after William's untimely death, a much more momentous union was made between Henry's daughter, (the former Empress) Matilda and Fulk's son Geoffrey Plantagenet , which eventually resulted in the union of the two Realms under the Plantagenet Kings.


Activities as a King

Henry's need for finance to consolidate his position led to an increase in the activities of centralized government. As King, Henry carried out social and judicial reforms, including:
issuing the Charter of Liberties
restoring the laws of Edward the Confessor .

Between 1103 and 1107 Henry was involved in a dispute with Anselm , the Archbishop of Canterbury , and Pope Paschal II in the investiture controversy , which was settled in the Concordat of London in 1107. It was a compromise. In England, a distinction was made in the King's chancery between the secular and ecclesiastical powers of the prelates. Employing the distinction, Henry gave up his right to invest his bishops and abbots, but reserved the custom of requiring them to come and do homage for the "temporalities " (the landed properties tied to the episcopate), directly from his hand, after the bishop had sworn homage and feudal vassalage in the ceremony called commendatio, the commendation ceremony , like any secular vassal.

Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a treacherous burgher named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known from then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 1119, Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constable of Ivry , exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Harnec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutilate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parley at Breteuil, only for Juliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was captured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window into the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled with his daughter and son-in-law.

Legitimate children
He had two children by Matilda (Edith), who died on 1 May 1118 at the palace of Westminster. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Matilda . (c. February 1102 - 10 September 1167 ). She married firstly Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor , and secondly, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou , having issue by the second.
William Adelin , (5 August 1103 - 25 November 1120 ). He married Matilda (d.1154), daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou .

Second marriage
On 29 January 1121 he married Adeliza , daughter of Godfrey I of Leuven , Duke of Lower Lotharingia and Landgrave of Brabant , but there were no children from this marriage. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unprecedented step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Matilda , widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor , as his heir.

Death and legacy

Henry visited Normandy in 1135 to see his young grandsons, the children of Matilda and Geoffrey. He took great delight in his grandchildren, but soon quarrelled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes led him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned.

Henry died on 1 December 1135 of food poisoning from eating "a surfeit of lampreys " (of which he was excessively fond) at Saint-Denis-en-Lyons (now Lyons-la-Forêt ) in Normandy. His remains were sewn into the hide of a bull to preserve them on the journey, and then taken back to England and were buried at Reading Abbey , which he had founded fourteen years before. The Abbey was destroyed during the Protestant Reformation . No trace of his tomb has survived, the probable site being covered by St James' School. Nearby is a small plaque and a large memorial cross stands in the adjoining Forbury Gardens .

Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter as their Queen, her gender and her remarriage into the House of Anjou , an enemy of the Normans, allowed Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois , to come to England and claim the throne with popular support.

The struggle between the former Empress and Stephen resulted in a long civil war known as the Anarchy . The dispute was eventually settled by Stephen's naming of Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet , as his heir in 1153.

Illegitimate children
King Henry is famed for holding the record for the largest number of acknowledged illegitimate children born to any English king, with the number being around 20 or 25. He had many mistresses, and identifying which mistress is the mother of which child is difficult. His illegitimate offspring for whom there is documentation are:
Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester . Often, said to have been a son of Sybil Corbet.
Maud FitzRoy, married Conan III, Duke of Brittany
Constance FitzRoy, married Richard de Beaumont
Mabel FitzRoy, married William III Gouet
Aline FitzRoy, married Matthieu I of Montmorency
Gilbert FitzRoy, died after 1142. His mother may have been a sister of Walter de Gand.
Emma, born c. 1138; married Gui de Laval, Lord Laval. [Uncertain, born 2 years after Henry died.][2]

With Edith
Matilda, married in 1103 Count Rotrou II of Perche. She perished 25 Nov 1120 in the wreck of the White Ship . She left two daughters; Philippa who married Helie of Anjou (son of Fulk V) and Felice.

With Gieva de Tracy
William de Tracy

With Ansfride
Ansfride was born c. 1070. She was the wife of Anskill of Seacourt, at Wytham in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire ).
Juliane de Fontevrault (born c. 1090); married Eustace de Pacy in 1103. She tried to shoot her father with a crossbow after King Henry allowed her two young daughters to be blinded.
Fulk FitzRoy (born c. 1092); a monk at Abingdon .
Richard of Lincoln (c. 1094 - 25 November 1120 ); perished in the wreck of the White Ship .

With Sybil Corbet
Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester in Warwickshire . She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert 'the Chamberlain' of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also known as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Rainald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family.
Sybilla de Normandy , married Alexander I of Scotland .
William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died after 1187.
Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall .
Gundred of England (1114-46), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, son of Joscelin de la Pomerai.
Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b. 1040 in Normandy, France d. 1110 in Barnstaple, Devon, England)son of Turgisus de Tracy. They married in 1075. They had four children 1)Turgisus II de Tracy b. 1066, 2) Henry de Tracy b. 1068, 3) Gieva de Tracy b. 1068 d. 1100, 4)Henry of Barnstaple Tracy b. 1070 d.1170.

With Edith FitzForne
Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton, (1093-1172) married Dame Maud d'Avranches du Sap. They had one daughter, Mary, who married Renaud, Sire of Courtenay (son of Miles, Sire of Courtenay and Ermengarde of Nevers).
Adeliza FitzEdith. Appears in charters with her brother Robert.

With Princess Nest
Nest ferch Rhys was born about 1073 at Dinefwr Castle , Carmarthenshire , the daughter of Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth and his wife, Gwladys ferch Rhywallon. She married, in 1095, to Gerald de Windsor (aka Geraldus FitzWalter) son of Walter FitzOther, Constable of Windsor Castle and Keeper of the Forests of Berkshire . She had several other liaisons - including one with Stephen of Cardigan, Constable of Cardigan (1136) - and subsequently other illegitimate children. The date of her death is unknown.
Henry FitzRoy , 1103-1158.

With Isabel de Beaumont
Isabel (Elizabeth) de Beaumont (after 1102 - after 1172), daughter of Robert de Beaumont , sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke , in 1130. She was also known as Isabella de Meulan.
Isabel Hedwig of England
Matilda FitzRoy , abbess of Montvilliers, also known as Montpiller

Noted events in his life were:

• King of England: 1100-1135.

Henry married Matilda, of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm III Canmore, King of Scots and Saint Margaret, of Scotland, on 11 Nov 1100 in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England. Matilda was born in 1079 in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland and died on 1 May 1118 in Westminster Palace, London, England at age 39. Other names for Matilda were Edith of Scotland and Maud of Scotland.

Birth Notes: Place name may be Dermfermline.

Research Notes: Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 1-22

From Wikipedia - Matilda of Scotland :

Matilda of Scotland
[1] (born Edith; c. 1080 - 1 May 1118) was the first wife and queen consort of Henry I .

Matilda was born around 1080 in Dunfermline , the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret . She was christened Edith, and Robert Curthose stood as godfather at her christening - the English queen Matilda of Flanders was also present at the font and may have been her godmother.
When she was about six years old, Matilda (or Edith as she was then probably still called) and her sister Mary were sent to Romsey , where their aunt Cristina was abbess. During her stay at Romsey and Wilton , The Scottish princess was much sought-after as a bride; she turned down proposals from both William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey , and Alan Rufus , Lord of Richmond. Hermann of Tournai even claims that William II Rufus considered marrying her. She was out of the monastery by 1093, when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Bishop of Salisbury ordering that the daughter of the king of Scotland be returned to the monastery that she had left.

After the death of William II Rufus in August 1100, his brother Henry quickly seized the royal treasury and the royal crown. His next task was to marry, and Henry's choice fell on Matilda. Because Matilda had spent most of her life in a nunnery, there was some controversy over whether or not she had been veiled as a nun and would thus be ineligible for marriage. Henry sought permission for the marriage from Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , who returned to England in September 1100 after a long exile. Professing himself unwilling to decide so weighty a matter on his own, Anselm called a council of bishops in order to determine the legality of the proposed marriage. Matilda testified to the archbishop and the assembled bishops of the realm that she had never taken holy vows. She insisted that her parents had sent her and her sister to England for educational purposes, and that her aunt Cristina had veiled her only to protect her "from the lust of the Normans ." Matilda claimed she had pulled the veil off and stamped on it, and her aunt beat and scolded her most horribly for this. The council concluded that Matilda had never been a nun, nor had her parents intended that she become one, and gave their permission for the marriage.
Matilda and Henry seem to have known one another for some time before their marriage - William of Malmesbury states that Henry had "long been attached" to her, and Orderic Vitalis says that Henry had "long adored" Edith's character. Through her mother she was descended from Edmund Ironside and thus Alfred the Great and the old line of the kings of Wessex; this was very important as Henry wanted to help make himself more popular with the English people and Matilda represented the old English dynasty. In their children the Norman and Anglo-Saxon dynasties would be united. Another benefit of the marriage was that England and Scotland became politically closer; three of her brothers served as kings of Scotland and were unusually friendly to England during this period.

After Matilda and Henry were married on 11 November 1100 at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , she was crowned as "Matilda", a fashionable Norman name. She gave birth to a daughter, Matilda, in February 1102, and a son, William, in November 1103. As queen, she maintained her court primarily at Westminster , but accompanied her husband in his travels all across England, and, circa 1106-1107, probably visited Normandy with him. She also served in a vice-regal capacity when Henry was away from court. Her court was filled with musicians and poets; she commissioned a monk, probably Thurgot , to write a biography of her mother, Saint Margaret . She was an active queen, and like her mother was renowned for her devotion to religion and the poor. William of Malmesbury describes her as attending church barefoot at Lent , and washing the feet and kissing the hands of the sick. She also administered extensive dower properties and was known as a patron of the arts, especially music.

After Matilda died on 1 May 1118 at Westminster Palace , she was buried at Westminster Abbey . The death of her only son and Henry's failure to produce a legitimate son from his second marriage led to the succession crisis of The Anarchy .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 224 F    i. EmpressMatilda, Countess of Anjou 237 238 was born about 7 Feb 1102 and died on 10 Sep 1167 about age 65.

+ 225 M    ii. William Adelin, Duke of Normandy 239 was born in 1103 and died on 25 Nov 1120 at age 17.

Henry next married someone.

His child was:

+ 226 F    i. Maud, Princess of England 7 was born about 1091 in England.

Henry had a relationship with Adeliza, of Louvain,240 daughter of Godefroi de Louvain, Duc de Basse-Lorraine and Ida, of Chiny and Namur, in 1120. This couple did not marry. Adeliza was born about 1103 and was buried on 23 Apr 1151 in Abbey of Affligem. Another name for Adeliza was Adela of Louvain. They had no children.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Henry I

Henry next had a relationship with Sybilla Corbet, of Alcester.165 This couple did not marry. Sybilla was born in 1077 in Alcester, Warwickshire, England and died after 1157.

Research Notes: May not have been the mother of Robert de Caen.

From Wikipedia - Henry I of England :

With Sybil Corbet
Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester in Warwickshire . She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert 'the Chamberlain' of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also known as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Rainald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family.

Sybilla de Normandy , married Alexander I of Scotland .
William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died after 1187.
Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall .
Gundred of England (1114-46), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, son of Joscelin de la Pomerai.
Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b. 1040 in Normandy, France d. 1110 in Barnstaple, Devon, England)son of Turgisus de Tracy. They married in 1075. They had four children 1)Turgisus II de Tracy b. 1066, 2) Henry de Tracy b. 1068, 3) Gieva de Tracy b. 1068 d. 1100, 4)Henry of Barnstaple Tracy b. 1070 d.1170.


Their child was:

+ 227 M    i. Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester 241 242 243 was born about 1090 in <Caen, Normandy, France>, died on 31 Oct 1147 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, England about age 57, and was buried in St. James Priory, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.

Henry next had a relationship with Elizabeth de, Beaumont,244 daughter of Robert I de Beaumont and Unknown,. This couple did not marry.

Their child was:

+ 228 F    i. Elizabeth, Princess of England 245 246 was born about 1095 in <Talby, Yorkshire, England>.

170. Henry I, Duke of Bavaria 168 (Judith, of Normandy134, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1074 and died on 13 Dec 1126 at age 52.

Henry married Wulfhilda, of Saxony,247 daughter of Magnus, Duke of Saxony and Sophia, Betw 1095 and 1100. Wulfhilda was born about 1075 and died on 29 Dec 1126 about age 51.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 229 F    i. Judith, of Bavaria was born in 1100 and died in 1130 at age 30.

171. Hugh I, Duke of Burgundy (Henry, of Burgundy135, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1057 and died in 1093 at age 36.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia (Henry of Burgundy)

172. Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy 169 170 (Henry, of Burgundy135, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1058 and died on 23 Mar 1103 in Cilicia about age 45. Other names for Eudes were Eudes I "the Red" of Burgundy and Eudes I Borel of Burgundy.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy :

Eudes I, surnamed Borel and called the Red, (1058-23 March 1103 ) was Duke of Burgundy between 1079 and 1103. Eudes was the second son of Henry of Burgundy and grandson of Robert I . He became the duke following the abdication of his older brother, Hugh I, who retired to become a Benedictine monk. Eudes married Sibylla of Burgundy (1065 - 1101), daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy .

They had:
Florine of Burgundy 1083-1097
Helie of Burgundy 1080-1141 wife of Bertrand of Toulouse and William III of Ponthieu
Hugh II of Burgundy
Henry d.1131

An interesting incident is reported of this robber baron by an eyewitness, Eadmer , biographer of Anselm of Canterbury . While Saint Anselm was progressing through Eudes's territory on his way to Rome in 1097, the bandit, expecting great treasure in the archbishop's retinue, prepared to ambush and loot it. Coming upon the prelate's train, the duke asked for the archbishop, whom they had not found. Anselm promptly came forward and took the duke by surprise, saying "My lord duke, suffer me to embrace thee." The flabbergasted duke immediately allowed the bishop to embrace him and offered himself as Anselm's humble servant.

He was a participant in the ill-fated Crusade of 1101 .

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Burgundy: 1079-1103.

Eudes married Sibylle, of Burgundy-Ivrea,198 daughter of Guillaume I de Bourgogne and Stephanie, de Longwy, in 1080. Sibylle died after 1103. Another name for Sibylle was Matilda of Burgundy-Ivrea.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 230 F    i. Hélie, of Burgundy 248 249 was born about 1080 and died on 28 Feb 1141 in Abbey of Perseigne about age 61.

173. Robert, Bishop of Langres (Henry, of Burgundy135, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1059 and died in 1111 at age 52.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Henry of Burgundy

174. Beatrice, of Burgundy 171 (Henry, of Burgundy135, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1063 and died after 1110.

Beatrice married Guy III de Vignory, Seigneur de Vignory,250 son of Guy II "le Rouge" de Vignory and Hildegarde de Bar-sur-Aube, after 1082. Guy died 1125 or 1126.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 1125 and d. 1126


The child from this marriage was:

+ 231 F    i. Adélarde de Vignory 251 died after 1140.

175. Reginald, Abbot of St. Pierre (Henry, of Burgundy135, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1065 and died in 1092 at age 27.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Henry of Burgundy



176. Henry, of Burgundy, Count of Portugal 121 172 173 (Henry, of Burgundy135, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1069 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 1 Nov 1112 at age 43. Other names for Henry were Henri of Burgundy, Count of Portugal, Henrique of Burgundy, Count of Portugal, Henry I de Bourgogne, and Henry I Count of Portugal.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry, Count of Portugal :

Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal (1066 -1112 ) was Count of Portugal from 1093 to his death. He was the son of Henry of Burgundy , heir of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy , and brother of Hugh I, Duke of Burgundy and Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy . His name is Henri in modern French , Henricus in Latin , Enrique in modern Spanish and Henrique in modern Portuguese . He was a distant cousin of Raymond of Burgundy and Pope Callistus II .
As a younger son, Henry had little chances of acquiring fortune and titles by inheritance, thus he joined the Reconquista against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula . He helped king Alfonso VI of Castile and León conquer modern Galicia and the north of Portugal and in reward he married Alfonso's daughter Theresa, Countess of Portugal in 1093 , receiving the County of Portugal , then a fiefdom of the Kingdom of León , as a dowry .

From Teresa, Henry had three sons and three daughters. The only son to survive childhood was Afonso Henriques , who became the second Count of Portugal in 1112. However, the young man Afonso was energetic and expanded his dominions at the expense of Muslims . In 1139 , he declared himself King of Portugal after reneging the subjugation to León, in open confrontation with his mother. Two daughters also survived childhood, Urraca and Sancha. Urraca Henriques married a Bermudo Peres de Trava, Count of Trastamara. Sancha Henriques married a nobleman, Sancho Nunes de Celanova.

Henry married Theresa, of Leon and Castile,121 daughter of Alfonso VI "the Brave", of Castile, King of Castile and Leon and Ximena Nunia de Guzman, in 1093. Theresa was born about 1070 in <Toledo, Castile>, Spain and died on 1 Nov 1130 about age 60. Another name for Theresa was Teresa Alfonsez of Léon and Castile.

Research Notes: Natural daughter of Alkfonso VI by his mistress Ximena Nunia de Guzman.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 232 M    i. Afonso I, King of Portugal 252 253 was born on 25 Jul 1109 in Viseu, Viseu, Portugal, died on 6 Dec 1185 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal at age 76, and was buried in Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

177. Helie (Henry, of Burgundy135, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: A nun.

Source: Wikipedia - Henry of Burgundy

178. Urraca, of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon 65 176 177 (Constance, of Burgundy136, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1082 in <Burgos, Castile>, Spain and died on 8 Mar 1126 in Saldana, Palencia, Spain about age 44. Other names for Urraca were Urraca of Léon, Urraca I Queen of Léon and Castile, and Urraca Alfonsez of Castile and Léon.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Urraca of León and Castile :

Urraca of León (1078 - March 8 , 1126 ) was Queen of León and Castile from 1109 to her death. She was the first woman ever to reign in a western European monarchy. Urraca was the daughter of Alfonso VI of León by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy . She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Uclés (1108) .
In childhood, she was betrothed to and later married Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). The widow Urraca was now ruler of Galicia, and as She her father's only surviving legitimate child, she could claim to be heiress of the reign of Castile. King Alfonso VI of León selected the king of Navarre and Aragon, Alfonso I of Aragon as her husband. They had hoped for an alliance that would safeguard the kingdom, since Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. However, the marriage proved barren and turned exceedingly bitter. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir , Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

Urraca and Alfonso of Aragon were also second cousins, and Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo , objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguineous . Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón . Their inability to produce a child created a rift, and Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. The royal couple were soon separated. By October of 1110 or 1111, her supporters fought a battle against Alfonso's forces at Candespina , in which her premier nobleman and former aspirant to her hand, count Gómez González , was killed. A further defeat was inflicted at Viadangos , at which Pedro Froilaz de Traba was captured. Their marriage was annulled in 1114. Urraca never remarried, though she took as lover another powerful nobleman, count Pedro González de Lara.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry , the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon . He alternatively allied with Alfonso I of Aragon , then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.
According to the Chronicon Compostellanum , Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The supposed father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. However the author of the chronicles was openly hostile to the adulterous queen, and the historian Reilly notes that a pregnancy was unlikely at the queen's age of 48. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII .

Illegitimate children
Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover, Pedro González de Lara. She recognized their son, Fernando Perez Furtado , in 1123.

Noted events in her life were:

• Queen of Léon and Castile: 1109-1126.

Urraca married Raymond, of Burgundy, Count of Amous,194 195 son of Guillaume I de Bourgogne and Stephanie, de Longwy, about 1087 in Toledo, Castile, Spain. Raymond was born about 1060 in <Dijon>, France and died on 26 Mar 1107 in Grajal do Campos, Léon, Spain about age 47. Other names for Raymond were Raimundo of Burgundy and Raymond de Bourgogne.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1065

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. September 1107. FamilySearch has d. 24 Mar 1107.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Raymond of Burgundy :

Raymond of Burgundy (Spanish and Portuguese : Raimundo) was the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy and was Count of Amous . He came to the Iberian Peninsula for the first time during the period 1086-1087 with Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy . He came for the second time (1090) to marry Urraca of Castile , eventual heiress of Alfonso VI of Castile , King of León and Castile .
He came with his cousin Henry of Burgundy , who married the other daughter of Alfonso VI, Teresa of León (or Portugal ). By his marriage Raymond received the County of Galicia , the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra . The last two were later offered to Henry of Burgundy, father of the first Portuguese King Afonso I Henriques of Portugal .

He was succeeded by his son:
Alfonso VII of Castile and Leon (1104/1105-1157)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 233 F    i. InfantaSancha was born before 1095.

+ 234 M    ii. Alfonso VII, King of Castile and Léon 65 254 255 was born on 1 Mar 1105 in Toledo, Castile, Spain, died on 21 Aug 1157 in La Fresneda, Teruel, Aragon, Spain at age 52, and was buried in Catedral De Toledo, Toledo, Castile.

179. Aelis de Dammartin 121 (Hugues de Dammartin, Count of Dammartin137, Constance Capet109, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1084 in Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne, France.

Aelis married Aubrey, de Mello,121 son of Gilbert, Baron of Mello and Unknown, about 1104. Aubrey was born about 1080 in <Mello, Oise>, France. Another name for Aubrey was Aubrey de Mello.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 235 M    i. Alberic I, Count of Dammartin 121 was born about 1110 in <Dammartin, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died in 1183 about age 73.

180. Rohese FitzRichard de Clare 34 181 (Richard I, of Clare and Tonbridge138, Giselbert "Crispin" de110, Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1055 in Tunbridge, Kent, England and died in 1121 in England about age 66. Other names for Rohese were Rohese de Clare, Rohesia de Clare, and Rohese FitzRichard de Clare.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1067, Tunbridge, Kent, England.

Rohese married Eudo de Rie,34 256 257 son of Hubert de Rie and Unknown,. Eudo was born about 1047 in <Normandy, France> and died about 1120 about age 73. Other names for Eudo were Eudea De Rie, Eudo FitzHubert, and Eudo "le Dapfier" de Rie.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1063, Normandy, France.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eudo Dapifer :

Eudo Dapifer or Eudo `le Dapifer' de Rie (1047c - 1120) was a Norman aristocrat favoured by William the Conqueror .

This Eudo was the fourth son of Hubert de Rie, the loyal vassal who saved the life of Duke William in his flight from Valognes by mounting him on a fresh horse, and misleading his pursuers, who were close upon his heels (vide vol. i, p. 23). Three of Hubert's four sons were directed by him to escort the Duke, and not leave him till he was safe in Falaise . Whether Eudo was one of the three we know not, as Orderic does not name them; but as they must all have been young at that time, and Eudo the youngest of the four, it is probable that Ralph, Hubert, and Adam were the guides and guardians of their youthful prince, themselves not much his seniors.

Eudo, the fourth son, continuing here in King William's service, obtained from him divers lordships in sundry counties, viz, in Essex twenty-five, in Hertfordshire seven, in Berkshire one, in Bedfordshire twelve, in Norfolk nine, and in Suffolk ten; and personally attending the court it so happened that William Fitz Osbern, then steward of the household, had set before the King the flesh of a crane scarce half roasted, whereat the King took such offence as that he lifted up his fist and had stricken him fiercely but that Eudo bore (warded off) the blow. Whereupon Fitz Osborn grew so displeased as that he quitted his office, desiring that Eudo might have it. To which request the King, as well for his father Hubert's demerits and his own, at the desire of Fitz Osbern readily yielded.

Eudo became Dapifer after the departure of the Earl for Normandy, and for seventeen years enjoyed the favour of his sovereign, and being in attendance on the dying Conqueror at Rouen , was mainly instrumental to the securing of the crown to Rufus , whom he accompanied to England, and by his representations obtained from William de Pontarche the keys of the treasury at Winchester , wherein the regalia, as well as the money, was deposited. Thence he hastened to Dover , and bound the governor of the castle by a solemn oath that he would not yield it to any one but by his advice.

Pevensey , Hastings , and other maritime strongholds he managed to secure in like manner, pretending that the King, whose death was still rumoured in secret, would stay longer in Normandy, and desired to have good assurances of the safety of his castles in England from himself, his then steward.

Returning to Winchester he publicly announced the death of the Conqueror; so, while the nobles were consulting together in Normandy respecting the succession, William II, by Eudo's policy, was proclaimed King in England.

His great service was duly appreciated by Rufus, in whose favour he remained during his whole reign, and in 1096/7 founded the Church of St. Peter's at Colchester , he himself laying the first stone, Rohesia, his wife, the second, and Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare, her brother, the third.

On the death of Rufus he was coldly looked upon by the new King, Henry , who suspected him of being a partisan of his brother Robert Court-heuse, but subsequently was reconciled to him and visited him when he was dying in his Castle of Préaux, and advised him as to the disposition of his temporal estates.

To his Abbey at Colchester, wherein he desired to be buried, he bequeathed one hundred pounds in money, his gold ring with a topaz, a standing cup and cover adorned with plates of gold, his horse and a mule, and in addition to the lands he had endowed it with on its foundation, he bestowed on it his manor of Brightlingsea .

His body was brought over to England, and according to the desire expressed in his will, buried at Colchester on the morrow preceding the kalends of March, 1120 (20th of Henry I).

By his wife Rohesia, daughter of Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare or de Bienfaite , and Rohesia, only daughter of Walter Giffard, the first Earl of Buckingham, he left issue one sole daughter and heir, named Margaret, married to William de Mandeville , and mother of Geoffrey de Mandeville , first Earl of Essex, to secure whose services King Stephen and the Empress Maude appear to have bid against each other to a fabulous extent. Dying excommunicated for outrages committed on the monks of Ramsey, his corpse was carried by some Knights Templars into their orchard in the Old Temple at London , arrayed in the habit of the Order, and after being enclosed in lead, hung on a branch of a tree, where it remained until absolution being obtained from Pope Alexander II , by the intercession of the Prior of Walden, it was, taken down and privately buried in the porch of the New Temple, where his effigy is still to be seen.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 236 F    i. Margaret de Rie 34 258 was born in 1065 in <Rycott, Oxford>, England and died in <England>.

181. Robert Fitz Richard, Lord of Little Dunmow, Essex 182 183 (Richard I, of Clare and Tonbridge138, Giselbert "Crispin" de110, Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1064 and died about 1136 about age 72. Another name for Robert was Robert FitzRichard Lord of Little Dunmow, Essex.

Research Notes: First husband of Maud de St. Liz.

From Wikipedia - Robert Fitz Richard :

Robert Fitz Richard (1064-1136), entitled Robert Fitz Richard, Lord of Little Dunmow, Baron of Baynard , was a Norman landowner in England. His estates near Little Dunmow are said[1] to have been given to him after confiscation from Ralph Baynard , who had them earlier[2].

He was steward under Henry I of England [3] and under Stephen of England [4]. He served for a period as High Sheriff of Yorkshire

Family
He was the son of Sir Richard Fitz Gilbert , Lord of Clare and Tonbridge (c. 1035-1090) and Rohese Giffard, (b. c. 1034), daughter of Sir Walter Giffard, Lord of Longueville ,[5] and Agnes Flatel.[6]

He married (c. 1114), Maud de St. Liz, daughter of Sir Simon de St Liz, Earl of Northampton , and Maud de Huntingdon .

Children were:
Sir Walter Fitz Robert , (b. c. 1124).
Maud Fitz Robert, (b. c. 1132), Essex , who married (c. 1146, William d'Aubigny , son of Sir William d'Aubigny, Lord of Belvoir , and Cecily Bigod.


Noted events in his life were:

• Steward: under Henry II.

• High Sheriff: of Yorkshire.

• Steward: under Stephen of England.

Robert married Maud de St. Liz,259 260 261 daughter of Simon de Senlis, Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton and Maud, of Huntingdon, about 1114. Maud died in 1140. Other names for Maud were Matilda of St Liz, Maud de Senlis, and Maud de Senliz.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots, line 130-27 has "d. 1140 (or 1158/63?)"

Research Notes: From Magna Charta Barons, p. 120:

Saier de Quincey, who had a grant from Henry II. of the manor of Bushby, Northamptonshire. He m. Maud de St. Liz, probably a daughter of Simon de St. Liz, a noble Norman, who was created Earl of Northampton and Huntingdon, and his wife Maud, daughter and coheiress of Waltheof, first Earl of Northampton and Northumberland, who, conspiring against the Normans, was beheaded, in 1075, at Winchester, although his wife was a niece of the Conqueror. Waltheof was the son of Syward, the celebrated Saxon Earl of Northumberland.

182. Gilbert FitzRichard, de Clare 184 185 186 187 (Richard I, of Clare and Tonbridge138, Giselbert "Crispin" de110, Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1065 in <Clare, Suffolk>, England and died about 1115 in <England> about age 50. Other names for Gilbert were Gilbert FitzRichard de Clare and Gilbert Fitz Richard Earl of Clare and Lord of Tonbridge.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019557.htm has b. 1065

Death Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019557.htm has d. 1114

Research Notes: Lord of Clare, Tonbridge, and Cardigan, Wales; or Earl of Clare, Lord of Tonbridge and Cardigan.

From Wikipedia - Gilbert Fitz Richard :

Gilbert Fitz Richard (1065-1115) was son and heir of Richard Fitz Gilbert , earl of Clare, and heiress Rohese Giffard. He succeeded to his father's possessions in England in 1090; his brother, Roger Fitz Richard, inherited his father's lands in Normandy . Earl Gilbert's inheritance made him one of the wealthiest magnates in early twelfth-century England.

Gilbert may have been present at the suspicious death of William II in the New Forest in 1100. He was granted lands and the Lordship of Cardigan by Henry I , including Cardigan Castle . He and his wife Adeliza had nine children, two of whom became peers of the realm . He founded the Cluniac priory at Stoke-by-Clare, Suffolk.


Noted events in his life were:

• Lord of Clare, Tonbridge and Cardigan:

• Founded: Priory of Clare, 1090, Stoke-by-Clare, Suffolk, England. Cluniac priory

Gilbert married Adelaide de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,212 262 263 daughter of Hugh de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Marguerite de Rameru, about 1083. Adelaide was born about 1058 in <Northamptonshire, England> and died in <England>. Other names for Adelaide were Alice de Claremont, Adeliza de Clermont, and Adeliza de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis.

Marriage Notes: FamilySearch has m. bef. 1076 in England. Thepeerage.com has m. abt 1083.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. by 1072, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019558.htm has b. 1058.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 237 F    i. Adeliza de Clare 264 265 266 was born between 1066 and 1080 in <Essex, England> and died about 1163 in <Clare, Suffolk, England>.

+ 238 M    ii. Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford 34 267 268 269 was born between 1084 and 1090 in <Hertford, Hertfordshire>, England, was christened in Clare, Suffolk, England, died on 15 Apr 1136 in [near Abergavenny], Monmouthshire, England, and was buried in Gloucester.

+ 239 F    iii. Rohese FitzRichard 187 was born about 1090 in <Clare, Suffolk>, England and died in 1149 in England about age 59.

+ 240 M    iv. Baldwin FitzGilbert de Clare, Lord of Bourne, Deeping and Skellingthorpe 270 271 was born about 1092 and died in 1154 about age 62.

+ 241 M    v. Gilbert FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke 212 270 272 was born about 1100 and died on 6 Jan 1148 about age 48.

183. Bertrade, de Montfort 189 (Agnes d'Évreux139, Richard, Count of Évreux111, Robert II, Count of Évreux88, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1070 and died on 14 Feb 1117 in <Fontevraud Abbey> about age 47. Another name for Bertrade was Beatrice de Montfort.

Research Notes: 5th wife of Fulk IV. "Abducted" by King Philip I of France in 1092.

From Wikipedia - Bertrade de Montfort :

Bertrade de Montfort (c. 1070-14 February 1117) was the daughter of Simon I de Montfort and Agnes, Countess of Evreux . Her brother was Amauri de Montfort .


Marriages
The oft-married Fulk IV, Count of Anjou was married to the mother of his son in 1089, when the lovely Bertrade caught his eye. According to the chronicler John of Marmoutier :
The lecherous Fulk then fell passionately in love with the sister of Amaury of Montfort, whom no good man ever praised save for her beauty. For her sake, he divorced the mother of Geoffrey II Martel…

Bertrade and Fulk were married, and they became the parents of a son, Fulk , but in 1092 Bertrade left her husband and took up with King Philip I of France . Philip married her on 15 May 1092, despite the fact that they both had spouses living. He was so enamoured of Bertrade that he refused to leave her even when threatened with excommunication . Pope Urban II did excommunicate him in 1095, and Philip was prevented from taking part in the First Crusade . Astonishingly, Bertrade persuaded Philip and Fulk to be friends.

Children
With Fulk IV, Count of Anjou :
Fulk of Jerusalem , Count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem (1089/92 - 1143)

With Philip I of France :
Philippe de France, Count of Mantes (living in 1123)
Fleury de France, seigneur of Nangis (living in 1118)
Cecile of France (died 1145), married (1) Tancred, Prince of Galilee ; married (2) Pons of Tripoli

Later life
According to Orderic Vitalis , Bertrade was anxious that one of her sons succeed Philip, and sent a letter to King Henry I of England asking him to arrest her stepson Louis . Orderic also claims she sought to kill Louis first through the arts of sorcery, and then through poison. Whatever the truth of these allegations, Louis succeeded Philip in 1108. Bertrade lived on until 1117; William of Malmesbury says: "Bertrade, still young and beautiful, took the veil at Fontevraud Abbey , always charming to men, pleasing to God, and like an angel." Her son from her first marriage was Fulk V of Anjou who later became King of Jerusalem iure uxoris . The dynasties founded by Fulk's sons ruled for centuries, one of them in England (Plantagenet ), the other in Jerusalem .

Bertrade married Fulk IV "le Réchin", Count of Anjou,273 274 275 son of Aubri-Geoffrey, Count of the Gâtinais and Ermengarde, of Anjou, in 1089. Fulk was born in 1043 in Anjou, France and died on 14 Apr 1109 at age 66.

Research Notes: From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871918 :

Count of Anjou and chronicler. Having inhereted the right to Touraine and Chateau-Landon, half of the Angevin inheritance, from his uncle, Geoffrey Martel I, Fulk went to war against his brother Geoffrey, captured and imprisoned him in 1066 and took Anjou and Saintonge, Geoffrey's half of the inheritance, into his domains. The Chronicle of the Counts of Anjou tells that his wife eloped with Philip I of France (RIN # 1332) in 1107. Fulk himself was the initiator of this work in the 1090's, chronicling his forbearers. (This reference is not to his first wife Hildegard, RIN #1763)
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 20,30,33-7

---
From Wikipedia - Fulk IV, Count of Anjou :

Fulk IV (1043-1109), called le Réchin, was the Count of Anjou from 1068 until his death. The nickname by which he is usually referred has no certain translation. Philologists have made numerous very different suggestions, including "quarreler", "sullen", and "heroic".

Biography
He was the younger son of Geoffrey, Count of Gâtinais (sometimes known as Aubri), and Ermengarde of Anjou , a daughter of Fulk the Black , count of Anjou, and sister of Geoffrey Martel , also count of Anjou.

When Geoffrey Martel died without direct heirs he left Anjou to his nephew Geoffrey III of Anjou , Fulk le Réchin's older brother.

Fulk fought with his brother, whose rule was deemed incompetent, and captured him in 1067. Under pressure from the Church he released Geoffrey. The two brothers soon fell to fighting again, and the next year Geoffrey was again imprisoned by Fulk, this time for good.

Substantial territory was lost to Angevin control due to the difficulties resulting from Geoffrey's poor rule and the subsequent civil war. Saintonge was lost, and Fulk had to give the Gâtinais to Philip I of France to placate the king.

Much of Fulk's rule was devoted to regaining control over the Angevin baronage, and to a complex struggle with Normandy for influence in Maine and Brittany .

In 1096 Fulk wrote an incomplete history of Anjou and its rulers titled Fragmentum historiae Andegavensis or "History of Anjou", though the authorship and authenticity of this work is disputed. Only the first part of the history, describing Fulk's ancestry, is extant. The second part, supposedly describing Fulk's own rule, has not been recovered. If he did write it, it is one of the first medieval works of history written by a layman.[1]

Fulk may have married as many as five times; there is some doubt regarding two of the marriages.
His first wife was Hildegarde of Baugency . After her death, before 1070, he married Ermengarde de Borbon , and then possibly Orengarde de Châtellailon . Both these were repudiated (Ermengarde de Borbon in 1075 and Orengarde de Chatellailon in 1080), possibly on grounds of consanguinity.

By 1080 he may have married Mantie , daughter of Walter I of Brienne . This marriage also ended in divorce, in 1087. Finally, he married Bertrade de Montfort , who was apparently "abducted" by King Philip I of France in 1092.

He had two sons. The eldest (a son of Ermengarde de Borbon), Geoffrey IV Martel , ruled jointly with him for some time, but died in 1106. The younger (a son of Bertrade de Montfort) succeeded him as Fulk V .

He also had a daughter by Hildegarde of Baugency, Ermengarde , who married firstly with William IX , count of Poitou and duke of Aquitaine and secondly with Alan IV, Duke of Brittany .

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Anjou: 1068-1109.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 242 M    i. Fulk V "the Young", Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem 276 277 278 was born in 1092 in Angers, France and died on 10 Nov 1144 in Acre, Palestine at age 52.

184. Amaury de Montfort 90 (Agnes d'Évreux139, Richard, Count of Évreux111, Robert II, Count of Évreux88, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1070 in <Montfort Amaury, Île-de-France, France> and died in 1137 about age 67. Another name for Amaury was Amauri de Montfort.

Amaury married Agnes de Garlende,90 daughter of Anselm de Garlende and < > de Montlhéry, in 1120 in Garlende, France. Agnes was born about 1095 in <Garlende>, France. Another name for Agnes was Agnes de Garlende.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 243 F    i. Agnes de Montfort 90 was born about 1123 in <Montfort-de-Risle, Eure>, France and died on 15 Dec 1181 about age 58.

185. Ranulph II, Vicomte of Bayeux in Normandy 7 191 192 (Alice, of Normandy140, Richard III, Duke of Normandy112, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1048 in <Normandy, France> and died after Apr 1089. Other names for Ranulph were Ranulf de Briquessart, Ranulf de Gernon Viscomte de Bessin, and Ranulf de Meschines Vicomte de Bayeux.

Research Notes: Adult by 1066

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132B-25
--------
From Wikipedia - Ranulf de Briquessart :

Ranulf de Briquessart[1] or Ranulf the Viscount (died c. 1089 or soon after) was an 11th century Norman magnate and viscount . Ranulf's family were connected to the House of Normandy by marriage, and, besides Odo , bishop of Bayeux , was the most powerful magnate in the Bessin region.[2] He married Margaret, daughter of Richard Goz, viscount of the Avranchin , whose son and successor Hugh d'Avranches became Earl of Chester in England c. 1070.[3]

Ranulf is probably the "Ranulf the viscount" who witnessed a charter of William , Duke of Normandy , at Caen on 17 June 1066.[4] Ranulf helped preside over a judgement in the curia of King William (as duke) in 1076 in which a disputed mill was awarded to the Abbey of Mont St. Michael .[5] On 14 July 1080 he witnessed a charter to the Abbey of Lessay (in the diocese of Coutances ), another in the same year addressed to Remigius de Fécamp bishop of Lincoln in favour of the Abbey of Préaux .[6] and one more in the same period, 1079 x 1082, to the Abbey of St Stephen of Caen .[7] His name is attached to a memorandum in 1085, and on 24 April 1089 he witnessed a confirmation of Robert Curthose , Duke of Normandy and Count of Maine to St Mary of Bayeaux, where he appears below his son in the witness list.[8]

He probably died sometime after this. His son Ranulf le Meschin became ruler of Cumberland and later Earl of Chester.[9] The Durham Liber Vitae , c. 1098 x 1120, shows that his eldest son was one Richard, who died in youth, and that he had another son named William.[10] He also had a daughter called Agnes, who later married Robert de Grandmesnil (died 1136).[9]

Noted events in his life were:

• Adult: by 1066.

• Living: 1089.

Ranulph married Maud d'Avranches,7 279 280 daughter of Richard le Goz, Viscomte d'Avranches and Emma de Conteville, about 1069 in Avranches, Normandy, France. Maud was born about 1054 in <Avranches, Normandy, France>. Other names for Maud were Margaret d'Avranches and Maud de Abrincis.

Research Notes: Sister of Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132B-25 (Ranulph II)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 244 M    i. Ranulf le Meschin, 3rd Earl of Chester 7 281 282 283 284 was born about 1070 in <Briquessart, Livry, France>, died on 17 Jan 1129 in Chester, Cheshire, England about age 59, and was buried in St Werburgh, Chester, Cheshire, England.

+ 245 M    ii. William le Meschin, Lord of Skipton-in-Craven, Yorkshire 7 285 286 was born about 1100 in <Gernon Castle, Normandy, France>.

186. Raymond, of Burgundy, Count of Amous 194 195 (Guillaume I de Bourgogne141, Adelais, de Normandie113, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1060 in <Dijon>, France and died on 26 Mar 1107 in Grajal do Campos, Léon, Spain about age 47. Other names for Raymond were Raimundo of Burgundy and Raymond de Bourgogne.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1065

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. September 1107. FamilySearch has d. 24 Mar 1107.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Raymond of Burgundy :

Raymond of Burgundy (Spanish and Portuguese : Raimundo) was the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy and was Count of Amous . He came to the Iberian Peninsula for the first time during the period 1086-1087 with Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy . He came for the second time (1090) to marry Urraca of Castile , eventual heiress of Alfonso VI of Castile , King of León and Castile .
He came with his cousin Henry of Burgundy , who married the other daughter of Alfonso VI, Teresa of León (or Portugal ). By his marriage Raymond received the County of Galicia , the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra . The last two were later offered to Henry of Burgundy, father of the first Portuguese King Afonso I Henriques of Portugal .

He was succeeded by his son:
Alfonso VII of Castile and Leon (1104/1105-1157)

Raymond married Urraca, of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon,65 176 177 daughter of Alfonso VI "the Brave", of Castile, King of Castile and Leon and Constance, of Burgundy, about 1087 in Toledo, Castile, Spain. Urraca was born about 1082 in <Burgos, Castile>, Spain and died on 8 Mar 1126 in Saldana, Palencia, Spain about age 44. Other names for Urraca were Urraca of Léon, Urraca I Queen of Léon and Castile, and Urraca Alfonsez of Castile and Léon.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Urraca of León and Castile :

Urraca of León (1078 - March 8 , 1126 ) was Queen of León and Castile from 1109 to her death. She was the first woman ever to reign in a western European monarchy. Urraca was the daughter of Alfonso VI of León by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy . She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Uclés (1108) .
In childhood, she was betrothed to and later married Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). The widow Urraca was now ruler of Galicia, and as She her father's only surviving legitimate child, she could claim to be heiress of the reign of Castile. King Alfonso VI of León selected the king of Navarre and Aragon, Alfonso I of Aragon as her husband. They had hoped for an alliance that would safeguard the kingdom, since Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. However, the marriage proved barren and turned exceedingly bitter. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir , Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

Urraca and Alfonso of Aragon were also second cousins, and Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo , objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguineous . Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón . Their inability to produce a child created a rift, and Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. The royal couple were soon separated. By October of 1110 or 1111, her supporters fought a battle against Alfonso's forces at Candespina , in which her premier nobleman and former aspirant to her hand, count Gómez González , was killed. A further defeat was inflicted at Viadangos , at which Pedro Froilaz de Traba was captured. Their marriage was annulled in 1114. Urraca never remarried, though she took as lover another powerful nobleman, count Pedro González de Lara.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry , the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon . He alternatively allied with Alfonso I of Aragon , then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.
According to the Chronicon Compostellanum , Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The supposed father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. However the author of the chronicles was openly hostile to the adulterous queen, and the historian Reilly notes that a pregnancy was unlikely at the queen's age of 48. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII .

Illegitimate children
Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover, Pedro González de Lara. She recognized their son, Fernando Perez Furtado , in 1123.

Noted events in her life were:

• Queen of Léon and Castile: 1109-1126.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 178)

187. Ermentrude, of Burgundy 84 196 (Guillaume I de Bourgogne141, Adelais, de Normandie113, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1060 in Burgundy, France and died after 8 Mar 1105.

Ermentrude married Thierry I, Count of Montbéliard & Bar-le-Duc,84 287 son of Louis, Count of Montbéliard and Sophia, Countess of Bar-le-Duc, in 1076. Thierry was born about 1045 in <Bar-le-Duc, Meuse>, France and died on 2 Jan 1105 about age 60. Another name for Thierry was Dietrich I Count of Montbéliard & Bar-le-Duc.

Research Notes: Count of Bar-le-Duc by right of his wife.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 246 M    i. Renaud I, Count of Mousson, Count of Bar-le-Duc 84 288 was born about 1077 in Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, France and died on 10 Mar 1149 about age 72.

188. Gisele, of Burgundy 121 197 (Guillaume I de Bourgogne141, Adelais, de Normandie113, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1070 in <Bourgogne, Champagne, France> and died after 1133. Other names for Gisele were Gille de Bourgogne and Gisela de Bourgogne.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1060 in Bourgogne

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. after 1133

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 101-24 (Louis VI) and line 274A-24 (Humbert II).

Gisele married Humbert II "Le Renforcé", Count of Maurienne and Savoy,65 289 son of Amadeus II, Count of Maurienne and Savoy, Margrave of Susa and Jeanne, of Geneva, about 1090. Humbert was born about 1062 in <Savoie>, France, died on 14 Oct 1103 about age 41, and was buried on 19 Oct 1103.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 274A-24 (new to 8th edition) and line 101-24 (Louis VI)

Noted events in his life were:

• Marquis of Turin:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 247 F    i. Adelaide, of Savoy 290 was born about 1092 and died on 1 Aug 1154 about age 62.

+ 248 M    ii. Amadeus III, Count of Savoy, Maurienne and Turin 291 was born about 1095 in <Savoie>, France and died on 30 Aug 1148 in Cyprus about age 53.

189. Sibylle, of Burgundy-Ivrea 198 (Guillaume I de Bourgogne141, Adelais, de Normandie113, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died after 1103. Another name for Sibylle was Matilda of Burgundy-Ivrea.

Sibylle married Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy,169 170 son of Henry, of Burgundy and < >, [Not Sibylle of Barcelona], in 1080. Eudes was born about 1058 and died on 23 Mar 1103 in Cilicia about age 45. Other names for Eudes were Eudes I "the Red" of Burgundy and Eudes I Borel of Burgundy.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy :

Eudes I, surnamed Borel and called the Red, (1058-23 March 1103 ) was Duke of Burgundy between 1079 and 1103. Eudes was the second son of Henry of Burgundy and grandson of Robert I . He became the duke following the abdication of his older brother, Hugh I, who retired to become a Benedictine monk. Eudes married Sibylla of Burgundy (1065 - 1101), daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy .

They had:
Florine of Burgundy 1083-1097
Helie of Burgundy 1080-1141 wife of Bertrand of Toulouse and William III of Ponthieu
Hugh II of Burgundy
Henry d.1131

An interesting incident is reported of this robber baron by an eyewitness, Eadmer , biographer of Anselm of Canterbury . While Saint Anselm was progressing through Eudes's territory on his way to Rome in 1097, the bandit, expecting great treasure in the archbishop's retinue, prepared to ambush and loot it. Coming upon the prelate's train, the duke asked for the archbishop, whom they had not found. Anselm promptly came forward and took the duke by surprise, saying "My lord duke, suffer me to embrace thee." The flabbergasted duke immediately allowed the bishop to embrace him and offered himself as Anselm's humble servant.

He was a participant in the ill-fated Crusade of 1101 .

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Burgundy: 1079-1103.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 172)

190. Judith, of Lens 42 145 199 (Adelaide, of Normandy, Countess of Aumale143, Robert I, Duke of Normandy114, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1054 in <Lens, Artois>, France. Another name for Judith was Judith of Boulogne.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 130-25, also 98A-23. From note for Line 148-22 (after 22. Lambert of Boulogne): "Judith of Lens (Gen. 23 in previous editions) appears to have been Adelaide's child by her first marriage to Enguerrand II. See Judith of Lens (130-25, 98A-23) for her descendants.)

Here father was previously thought to be Lambert II, Count of Lens (e.g., in Magna Charta Barons, p. 81).

Judith married Waltheof II, Earl of Northumberland,42 145 292 son of Sigurd, Earl of Northumberland and Aelfflaed, of Bernicia, in 1070 in Artois, France. Waltheof was born in 1050, died on 31 May 1076 in Winchester, (Hampshire), England at age 26, and was buried in Chapter House of Croyland Abbey, Winchester, Hampshire, England.

Death Notes: Beheaded

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria :

Waltheof (1050 -31 May 1076 ), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls . He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I . He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character.

Early Life
He was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria . His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia , son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria . In 1054, Waltheof's brother, Osbearn, who was much older than him, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father's heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact, around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire . Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William's court until 1068.

First revolt
When Sweyn II invaded Northern England in 1069 Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York . He would again make a fresh submission to William after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens . In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton .

The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire , is now part of the city of Sheffield .

In 1072, William expelled Gospatric from the earldom of Northumbria. Gospatric was Waltheof's cousin and had taken part in the attack on York with him, but like Waltheof, had been pardoned by William. Gospatric fled into exile and William appointed Waltheof as the new earl.

Waltheof had many enemies in the north. Amongst them were members of a family who had killed Waltheof's maternal great-grandfather, Uchtred the Bold , and his grandfather Ealdred . This was part of a long-running blood feud. In 1074, Waltheof moved against the family by sending his retainers to ambush them, succeeding in killing the two eldest of four brothers.

Second revolt and death
In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. His motives for taking part in the revolt are unclear, as is the depth of his involvement. However he repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc , and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy . He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death.

He spent almost a year in confinement before being beheaded on May 31 , 1076 at St. Giles's Hill , near Winchester . He was said to have spent the months of his captivity in prayer and fasting. Many people believed in his innocence and were surprised when the execution was carried out. His body was initially thrown in a ditch, but was later retrieved and was buried in the chapter house of Croyland Abbey .

Family and children
In 1070 he married Judith of Lens , daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy , Countess of Aumale . They had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Maud , brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland , and another of whom, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny .

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose .

Noted events in his life were:

• Earl of Northampton:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 249 F    i. Maud, of Huntingdon 223 293 294 was born about 1074 and died in 1131 about age 57.

+ 250 F    ii. Alice Huntingdon 42 145 was born about 1085 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died after 1126.

191. Sibyl de Neufmarché 62 202 (Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon144, Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1096 in <Aberconwy, Wales> and died after 1143 in Gloucestershire, England.

Sibyl married Miles, of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford,62 295 296 son of Walter FitzRoger, of Gloucester and Bertha, in 1121. Miles was born about 1100 in <Gloucester, Gloucestershire, > England, died on 24 Dec 1143 about age 43, and was buried in Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales. Other names for Miles were Miles de Gloucester 1st Earl of Hereford and Milo de Gloucester 1st Earl of Hereford.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1092

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford :

Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford, Lord of Brecknock (1100-24 December 1143 ), was the son of Walter de Gloucester , who appears as sheriff of that county between 1104 and 1121.
Milo or Miles succeeded his father about the latter year.
He was high in the service of Henry I between 1130 and 1135, he was Constable of England and combined the hereditary office of Sheriff of Gloucester with that of local justiciar for Gloucestershire .

Civil war allegiances
After the death of King Henry he declared for Stephen , at whose court he appears as constable in 1136. King Stephen granted him the honour of Gloucester and Brecknock . However, in 1139, when the empress Matilda appeared in England, he declared for her, and placed the city of Gloucester at her disposal; he was further distinguished by sacking the nearby royalist city of Worcester , attacking Stephen's siege works at Wallingford Castle and reducing the county of Hereford . He was retained as her Constable.

Earldom
In 1141, he was rewarded with the earldom of Hereford when Matilda ruled the country. He remained loyal to the Empress after her defeat at Winchester the same year. John of Salisbury classes him with Geoffrey de Mandeville and others who were non tam comites regni quam hostes publici. The charge is justified by his public policy; but the materials for appraising his personal character do not exist.

Family and children
He married Sybil de Neufmarche , daughter of Bernard de Neufmarche , Lord of Brecon and Nest, granddaughter of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn , in 1121. Their children were:
Bertha of Hereford , married William de Braose before 1150, by whom she had issue.
Roger Fitzmiles, 2nd Earl of Hereford .
Walter de Hereford died after 1159 in the Holy Land. He was Sheriff of Gloucester in 1155-1157 and Sheriff of Hereford in 1155-1159.
Henry Fitzmiles Henry of Hereford, died 12 April 1165. He succeeded to the title of Baron Abergavenny in 1141/42.
William de Hereford . He died before 1160 without issue.
Mahel de Hereford , died October 1165 at Bronllys Castle , Breconshire , Wales, mortally hurt when a stone dropped from the tower during a fire; died without issue. Buried at Llanthony Priory .
Margaret de Gloucester , married Humphrey de Bohun , by whom she had issue.
Lucy of Gloucester , married Herbert FitzHerbert of Winchester , Lord Chamberlain , by whom she had issue. Buried at Llanthony Priory .

Noted events in his life were:

• Lord High Constable of England: 1130-1135.

• Lord of Brecknock:

• Created: Earl of Hereford, 1141.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 251 F    i. Margaret, of Hereford 297 died in 1146.

+ 252 F    ii. Bertha, of Hereford 62 296 298 was born about 1130 in <Gloucester, Gloucestershire, > England.

+ 253 M    iii. Richard FitzMiles, 2nd Earl of Hereford .296

+ 254 M    iv. Walter de Hereford died after 1159 in Palestine.

+ 255 M    v. Henry FitzMiles died on 12 Apr 1165.

+ 256 M    vi. William, de Hereford 296 died before 1160.

+ 257 M    vii. Mahel, de Hereford 296 died in Oct 1165 in Bronllys Castle, Breconshire, Wales and was buried in Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales.

+ 258 F    viii. Maud, of Hereford .299

+ 259 F    ix. Lucy, of Hereford 296 300 died after 1220 and was buried in Chapter House of Lanthony, near Gloucester.

192. Ingvar "the Tall" Eysteinsson, King in Sweden [Legendary] 203 (Eysteinn, King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]145, Eadgils, King in Uppsala [Semi-Legendary]116, Ohthere, King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]91, Ongentheow, King in Sweden [Semi-legendary]74, Aun "the Old" Jorundsson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]63, Jorund Yngvasson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]53, Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary]44, Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died about 620. Other names for Ingvar were Ingvar King of Sweden and Yngvar Harra King in Sweden.

Research Notes: Legendary king of Sweden.

From Wikipedia - Ingvar :

Ingvar or Yngvar Harra, Proto-Norse *Ingu-Hariz (d. early 7th century) was the son of Östen and reclaimed the Swedish throne for the House of Yngling after the Swedes had rebelled against Sölvi .

Snorri Sturluson relates in his Ynglinga saga that King Ingvar, Östen's son, was a great warrior who often spent time patrolling the shores of his kingdom fighting Danes and pirates from the east. King Ingvar finally came to a peace agreement with the Danes and could take care of the Estonian pirates .

He consequently started pillaging in Estonia in retribution, and one summer he arrived at a place called Stein (see also Sveigder ). The Estonians (sýslu kind) assembled a great army in the interior and attacked King Ingvar in a great battle. The Estonian forces were too powerful and Ingvar fell and the Swedish forces retreated. Ingvar was buried in a mound at a place called Stone or Hill fort (at Steini) on the shores of Estonia (Aðalsýsla).


Ingvar married someone.

His child was:

+ 260 M    i. Anund "the Trail Blazer", King in Sweden [Legendary] 1 301 was born in Sweden.

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193. Bjorn "the Old" Eriksson, King of Sweden 42 (Erik Edmundsson146, Emund Eriksson117, Erik Refillsson93, Refill Bjornsson76, Bjorn "Ironside" Ragnarsson66, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 867 in <Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden> and died about 950 about age 83.

Bjorn married someone.

His child was:

+ 261 M    i. Olof "Mitkg" Bjornsson, King of Sweden 42 was born about 885 in Sweden.

194. Groa Thorsteinsdatter 3 (Thorstein "the Red" Olafsson147, Olaf "the White" Ingjaldsson, King of Ireland118, Ingjald "the White" Helgasson, Petty King in Ireland94, Thora Sigurdsdatter77, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 873 in <Hvammi, Dala, Iceland>.

Groa married Duncan, Earl of Caithness.3 Duncan was born about 871 in <Caithness, Scotland>. Another name for Duncan was Dungad Earl of Caithness.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 262 F    i. Grelod Duncansdatter 3 was born about 898 in <Caithness, Scotland>.

195. Thorgil "Sprakaleg" Styrjornsson 42 (Thyra Haraldsdatter, Queen of Norway148, Harald "the Blue Tooth" Gormsson, King of Denmark119, Geva Knudsson, King of Denmark95, Knud Sigurdsson78, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 970 in <Uppsala, Uppsala>, Sweden.

Thorgil married Sigrid.42 Sigrid was born about 971 in <Halland>, Sweden.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 263 M    i. Ulf Thorgilsson 42 was born about 993 in <Halland>, Sweden, died on 29 Sep 1027 in Roskilde, Denmark about age 34, and was buried in Hellige-Trefolg, Kirken, Roskilde, , Denmark.

196. Estrid Svensdatter, Princess of Denmark 42 (Svend I "Forked Beard", King of Denmark, Norway and England149, Harald "the Blue Tooth" Gormsson, King of Denmark119, Geva Knudsson, King of Denmark95, Knud Sigurdsson78, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 997 in Denmark and was buried in Cathedral, Roskilde, Roskilde, Denmark. Another name for Estrid was Margrete Svensdatter.

Estrid married Ulf Thorgilsson,42 son of Thorgil "Sprakaleg" Styrjornsson and Sigrid,. Ulf was born about 993 in <Halland>, Sweden, died on 29 Sep 1027 in Roskilde, Denmark about age 34, and was buried in Hellige-Trefolg, Kirken, Roskilde, , Denmark.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 264 M    i. Bjorn Ulfiusson 42 was born about 1021 in <Denmark> and died about 1049 about age 28.

197. Ralph de Toeni, de Conches 42 (Roger de, de Conches150, Ralph de, de Conches120, Ralph de, de Conches96, Roger "the Spaniard" de80, Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1130 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died in 1162 about age 32. Another name for Ralph was Ralph de Conches.

Ralph married someone.

His child was:

+ 265 M    i. Roger de Toeni 42 was born about 1156 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died about Jan 1209 about age 53.

198. Ralph de Gael de Montfort 205 (Ralph de Gael, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Suffolk & Cambridge151, Emma FitzOsbern121, Alice de Toeni97, Roger "the Spaniard" de80, Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1078 in Montfort, Normandy, France. Other names for Ralph were Ralph of Montfort, Ralph of Gael, and Ralph de Waiet Seigneur de Gael de Montfort.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

Also Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 63-25 (Sir Robert de Beaumont) - Ralph de Gael de Montfort; line 53-25 (Sir Robert de Beaumont) - Seigneur of Montford de Gael in Brittany.

Noted events in his life were:

• Seigneur of Montford de Gael: in Brittany.

Ralph married someone.

His child was:

+ 266 F    i. Amice de Gael de Montfort 2 205 220 was born about 1108 and died 31 Aug 1168 or 1169 about age 60.

199. Ingebiorg Hakonsdatter 7 (Haakon153, Paul, Jarl of Orkney and Caithness123, Thorfinn II "the Black", Earl of Orkney99, Sigurd II "Digri"82, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1106 in <Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland>.

Ingebiorg married Olave I Bitling, King of the Isle of Man,7 son of Godfred Crovan Haraldson and Unknown,. Olave was born about 1080 in <Isle of Man> and died after 1153 in Isle of Man (Mann).

The child from this marriage was:

+ 267 F    i. Ragnhild Olafsdatter 7 was born about 1117 in <Isle of Man>.

200. Adam Brus 70 (Robert de154, Ragnvald124, Brusi100, Sigurd II "Digri"82, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1051 in <Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland> and died between 1080 and 1098. Another name for Adam was Adelm Brus.

Adam married Emma Ramsey.70 Emma was born about 1062 in <Carrick, Argyllshire, Scotland>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 268 M    i. Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale 302 was born about 1071 in <Skelton, Yorkshire, England>, died on 11 May 1141 in Skelton, North Yorkshire, England about age 70, and was buried in Gisborough Priory, Guisborough, North Yorkshire, England.

201. Imergi Somerledson 3 (Somerled I Gillebrideson155, Gillebride125, Gille Adoman I Gilleson101, Hvarflad Hlodversdatter83, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1050 in <Scotland>. Another name for Imergi was Gilledoman Somerledson.

Imergi married someone.

His child was:

+ 269 M    i. Gillebride 3 was born about 1080 in <Scotland>.

202. Adela, de Rameru 208 (Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Adela married Arnold II, Count of Chiny. Arnold died in 1106.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-23 (Adelaide of Namur)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 270 M    i. Otto II, Count of Chiny died on 28 Mar 1125.

203. Beatrix de Mondidier 209 (Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died 2 Sep aft 1129.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A-23

Beatrix married Geoffroy IV, Count of Mortagne, 1st Count de Perche,303 son of Routrou II, Count of Mortagne, Viscount of Chateaudun and Adeline de Bellesme, Dame de Domfront,. Geoffroy died in 1100.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A-23 (Beatrix de Montdidier)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 271 F    i. Maud, de Perche was born in 1105 and died on 28 May 1143 at age 38.

+ 272 F    ii. Margaret de Perche 304 died after 1156.

+ 273 F    iii. Juliana, of Mortagne and Perche .305

204. Marguerite de Rameru 210 211 212 (Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born between 1045 and 1050 in <Montdidier, Somme, France> and died about 1110. Other names for Marguerite were Marguerite de Montdidier, Margaret de Mondidier, Margaret de Rameru, and Margaret de Roucy.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. abt 1050; http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f96/a0019615.htm has b. 1045.

Marguerite married Hugh de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,212 306 307 son of Renaud de Clermont and Ermengardis de Clermont, about 1080. Hugh was born about 1030 in <Clermont, Oise (Picardie), France> and died in 1101 about age 71. Other names for Hugh were Hugh Count of Clermont, Creil and Mouchy, Hugues Comte de Clermont, and Hugh de Creil Count of Clermont in Beauvaisis.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Clermont in Beauvaisis:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 274 F    i. Adelaide de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis 212 262 263 was born about 1058 in <Northamptonshire, England> and died in <England>.

+ 275 F    ii. Ermentrude de Clermont 308 was born about 1066 in <Clermont, Beauvais, France>.

+ 276 M    iii. Renaud II, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis 84 309 310 was born about 1108 in Clermont, Oise, France and died about 1162 about age 54.

205. Andre I de Rameru, and d'Arcis-sur-Aube 213 (Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died in 1118.

Andre married Adele.

Research Notes: First wife of Andre I de Rameru.

Andre next married Guisemode.311

Research Notes: Second wife of Andre I de Rameru. Widow of Hugue of Pleurs. Was she the mother of Alix de Rameru?

Noted events in her life were:

• Founded: Abbey de Bassefontaine, 1143.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 277 F    i. Alix de Rameru, Dame of Rameru .312

206. Ermengarde, de Nevers 153 215 (Renaud II de Nevers, Count of Nevers and Auxerre157, William I, Count of Nevers127, Adèle, of France, Countess of Auxerre103, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1073 in <Courtenay, Loiret>, France and died in 1095 in France about age 22.

Ermengarde married Milo, Sire de Courtenay,153 313 son of Jocelin de Courtenay and Isabel de Montlhéry, about 1095 in France. Milo was born about 1075 in <Courtenay, Loiret>, France, died after 1127, and was buried in Abbey of Fontain Jean, France. Other names for Milo were Miles Sire de Courtenay, Miles de Courtenay, and Milo de Courtenay.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1069


The child from this marriage was:

+ 278 M    i. Renaud de Courtenay, Sire de Courtenay 153 314 was born about 1125 in <Courtenay, Loiret>, France and died about 1190 about age 65.

207. Isabel de Beaumont 218 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born between 1100 and 1107 and died after 1172. Another name for Isabel was Isabella of Meulan.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Isabella of Meulan was born between 1102 and 1107.1 She was the daughter of Robert de Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois.2 She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke, son of Gilbert fitz Richard and Adeliza de Clermont . She died after 1172.2
As a result of her marriage, Isabella of Meulan was styled as Countess of Pembroke.
-----------

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Isabel de Beaumont (b Aft. 1102), a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke by whom she was mother of Richard Strongbow , who invaded Ireland 1170 ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland (this marriage is not conclusively proven)

Isabel married Gilbert FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke,212 270 272 son of Gilbert FitzRichard, de Clare and Adelaide de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,. Gilbert was born about 1100 and died on 6 Jan 1148 about age 48. Another name for Gilbert was Gilbert de Clare 1st Earl of Pembroke.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke also went by the nick-name of Gilbert 'Strongbow'. He was also known as Gilbert FitzGilbert.2 He was created 1st Earl of Pembroke [England] circa 1138.

208. Emma de Beaumont (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1102.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 ) whose fate is unknown. She was betrothed as an infant to Aumari, nephew of William, Count of Evreux, but the marriage never took place. She probably died young, or entered a convent.[2]

209. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 2 219 220 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. Another name for Robert was Robert "Bossu" de Beaumont 2nd Earl of Leicester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois -
Younger twin of Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan. Nicknamed Robert Bossu (the Humpback).

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester :

Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 - 5 April 1168 ) was Justiciar of England 1155-1168.
The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French ).

Early Life and Education
Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois . He was the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont . There is no knowing whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they probably were in fact identical.

The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William earl of Warenne or Surrey . They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy , to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119 , when the king incited them to debate philosophy with the cardinals . Both twins were literate, and Abingdon Abbey later claimed to have been Robert's school, but though this is possible, its account is not entirely trustworthy. A surviving treatise on astronomy (British Library ms Royal E xxv) carries a dedication "to Earl Robert of Leicester, that man of affairs and profound learning, most accomplished in matters of law" who can only be this Robert. On his death he left his own psalter to the abbey he founded at Leicester, which was still in its library in the late fifteenth century. The existence of this indicates that like many noblemen of his day, Robert followed the canonical hours in his chapel.

Career at the Norman Court
In 1120 Robert was declared of age and inherited most of his father's lands in England, while his twin brother took the French lands. However in 1121 , royal favour brought Robert the great Norman honors of Breteuil and Pacy-sur-Eure , with his marriage to Amice de Montfort , daughter of a Breton intruder the king had forced on the honor after the forfeiture of the Breteuil family in 1119 . Robert spent a good deal of his time and resources over the next decade integrating the troublesome and independent barons of Breteuil into the greater complex of his estates. He did not join in his brother's great Norman rebellion against King Henry I in 1123 -. He appears fitfully at the royal court despite his brother's imprisonment until 1129 . Thereafter the twins were frequently to be found together at Henry I's court.

Robert held lands throughout the country. In the 1120s and 1130s he tried to rationalise his estates in Leicestershire. Leicestershire estates of the See of Lincoln and the Earl of Chester were seized by force. This enhanced the integrity of Robert's block of estates in the central midlands, bounded by Nuneaton , Loughborough , Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough .

In 1135 , the twins were present at King Henry's deathbed. Robert's actions in the succession period are unknown, but he clearly supported his brother's decision to join the court of the new king Stephen before Easter 1136 . During the first two years of the reign Robert is found in Normandy fighting rival claimants for his honor of Breteuil. Military action allowed him to add the castle of Pont St-Pierre to his Norman estates in June 1136 at the expense of one of his rivals. From the end of 1137 Robert and his brother were increasingly caught up in the politics of the court of King Stephen in England, where Waleran secured an ascendancy which lasted till the beginning of 1141. Robert participated in his brother's political coup against the king's justiciar, Roger of Salisbury (the Bishop of Salisbury ).

...
Family and children
He married after 1120 Amice de Montfort , daughter of Ralph, senior of Gael or Montfort . They had four children:
Hawise, who married William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester ;
Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester ;
Isabel, who married with:
Simon II of St Liz, 4th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton ;
Gervase Paynel of Dudley.
Margaret, who married Ralph V de Toeni

Literary references
He is a minor character in The Holy Thief, one of the Brother Cadfael series by Ellis Peters .

Notes
^ a b c Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 69

References
D. Crouch, The Beaumont Twins: the Roots and Branches of Power in the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1986).
D. Crouch, The Reign of King Stephen, 1135-1154 (London, 2000).
E. King, "Mountsorrel and its region in King Stephen's Reign", Huntington Library Quarterly, 44 (1980), 1-10.
Leicester Abbey, ed. J. Storey, J. Bourne and R. Buckley (Leicester, 2006).
Powicke, F. Maurice and E. B. Fryde Handbook of British Chronology 2nd. ed. London:Royal Historical Society 1961
British Library ms Royal E xxv.

Noted events in his life were:

• Knighted: 1122.

• Justiciar of England: 1155-1168.

Robert married Amice de Gael de Montfort,2 205 220 daughter of Ralph de Gael de Montfort and Unknown, after 1120. Amice was born about 1108 and died 31 Aug 1168 or 1169 about age 60. Other names for Amice were Amice de Gael, Amicia, and Amice de Montfort.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 279 M    i. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester 2 315 316 was born about 1121 in Beaumont, France and died on 31 Aug 1190 in Durazzo, West Albania about age 69.

+ 280 F    ii. Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester died on 24 Apr 1197.

+ 281 F    iii. Isabel de Beaumont .

+ 282 F    iv. Margaret de Beaumont .

210. Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 90 221 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1104 in <Meulan, Île-de-France>, France, died on 10 Apr 1166 in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France at age 62, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois
Younger twin. Twin brother was Robert de Beaumont (aka Robert Bossu).

Waleran married Agnes de Montfort,90 daughter of Amaury de Montfort and Agnes de Garlende, about 1141 in Normandy, France. Agnes was born about 1123 in <Montfort-de-Risle, Eure>, France and died on 15 Dec 1181 about age 58. Another name for Agnes was Elizabeth de Montfort.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 283 M    i. Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 90 was born about 1140 in Meulan, Normandy, France and died in Oct 1207 in Palestine about age 67.

211. Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1106.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois

212. Adeline de Beaumont 155 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1107.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Adeline de Beaumont (b ca 1107), married two times:
Hugh IV, 4th Lord of Montfort-sur-Risle to whom she was married firstly by her brother Waleran;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)

213. Aubree de Beaumont 155 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1109.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Aubree (or Alberee) de Beaumont (b ca 1109), married by her brother Waleran to Hugh II of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais (possibly son of Hugh I of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais and his wife Mabille de Montgomerie, 2nd daughter of Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury )

214. Maud de Beaumont (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1111.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Maud de Beaumont (b ca 1111), married by her brother Waleran to William Lovel, or Louvel or Lupel, son of Ascelin Goel, Lord of Ivri.

215. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 2 219 220 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. Another name for Robert was Robert "Bossu" de Beaumont 2nd Earl of Leicester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois -
Younger twin of Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan. Nicknamed Robert Bossu (the Humpback).

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester :

Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 - 5 April 1168 ) was Justiciar of England 1155-1168.
The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French ).

Early Life and Education
Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois . He was the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont . There is no knowing whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they probably were in fact identical.

The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William earl of Warenne or Surrey . They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy , to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119 , when the king incited them to debate philosophy with the cardinals . Both twins were literate, and Abingdon Abbey later claimed to have been Robert's school, but though this is possible, its account is not entirely trustworthy. A surviving treatise on astronomy (British Library ms Royal E xxv) carries a dedication "to Earl Robert of Leicester, that man of affairs and profound learning, most accomplished in matters of law" who can only be this Robert. On his death he left his own psalter to the abbey he founded at Leicester, which was still in its library in the late fifteenth century. The existence of this indicates that like many noblemen of his day, Robert followed the canonical hours in his chapel.

Career at the Norman Court
In 1120 Robert was declared of age and inherited most of his father's lands in England, while his twin brother took the French lands. However in 1121 , royal favour brought Robert the great Norman honors of Breteuil and Pacy-sur-Eure , with his marriage to Amice de Montfort , daughter of a Breton intruder the king had forced on the honor after the forfeiture of the Breteuil family in 1119 . Robert spent a good deal of his time and resources over the next decade integrating the troublesome and independent barons of Breteuil into the greater complex of his estates. He did not join in his brother's great Norman rebellion against King Henry I in 1123 -. He appears fitfully at the royal court despite his brother's imprisonment until 1129 . Thereafter the twins were frequently to be found together at Henry I's court.

Robert held lands throughout the country. In the 1120s and 1130s he tried to rationalise his estates in Leicestershire. Leicestershire estates of the See of Lincoln and the Earl of Chester were seized by force. This enhanced the integrity of Robert's block of estates in the central midlands, bounded by Nuneaton , Loughborough , Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough .

In 1135 , the twins were present at King Henry's deathbed. Robert's actions in the succession period are unknown, but he clearly supported his brother's decision to join the court of the new king Stephen before Easter 1136 . During the first two years of the reign Robert is found in Normandy fighting rival claimants for his honor of Breteuil. Military action allowed him to add the castle of Pont St-Pierre to his Norman estates in June 1136 at the expense of one of his rivals. From the end of 1137 Robert and his brother were increasingly caught up in the politics of the court of King Stephen in England, where Waleran secured an ascendancy which lasted till the beginning of 1141. Robert participated in his brother's political coup against the king's justiciar, Roger of Salisbury (the Bishop of Salisbury ).

...
Family and children
He married after 1120 Amice de Montfort , daughter of Ralph, senior of Gael or Montfort . They had four children:
Hawise, who married William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester ;
Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester ;
Isabel, who married with:
Simon II of St Liz, 4th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton ;
Gervase Paynel of Dudley.
Margaret, who married Ralph V de Toeni

Literary references
He is a minor character in The Holy Thief, one of the Brother Cadfael series by Ellis Peters .

Notes
^ a b c Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 69

References
D. Crouch, The Beaumont Twins: the Roots and Branches of Power in the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1986).
D. Crouch, The Reign of King Stephen, 1135-1154 (London, 2000).
E. King, "Mountsorrel and its region in King Stephen's Reign", Huntington Library Quarterly, 44 (1980), 1-10.
Leicester Abbey, ed. J. Storey, J. Bourne and R. Buckley (Leicester, 2006).
Powicke, F. Maurice and E. B. Fryde Handbook of British Chronology 2nd. ed. London:Royal Historical Society 1961
British Library ms Royal E xxv.

Noted events in his life were:

• Knighted: 1122.

• Justiciar of England: 1155-1168.

Robert married Amice de Gael de Montfort,2 205 220 daughter of Ralph de Gael de Montfort and Unknown, after 1120. Amice was born about 1108 and died 31 Aug 1168 or 1169 about age 60. Other names for Amice were Amice de Gael, Amicia, and Amice de Montfort.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 209)

216. Gundred de Warenne 224 225 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1117 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England, died after 1166 in Warwickshire, England, and was buried in Kelso, Roxburgh, Scotland. Another name for Gundred was Gundrada de Warenne.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey:

Gundrada de Warenne , who married first Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick , and second William, lord of Kendal , and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen 's garrison from Warwick Castle ;

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1166.

Gundred married Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick,317 318 son of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick and Margaret de Perche, before 1130. Roger was born about 1102 and died on 12 Jun 1153 about age 51.

Research Notes: Elder son of Henry de Beaumont.

From Wikipedia - Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick :

Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick (1102 - 12 June 1153 ), was the elder son of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick and Marguerite, daughter of Geoffrey II of Perche and Beatrix of Montdidier . He was also known as Roger de Newburg.

He was generally considered to have been a devout and pious man; a chronicle of the period, the Gesta Regis Stephani , speaks of him as a "man of gentle disposition". The borough of Warwick remembers him as the founder of the Hospital of S. Michael for lepers which he endowed with the tithes of Wedgnock , and other property; he also endowed the House of the Templars beyond the bridge. In the reign of Stephen he founded a priory dedicated to S. Kenned at Llangennilth, Co. Glamorgan and he attached it as a cell to the Abbey of S. Taurinus at Evreux in Normandy .


Family and children
He married 1130 Gundred de Warenne, daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Elizabeth de Vermandois and had children:
William de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Warwick .
Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick (1153 - 12 December 1204).
Henry de Beaumont, was Dean of Salisbury in 1205.
Agnes de Beaumont, married Geoffrey de Clinton, Chamberlain to the King and son of Geoffrey de Clinton , the founder of Kenilworth Castle and Priory.
Margaret de Beaumont.
Gundred de Beaumont (c.1135-1200), married:
Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk ;
Roger de Glanville.

Noted events in his life were:

• Crusader:

The child from this marriage was:

+ 284 M    i. Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick 319 320 was born before 1153 and died on 24 Dec 1204.

Gundred next married William I de Lancaster, 5th Baron of Kendal of Workington,225 321 son of Gilbert de Lancaster and Godith, after 1153. William was born about 1100 in <Kendal, Westmoreland, England> and died in 1170 about age 70. Another name for William was William de Lancaster.

Research Notes: Name of his first wife is unknown. His second wife was Gundred de Warenne, widow of Roger de Beaumont.

Noted events in his life were:

• Castellan: of William Fitz Duncan's castle of Egremont, 1138.

• Governor: of Castle of Lancaster.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 285 F    i. Avice de Lancaster 225 322 was born about 1155 in Cumberland, England and died on 1 Jan 1191 about age 36.

217. William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne 226 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1118 and died in 1148 at age 30.

Research Notes: First husband of Ela (Talvas).

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :
In her second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.

William married Ela Talvas, of Alençon and Ponthieu,153 323 324 daughter of William III Talvas, Count of Alençon & Ponthieu and Hélie, of Burgundy,. Ela was born about 1124 in <Alençon, Normandy>, France, died on 10 Oct 1174 in Bradenstoke Priory, Bradenstoke, Wiltshire, England about age 50, and was buried on 4 Dec 1174. Other names for Ela were Adela Talvaise and Ida Talvaise.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 286 F    i. Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey 325 died on 13 Jul 1199.

218. Ada de Warenne 155 223 227 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died about 1178. Another name for Ada was Adeline de Warren.

Research Notes: Widow of Conale Petit, Earl of Brittany and Richmond. Sister of William the Lion, King of Scots.

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.

Ada married Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon,223 326 son of David I "The Saint", King of Scots and Maud, of Huntingdon, in 1139. Henry was born in 1114 and died on 12 Jun 1152 at age 38. Another name for Henry was Henry Prince of Scotland.

Research Notes: Eldest son of David I, King of Scots.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 170-23


The child from this marriage was:

+ 287 F    i. Margaret, of Huntingdon 327 died in 1201.

219. Reginald de Warenne (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh;

220. Ralph de Warenne (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois

221. Thierry I, of Lorraine, Count of Flanders 230 231 (Gertrude, of Flanders167, Robert I, Count of Flanders132, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1099 and died on 17 Jan 1168 about age 69. Other names for Thierry were Dietrich I of Lorraine, Count of Alsace, Thierry of Alsace, and Thierry Count of Flanders.

Research Notes: Youngest son of Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine.

From Wikipedia - Thierry, Count of Flanders :

Thierry of Alsace (Dietrich) (c. 1099 - January 17 , 1168 ), in Flanders known as Diederik van den Elzas, was count of Flanders from 1128 to 1168. He was the youngest son of Duke Thierry II of Lorraine and Gertrude of Flanders (daughter of Robert I of Flanders ). With a record of four campaigns in the Levant and Africa (including participation in the Second Crusade , the failed 1157-1158 siege of the Syrian city Shaizar , and the 1164 invasion of Egypt ), he had a rare and distinguished record of commitment to crusading.

Life
After the murder of his cousin Charles the Good in 1127, Thierry claimed the county of Flanders as grandson of Robert I, but William Clito became count instead with the support of King Louis VI of France . William's politics and attitude towards the autonomy of Flanders made him unpopular, and by the end of the year Bruges , Ghent , Lille , and Saint-Omer recognized Thierry as a rival count. Thierry's supporters came from the Imperial faction of Flanders, and upon his arrival he engaged in battle against William.

Louis VI had Raymond of Martigné , the Archbishop of Reims , excommunicate him, and Louis himself then besieged Lille, but was forced to retire when Henry I of England , William's uncle, transferred his support to Thierry. However, Thierry was defeated at Tielt and Oostkamp and fled to Brugge. He was forced to flee Brugge as well, and went to Aalst , where he was soon under siege from William, Godfrey I of Leuven , and Louis VI. The city was about to be captured when William was found dead on July 27 , 1128 , leaving Thierry as the only claimant to the county.

Thierry set up his government in Ghent and was recognized by all the Flemish cities as well as King Henry, who had his Flemish lords in England swear fealty to him. Thierry himself swore homage to Louis VI after 1132, in order to gain the French king's support against Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut , who had advanced his own claim on Flanders.

In 1132 his wife, Suanhilde, died, leaving only a daughter. In 1139 then went on pilgrimage to the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem , and married Sibylla of Anjou , daughter of King Fulk of Jerusalem and widow of William Clito; a very prestigious marriage.

This was the first of Thierry's four pilgrimages to the Holy Land . While there he also led a victorious expedition against Caesarea Phillippi , and fought alongside his father-in-law in an invasion of Gilead . He soon returned to Flanders to put down a revolt in the Duchy of Lower Lotharingia , ruled at the time by Godfrey III of Leuven .

Thierry went on crusade a second time in 1147 during the Second Crusade . He led the crossing of the Maeander River in Anatolia and fought at the Battla of Attalya in 1148, and after arriving in the crusader Kingdom he participated in the Council of Acre , where the ill-fated decision to attack Damascus was made.

He participated in the Siege of Damascus , led by his wife's half-brother Baldwin III of Jerusalem , and with the support of Baldwin, Louis VII of France , and Conrad III of Germany , he lay claim to Damascus; the native crusader barons preferred one of their own nobles, Guy Brisebarre, lord of Beirut , but in any case the siege was a failure and all parties returned home.

During his absence, Baldwin IV of Hainaut invaded Flanders and pillaged Artois ; Sibylla reacted strongly and had Hainaut pillaged in response. The Archbishop of Reims intervened and a treaty was signed. When Thierry returned in 1150, he took vengeance on Baldwin IV at Bouchain , with the aid of Henry I, Count of Namur and Henry II of Leez , Bishop of Liège . In the subsequent peace negotiations, Thierry gave his daughter Marguerite in marriage to Baldwin IV's son, the future Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut .

In 1156 Thierry had his eldest son married to Elizabeth of Vermandois , daughter and heiress of Raoul I of Vermandois . In 1156 he returned to the Holy Land, this time with his wife accompanying him. He participated in Baldwin III's siege of Shaizar , but the fortress remained in Muslim hands when a dispute arose between Thierry and Raynald of Chatillon over who would possess it should it be captured. He returned to Flanders 1159 without Sibylla, who remained behind to become a nun at the convent of St. Lazarus in Bethany . Their son Philip had ruled the county in their absence, and he remained co-count after Thierry's return.

In 1164 Thierry returned once more to the Holy Land. He accompanied King Amalric I , another half-brother of Sibylla, to Antioch and Tripoli . He returned home in 1166, and adopted a date palm as his seal, with a crown of laurels on the reverse.

He died on February 4, 1168, and was buried in the Abbey of Watten , between Saint-Omer and Gravelines . His rule had been moderate and peaceful; the highly developed administration of the county in later centuries first began during these years. There had also been great economic and agricultural development, and new commercial enterprises were established; Flanders' greatest territorial expansion occurred under Thierry.

Family
His first wife, Suanhilde, died in 1132, leaving only one daughter:
Laurette of Flanders , who married four times: Iwain, Count of Aalst ; Henry II, Duke of Limburg ; Raoul I of Vermandois , Count of Vermandois ; Henry IV of Luxembourg . Laurette finally retired to a nunnery, where she died in 1170.
Thierry secondly married Sibylla of Anjou , daughter of Fulk V of Anjou and Ermengarde of Maine , and widow of William Clito . Their children were:
Philip of Flanders (died 1191)
Matthew of Alsace (died 1173), married Countess Marie of Boulogne
Margaret I of Flanders (died 1194), married Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
Gertrude of Flanders (died 1186), married Humbert III of Savoy
Matilda of Flanders, abbess of Fontevrault
Peter of Flanders (died 1176), Bishop of Cambrai

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Flanders: 1128-1168.

Thierry married Sybil, of Anjou,328 329 daughter of Fulk V "the Young", Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem and Erembourg, Countess of Maine, in 1131. Sybil was born about 1112 in <Anjou, France> and died in 1165 about age 53. Another name for Sybil was Sibylla of Anjou.

Research Notes: Second wife of Thierry I of Lorraine (also known as Dietrich I, Count of Alsace).

From Wikipedia - Sibylla of Anjou :

Sibylla of Anjou (c. 1112-1165) was a daughter of Fulk V of Anjou and Ermengarde of Maine , and wife of William Clito and Thierry, Count of Flanders .

In 1123 Sibylla married William Clito, son of the Norman Robert Curthose and future Count of Flanders . Sibylla brought the County of Maine to this marriage, which was annulled in 1124 on grounds of consanguinity . The annulment was made by Pope Honorius II upon request from Henry I of England , William's uncle; Fulk opposed it and did not consent until Honorius excommunicated him and placed an interdict over Anjou . Sibylla then accompanied her widower father to the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem , where he married Melisende , the heiress of the kingdom, and became king himself in 1131. In 1139 she married Thierry, Count of Flanders , who had arrived on his first pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

She returned to Flanders with her new husband, and during his absence on the Second Crusade the pregnant Sibylla acted as regent of the county. Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut took the opportunity to attack Flanders, but Sibylla led a counter-attack and pillaged Hainaut . In response Baldwin ravaged Artois . The archbishop of Reims intervened and a truce was signed, but Thierry took vengeance on Baldwin when he returned in 1149.

In 1157 she travelled with Thierry on his third pilgrimage, but after arriving in Jerusalem she separated from her husband and refused to return home with him. She became a nun at the convent of St. Lazarus in Bethany , where her step-aunt, Ioveta of Bethany , was abbess. Ioveta and Sibylla supported Queen Melisende and held some influence over the church, and supported the election of Amalric of Nesle as Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem over a number of other candidates. Sibylla died in Bethany in 1165.

With Thierry she had six children:
Philip , Count of Flanders
Matthew , Count of Boulogne , married Marie of Boulogne
Margaret , Countess of Flanders and Hainaut, married Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
Gertrude
Matilda
Peter


Children from this marriage were:

+ 288 M    i. Matthew, of Alsace, Count of Boulogne .330

+ 289 F    ii. Margarite, of Lorraine 331 was born between 1140 and 1145 and died on 17 Dec 1195.

+ 290 F    iii. Margaret I, of Flanders 332 died on 15 Nov 1194.

222. Stephen, of Blois, King of England 234 235 (Adela, of Normandy168, Matilda, of Flanders133, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1096 in Blois, Loire-et-Cher, France, died on 25 Oct 1154 in Dover Priory, Dover, England about age 58, and was buried in Faversham Abbey. Another name for Stephen was Stephen of England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Stephen of England :

Stephen often known as Stephen of Blois (c. 1096 - 25 October 1154) was a grandson of William the Conqueror . He was the last Norman King of England , from 1135 to his death, and also the Count of Boulogne jure uxoris . His reign was marked by civil war with his rival the Empress Matilda and general chaos, known as The Anarchy . He was succeeded by Matilda's son, Henry II , the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet kings.

Early life
Stephen was born at Blois in France, son of Stephen , Count of Blois , and Adela of England, (daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders ). One of ten children, his surviving brothers were Count Theobald II of Champagne , Henry of Blois , Bishop of Winchester , and William of Sully . He also had four sisters, including Eléonore of Blois .

Stephen was sent to be raised at the English court of his uncle, King Henry I , in 1106. He became Count of Mortain in about 1115, and married Matilda , daughter of the Count of Boulogne , in about 1125, who became Countess of Boulogne. Their marriage was a happy one and his wife was an important supporter during the struggle for the English crown. Stephen became joint ruler of Boulogne in 1128.

Reign

King of England
There were several principal contenders for the succession to Henry I . The least popular was the Empress Matilda , Henry I's only legitimate surviving child, not simply because she was a woman, but because her husband Geoffrey, Count of Anjou was an enemy of the Normans . The other contenders were Robert, Earl of Gloucester , illegitimate son of Henry I, Stephen, and Stephen's older brother, Theobald, Count of Blois . However, Theobald did not want the kingdom, at least not enough to fight for it.[1] Before his death in 1135, Henry I named his daughter Matilda his heir and made the barons of England swear allegiance to her. Stephen was the first baron to do so. However, upon King Henry's death, Stephen claimed the throne, saying Henry had changed his mind on his deathbed and named Stephen as his heir. Once crowned, Stephen gained the support of the majority of the barons as well as Pope Innocent II and the first few years of his reign were peaceful, notwithstanding insurgences by the Welsh, King David I of Scotland , and Baldwin de Redvers.

The Anarchy: War with Matilda
By 1139, Stephen had lost much support and the country sank into a civil war , commonly called The Anarchy . Stephen faced the forces of Empress Matilda at several locations including the Battle of Beverston Castle and the Battle of Lincoln . Bad omens haunted him before the Battle of Lincoln where Stephen faced Matilda's illegitimate brother Robert and Ranulph, Earl of Chester . According to chroniclers, Stephen fought bravely but was captured by a knight named William de Cahaignes (a relative of Ranulph, ancestor of the Keynes family ). Stephen was defeated and brought before his cousin Matilda. He was imprisoned at Bristol .

Stephen's wife rallied support amongst the people from London and the barons. Matilda was, in turn, forced out of London. With the capture of her most able lieutenant, her half-brother the Earl of Gloucester, she was obliged to trade Stephen for him, and Stephen was restored to the throne in November the same year.

In December 1142, the Empress was besieged at Oxford , but managed to escape, dressed in white, across the snow to Wallingford Castle , held by her supporter Brien FitzCount .

In 1147, Empress Matilda's teenage son, the future King Henry II of England , decided to assist in the war effort by raising a small army of mercenaries and invading England. Rumours of this army's size terrified Stephen's retainers, although in truth the force was very small. Having been defeated twice in battle, and with no money to pay his mercenaries, young Henry appealed to his uncle Robert for aid but was turned away. Desperately, and in secret, the boy asked Stephen for help. According to the Gesta Stephani , "On receiving the message, the king...hearkened to the young man..." and bestowed upon him money and other support.

Reconciliation and death
Stephen maintained his precarious hold on the throne for the remainder of his lifetime. However, after a military standoff at Wallingford with Henry, and following the death of his son and heir, Eustace , in 1153, he was persuaded to reach a compromise with Matilda (known as the Treaty of Wallingford or Winchester), whereby Stephen's son William of Blois would be passed over for the English throne, and instead Matilda's son Henry would succeed Stephen.

Stephen died in Dover , at Dover Priory , and was buried in Faversham Abbey , which he had founded with Countess Matilda in 1148.

Besides Eustace, Stephen and Queen Matilda had two other sons, Baldwin (d. before 1135), and William of Blois (Count of Mortain and Boulogne, and Earl of Surrey or Warenne). They also had two daughters, Matilda and Marie of Boulogne . In addition to these children, Stephen fathered at least three illegitimate children , one of whom, Gervase, became Abbot of Westminster .

English royal descendants
Philippa of Hainault , the wife of Edward III , was a descendant of Stephen, and he was thus ancestor of all subsequent kings of England.[3]

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Mortain: 1115-1154.

• King of England: 1135-1154.

Stephen married Matilda, of Boulogne,333 334 daughter of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and Lens and Mary, of Scotland, about 1119. Matilda was born about 1105 in Boulogne, France, died on 3 Jul 1151 in Hedingham Castle about age 46, and was buried in Faversham Abbey. Other names for Matilda were Matilda I of Boulogne and Maud of Boulogne.

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. 3 May 1152.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Matilda of Boulogne :

Matilda I or Maud (1105? - 3 May, 1152), was suo jure Countess of Boulogne . She was also wife of King Stephen of England and Queen of England .

History
She was born in Boulogne , France , the daughter of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and his wife Mary of Scotland, daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Matilda was first cousin of her husband's rival, Empress Matilda . Through her maternal grandmother, Matilda was descended from the pre-Conquest English kings.

In 1125, Matilda married Stephen of Blois , Count of Mortain, who possessed a large honour in England. When Matilda's father abdicated and retired to a monastery the same year, this was joined with Boulogne and the similarly large English honour Matilda inherited. On Eustace III's death, Matilda and her husband became joint rulers of Boulogne. Two children, a son and a daughter, were born to the Countess and Count of Boulogne during the reign of King Henry I , who had granted Stephen and Matilda a residence in London. [1] The son was named Baldwin, after Matilda's uncle, King Baldwin I of Jerusalem . [2] The daughter was named Matilda. Baldwin died in early childhood and the young Matilda is thought to have died during childhood too, although some scholars state that she lived long enough to be espoused to the count of Milan. [3]

On the death of Henry I of England in 1135, Stephen rushed to England, taking advantage of Boulogne's control of the closest seaports, and was crowned king, beating his rival, the Empress Matilda . Matilda was heavily pregnant at that time and crossed the Channel after gaving birth to a son, Eustace , who would one day succeed her as Count of Boulogne. Matilda was crowned queen at Easter - March 22, 1136. [4]

In the civil war that followed, known as the Anarchy , Matilda proved to be her husband's strongest supporter. After he was captured at the Battle of Lincoln she rallied the king's partisans, and raised an army with the help of William of Ypres . Empress Matilda was besieging Stephen's brother Henry of Blois , but she, in turn, besieged the Empress, driving her away and capturing the Empress's brother, Robert of Gloucester .

Around 1125, her father died and she succeeded as Countess of Boulogne. She ruled this area jointly with her husband until 1150, when she reigned alone until 1151, when the County was given to her eldest son Eustace, then her surviving son William inherited it, and then her daughter Marie.

Matilda died of a fever at Hedingham Castle , Essex , England and is buried at Faversham Abbey , which was founded by her and her husband. [5]

Issue
Stephen and Matilda had three sons:
Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne
Baldwin of Boulogne (d. before 1135)
William of Blois , Count of Mortain and Boulogne and Earl of Surrey
They also had two daughters:
Matilda of Boulogne
Marie of Boulogne


The child from this marriage was:

+ 291 F    i. Marie, of Blois, Countess of Boulogne 335 was born in 1136 and died in 1182 at age 46.

223. Lithuaise 236 (Adela, of Normandy168, Matilda, of Flanders133, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Sister of Stephen of Blois, King of England.

Lithuaise married Milon I "le Grand", Seigneur Montlhéry and de Bray.236

The child from this marriage was:

+ 292 F    i. Isabel de Montlhéry, Viscomtessa de Troyes .236

224. EmpressMatilda, Countess of Anjou 237 238 (Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England169, Matilda, of Flanders133, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 7 Feb 1102 and died on 10 Sep 1167 about age 65. Other names for Matilda were Mathilda of England, Empress Maud Countess of Anjou, and Maude of England.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots Line 1-23 has b. abt. 1102-1104; Line 118-25 has b. 1104.
Some other source has b. Feb 1101

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Empress Matilda :

Empress Matilda, also known as Matilda of England or Maude (c. 7 February 1102 - 10 September 1167) was the daughter and heir of King Henry I of England . Matilda and her younger brother, William Adelin , were the only legitimate children of King Henry. Her brother died young in the White ship disaster , leaving Matilda as the last heir from the paternal line of her grandfather William the Conqueror .

As a child, Matilda was betrothed and later married to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . From her marriage to Henry, she acquired the title Empress. The couple had no known children. When widowed, she was married to the much younger Geoffrey of Anjou , by whom she became the mother of three sons, the eldest of whom became King Henry II of England .

Matilda was the first female ruler of the Kingdom of England . However the length of her effective rule was quite brief - a few months in 1141 - and she was never crowned and failed to consolidate her rule (legally and politically). Because of this she is normally excluded from lists of English monarchs, and her rival (and cousin) Stephen of Blois is routinely listed as monarch for the period 1135-1154. Their warring rivalry for the throne led to years of unrest and civil war in England that have been called The Anarchy . She did secure her inheritance of the Duchy of Normandy - through the military feats of her husband Geoffrey - and she campaigned unstintingly for her oldest son's inheritance, living to see him ascend the throne in 1154.

(In Latin texts Matilda was sometimes called Maude . This is a modernised spelling of the Norman-French form of her name, Mahaut.)

Early life
Matilda was the firstborn of two children to Henry I of England and his wife Matilda of Scotland (also known as Edith). Her maternal grandparents were Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Margaret was daughter of Edward the Exile and granddaughter of Edmund II of England . (Most historians believe Matilda was born at Winchester , but one, John Fletcher (1990), argues for the possibility of the royal palace at Sutton Courtenay in Oxfordshire .)

First marriage: Holy Roman Empress
When she was seven years old, Matilda was betrothed to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor ; at nine, she was sent to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) to begin training for the life of Empress consort . The royal couple were married at Worms on January 7, 1114, and Matilda accompanied her husband on tours to Rome and Tuscany . After time, the young wife of the Emperor acted as regent , mainly in Italy, in his absence[1]. Emperor Henry died in 1125. The imperial couple had no surviving offspring, but Herman of Tournai states that Matilda bore a son who lived only a short while.

Despite being popularly known by the title "Empress " from her first marriage, Matilda's right to the title was dubious. She was never crowned Holy Roman Empress by a legitimate Pope - which ceremony was normally required to achieve the title; indeed, in later years she encouraged chroniclers to believe she had been crowned by the Pope. Contemporary, she was called German Queen by her husband's bishops, while her formal title was recorded as "Queen of the Romans". Still, "Empress" was arguably an appropriate courtesy title for the wife of an Emperor who had been crowned by the Pope.

In 1120 her brother William Adelin was drowned in the disastrous wreck of the White Ship , which left Matilda as the only legitimate child of her father King Henry . Like Matilda, her cousin Stephen of Blois was a grandchild of William (the Conqueror) of Normandy ; but her paternal line made her senior in right of succession to his maternal line.

Second marriage: Countess of Anjou
Matilda returned to England a young widow, age 23, and dowager "Empress" - a status of considerable pride to her. There Henry named her his heir to both the English throne and his Duchy of Normandy . Henry saw to it that the Anglo-Norman barons (including Stephen of Blois ) were sworn (several times) to accept Matilda as ruler if Henry died without a male heir.

Henry then arranged a second marriage for Matilda; as he aimed to achieve peace between the fractious barons of Normandy and Anjou. On 17 June 1128, Matilda, aged 26, was married to Geoffrey of Anjou , aged 15, who also was Count of Maine and heir apparent to (his father) the Count of Anjou - which title he soon acquired, and by which Matilda became Countess of Anjou. It was a title she rarely used. Geoffrey called himself "Plantagenet " from the broom flower (planta genista) he adopted as his personal emblem. So Plantagenet became the dynastic name of that powerful line of English kings who descended from Matilda and Geoffrey.

Matilda's marriage with Geoffrey was troubled; there were frequent long separations, but they had three sons and she survived him. The eldest son, Henry , was born on 5 March 1133. In 1134, she nearly died in childbirth, following the birth of her second son, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes . A third son, William X, Count of Poitou , was born in 1136.

When her father died in Normandy, on 1 December 1135, Matilda was with her husband, in Anjou ; and, crucially, too far away from events rapidly unfolding in England and Normandy. Stephen of Blois rushed to England upon learning of Henry's death; in London he moved quickly to grasp the crown of England from its appointed heir.

But Matilda was game to contest Stephen in both realms; she and her husband Geoffrey entered Normandy and began military campaigns to claim her inheritance. Progress was uneven at first, but she persevered; even so, it was not until 1139 that Matilda felt secure enough in Normandy to turn her attentions to invading England and fighting Stephen directly.
In Normandy, Geoffrey secured all fiefdoms west and south of the Seine by 1143; in January 1144, he crossed the Seine and took Rouen without resistance. He assumed the title Duke of Normandy , and Matilda became Duchess of Normandy. Geoffrey and Matilda held the duchy conjointly until 1149, then ceded it to their son, Henry, which event was soon ratified by King Louis VII of France .

Struggle for throne of England
On the death of her father, Henry I, in 1135, Matilda expected to succeed to the throne of England , but her cousin, Stephen of Blois , a nephew of Henry I, usurped the throne with the support of most of the barons, breaking the oath he had previously made to defend her rights. The civil war which followed was bitter and prolonged, with neither side gaining the ascendancy for long, but it was not until 1139 that Matilda could command the military strength necessary to challenge Stephen within his own realm. Stephen's wife, the Countess of Boulogne who was also named Matilda , was the Empress's maternal cousin. During the war, Matilda's most loyal and capable supporter was her illegitimate half-brother, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester .

Matilda's greatest triumph came in April 1141, when her forces defeated and captured King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln . He was made a prisoner and effectively deposed.

Her advantage lasted only a few months. When she marched on London , the city was ready to welcome her and support her coronation . She used the title of Lady of the English and planned to assume the title of queen upon coronation (the custom which was followed by her grandsons, Richard and John ).[2] However, she refused the citizens' request to have their taxes halved and, because of her own arrogance [2], she found the gates of London shut and the civil war reignited on 24 June 1141. By November, Stephen was free, having been exchanged for the captured Robert of Gloucester, and a year later, the tables were turned when Matilda was besieged at Oxford but escaped to Wallingford , supposedly by fleeing across the snow-covered land in a white cape. In 1141 she had escaped Devizes in a similarly clever manner, by disguising herself as a corpse and being carried out for burial. In 1148, Matilda and Henry returned to Normandy , following the death of Robert of Gloucester, and the reconquest of that county by her husband. Upon their arrival, Geoffrey turned Normandy over to his son, and retired to his own county of Anjou .

Later life
Matilda's first son, Henry , was showing signs of becoming a successful leader. Although the civil war had been decided in Stephen's favour, his reign was troubled. In 1153, the death of his son Eustace, combined with the arrival of a military expedition led by Henry, led him to acknowledge the latter as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford .

Matilda retired to Rouen in Normandy during her last years, where she maintained her own court and presided over the government of the duchy in the absence of Henry. She intervened in the quarrels between her eldest son Henry and her second son Geoffrey, but peace between the brothers was brief. Geoffrey rebelled against Henry twice before his sudden death in 1158. Relations between Henry and his youngest brother, William X, Count of Poitou , were more cordial, and William was given vast estates in England. Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the Countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Matilda's court at Rouen. William, who was his mother's favourite child, died there in January 1164, reportedly of disappointment and sorrow. She attempted to mediate in the quarrel between her son Henry and Becket, but was unsuccessful.

Although she gave up hope of being crowned in 1141, her name always preceded that of her son Henry, even after he became king. Matilda died at Notre Dame du Pré near Rouen and was buried in the Abbey church of Bec-Hellouin, Normandy. Her body was transferred to the Rouen Cathedral in 1847; her epitaph reads: "Great by Birth, Greater by Marriage, Greatest in her Offspring: Here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry."

Matilda married Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, son of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Bertha, of Savoy, on 7 Jan 1114 in Worms, (Rhine-Palatinate, Germany). Henry was born on 8 Jan 1086 and died on 23 May 1125 at age 39.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Bertha of Savoy

Matilda next married Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy,336 337 338 son of Fulk V "the Young", Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem and Erembourg, Countess of Maine, on 22 May 1128 in Le Mans, France. Geoffrey was born on 24 Aug 1113 in Anjou, France, died on 7 Sep 1151 at age 38, and was buried in Le Mans, France. Other names for Geoffrey were Geoffrey V Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and Geoffrey 'the Fair' Plantagenet Count of Anjou.

Marriage Notes: Marriage date may have been 3 April 1127 (Ancestral Roots Line 1-23). Line 118-25 (Geoffrey V) has m. 22 May 1127.

Research Notes: Second husband of Matilda.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871913 :
'The Fair' Count of Anjou (1129-1151); founder of the Plantagenet dynasty. Geoffey's nickname derived from his physical appearance - he was said to be tall, handsome, graceful and strong. He was also known as Geoffrey Plantagenet, appearantly from the sprig of broom (genet) he wore in his hat. In 1127, aged 14, he was married to Matilda, daughter and heiress of Henry I of England and the widow of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. They disliked each other, but maintained an uneasy political alliance and produces three sons, Henry (the future Henry II of England), Geoffrey and William. An illegitimate son, Hamelin became the Duke of Salisbury. Geoffrey spent much of his youth imposing order on his unruly vassals, including his own brother Helias II, Count of Maine, who rebelled against him in 1131; Geoffrey captured Helias and held him prisoner in Tours, Helias died soon after his release from a disease contracted in prison. In 1135 Henry I of England died, and Matilda's cousin Stephen of Blois (RIN # 1643) seized the English throne, together with Normandy, traditionally coveted by the counts of Anjou. Geoffrey laid claim to the duchy in his wife's right. Between 1135-1138 Geoffrey launched four expeditions into Normandy, none of which achieved great success. The expedition in 1137 was striken by dysentery, and forced to return swiftly to Anjou. In 1139 Matilda invaded England, seeking to press her claim to the English throne, and Geoffrey remained in Anjou to continue the war against Normandy. The Morman barons opposed Geoffrey, not through loyalty to Stephen, who had only visited Normandy once, but out of hatred of their traditional enemy, Anjou. However, Norman morale was weakened when Matilda captured Stephen at Lincoln in 1141, and many castles surrendered to Geoffrey, leaving him in control of most of the lands between Bayeux and the Seine. In 1142 he took the Avranchin and Mortain, and in 1143 moved east of the Seine, overunning the Cotentin. He was invested as Duke of Normandy in 144 after the fall of Rouen, and Arques, the last castle opposing him, capitulated in 1145, leaving him unchallenged master of Normandy. After the conquest of Normandy, Geoffrey joined Louis VII of France in the abortive Second Crusade (1147-9), returning in 1149. In 1150 he ceded Normandy to his son Henry, who also inhereted the family claim to the English throne. Geoffrey died in 1151, and was buried in Le Mans Cathedral; founder of a great dynasty of kings through his son, Henry II of England. For more on the Second Crusade, see RIN # 1618.
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 38-63,80,102,140,154

----

From Wikipedia - Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou :

Geoffrey (24 August 1113 - 7 September 1151), called the Handsome (French : le Bel) and Plantagenet, was the Count of Anjou , Touraine , and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. By his marriage to the Empress Matilda , daughter and heiress of Henry I of England , Geoffrey had a son, Henry Curtmantle , who succeeded to the English throne and founded the Plantagenet dynasty to which Geoffrey gave his nickname.

Biography
Geoffrey was the elder son of Fulk V of Anjou and Eremburga of La Flèche , heiress of Elias I of Maine . Geoffrey received his nickname for the yellow sprig of broom blossom (genêt is the French name for the genista, or broom shrub) he wore in his hat as a badge. King Henry I of England, having heard good reports on Geoffrey's talents and prowess, sent his royal legates to Anjou to negotiate a marriage between Geoffrey and his own daughter, Matilda. Consent was obtained from both parties, and on 10 June 1128 the fifteen-year-old Geoffrey was knighted in Rouen by King Henry in preparation for the wedding. Interestingly, there was no opposition to the marriage from the Church, despite the fact that Geoffrey's sister was the widow of Matilda's brother (only son of King Henry) which fact had been used to annul the marriage of another of Geoffrey's sisters to the Norman pretender William Clito .

On 17 June 1128 Geoffrey married Empress Matilda, the daughter and heiress of King Henry I of England by his first wife Edith of Scotland , and widow of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . The marriage was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, very proud of her status as an Empress (as opposed to being a mere Countess). Their marriage was a stormy one with frequent long separations, but she bore him three sons and survived him.

The year after the marriage Geoffrey's father left for Jerusalem (where he was to become king ), leaving Geoffrey behind as count of Anjou. John of Marmoutier describes Geoffrey as handsome, red-headed, jovial, and a great warrior; however, Ralph of Diceto alleges that his charm concealed his cold and selfish character.

When King Henry I died in 1135, Matilda at once entered Normandy to claim her inheritance. The border districts submitted to her, but England chose her cousin Stephen of Blois for its king, and Normandy soon followed suit. The following year, Geoffrey gave Ambrieres, Gorron, and Chatilon-sur-Colmont to Juhel de Mayenne, on condition that he help obtain the inheritance of Geoffrey's wife. In 1139 Matilda landed in England with 140 knights, where she was besieged at Arundel Castle by King Stephen. In the "Anarchy" which ensued, Stephen was captured at Lincoln in February, 1141, and imprisoned at Bristol. A legatine council of the English church held at Winchester in April 1141 declared Stephen deposed and proclaimed Matilda "Lady of the English". Stephen was subsequently released from prison and had himself recrowned on the anniversary of his first coronation.

During 1142 and 1143, Geoffrey secured all of Normandy west and south of the Seine, and, on 14 January 1144, he crossed the Seine and entered Rouen. He assumed the title of Duke of Normandy in the summer of 1144. In 1144, he founded an Augustine priory at Chateau-l'Ermitage in Anjou. Geoffrey held the duchy until 1149, when he and Matilda conjointly ceded it to their son, Henry, which cession was formally ratified by King Louis VII of France the following year.

Geoffrey also put down three baronial rebellions in Anjou, in 1129, 1135, and 1145-1151. He was often at odds with his younger brother, Elias , whom he had imprisoned until 1151. The threat of rebellion slowed his progress in Normandy, and is one reason he could not intervene in England. In 1153, the Treaty of Westminster allowed Stephen should remain King of England for life and that Henry, the son of Geoffrey and Matilda should succeed him.

Geoffrey died suddenly on September 7, 1151. According to John of Marmoutier, Geoffrey was returning from a royal council when he was stricken with fever. He arrived at Château-du-Loir , collapsed on a couch, made bequests of gifts and charities, and died. He was buried at St. Julien's Cathedral in Le Mans France. Geoffrey and Matilda's children were:
Henry II of England (1133-1189)
Geoffrey, Count of Nantes (1 June 1134 Rouen - 26 July 1158 Nantes ) died unmarried and was buried in Nantes
William X, Count of Poitou (1136-1164) died unmarried

Geoffrey also had illegitimate children by an unknown mistress (or mistresses): Hamelin ; Emme, who married Dafydd Ab Owain Gwynedd , Prince of North Wales ; and Mary, who became a nun and Abbess of Shaftesbury and who may be the poetess Marie de France . Adelaide of Angers is sometimes sourced as being the mother of Hamelin.

The first reference to Norman heraldry was in 1128, when Henry I of England knighted his son-in-law Geoffrey and granted him a badge of gold lions (or leopards ) on a blue background. (A gold lion may already have been Henry's own badge.) Henry II used two gold lions and two lions on a red background are still part of the arms of Normandy. Henry's son, Richard I , added a third lion to distinguish the arms of England.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine: 1129-1151.

• Duke of Normandy: 1144-1151.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 293 M    i. Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England was born on 5 Mar 1132 in Le Mans, France, died on 6 Jul 1189 at age 57, and was buried in Fontévrault Abbey, France.

225. William Adelin, Duke of Normandy 239 (Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England169, Matilda, of Flanders133, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1103 and died on 25 Nov 1120 at age 17. Other names for William were William Ætheling Duke of Normandy and William III Duke of Normandy.

Death Notes: Died in the White Ship tragedy.

226. Maud, Princess of England 7 (Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England169, Matilda, of Flanders133, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1091 in England.

Research Notes: Illegitimate daughter of Henry I.

Maud married Conan III "le Gros", Duke of Bretagne,7 son of Alan IV Fergent and Hermengarde, Countess of Bretagne, in Mar 1113 in England. Conan was born about 1096 in <Bretagne, France> and died on 17 Sep 1148 about age 52.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 294 F    i. Constance, Princess of Bretagne 7 was born about 1118 in <Bretagne, France>.

227. Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester 241 242 243 (Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England169, Matilda, of Flanders133, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1090 in <Caen, Normandy, France>, died on 31 Oct 1147 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, England about age 57, and was buried in St. James Priory, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England. Other names for Robert were Robert "the King's son" de Caen Earl of Gloucester, Robert de Caen "the Consul and" Earl of Glouchester.

Research Notes: Natural son of Henry I. Half-brother of Empress Matilda.

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 123-26:
"ROBERT DE CAEN, Earl of Gloucester, 1122-1147 (natural son of Henry I, prob. by a NN dau. of the Gay or Gayt family of N. Oxfordshire... b. abt 1090, d. Bristol, 31 Oct. 1147, called 'the Consul'; m. Maud Fitz Hamon, dau. and h. of Robert Fitz Hamon, d. 1107, seigneur of Crelly in Calvados, Normandy, Lord of Thoringni, etc., and Sybil de Montgomery, dau. of Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury."

Also line 63-26 (Hawise de Beaumont)
--------
From Wikipedia - Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester :

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090 - October 31 , 1147 ) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England , and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy . He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'.

Early life
Robert was the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born well before his father's accession to the English throne, probably in the late 1080s, as he had himself had a son by 1104. There are numerous references noting him to have been the son of Sybil Corbet , heiress to Robert Corbet, Lord of Alcester, whose family had land in both England and Normandy. He was born in Caen, Normandy and was the first of several children between Henry and his Mistress Sybil Corbet. [1]

Robert was acknowledged at birth, though in view of the vicissitudes of his father's career between 1087 and 1096 it is unlikely he was raised in his household. He was educated to a high standard, was literate in Latin and had a serious interest in both history and philosophy, which indicates that he was at least partly raised in a clerical household, a suggestion made all the more likely as his first known child, born around 1104, was born to a daughter of Samson, Bishop of Worcester (died 1112) who up till 1096 had been a Royal Chaplain and Treasurer of Bayeux . It may be significant that his next brother Richard was brought up in an episcopal household, that of Robert Bloet , bishop of Lincoln . Robert later received dedications from both Geoffrey of Monmouth and William of Malmesbury . William's 'Historia Novella' contains a flattering portrait of the Earl.

Robert appears at court in Normandy in 1113, and in 1107 he had married Mabel, eldest daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon , who brought him the substantial honour of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully . In 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester . Through his marriage to Mabel he became second Lord of Glamorgan, and gained possession of Cardiff Castle , and was responsible for the building of the stone keep there, which remains as the best preserved Norman shell keep in Wales, and one of the best in the British Isles. Robert had considerable authority and autonomy, to the extent that he even minted his own coinage, today preserved in the British Museum .

Family and children
He married, around 1107, Mabel FitzHamon of Gloucester (died 1156), daughter of Robert Fitzhamon and Sibyl de Montgomery . Their children were:
William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester , died 1183. He married Hawise (died 1197) daughter of Robert II, Earl of Leicester.
Roger , Bishop of Worcester , (died 9 August 1179 , Tours ).
Hamon, killed at the siege of Toulouse in 1159.
Robert. (died before 1157) Also called Robert of Ilchester in documents. He married Hawise, (died after 1210) daughter of Baldwin de Redvers and Adeliz. Their daughter Mabel married Jordan de Cambernon .
Maud , (died 1190), wife of Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester .
Philip, Castellan of Cricklade , (died after 1147). He took part in the Second Crusade .

Earl Robert had an illegitimate son, Richard, bishop of Bayeux (1135-1142), by Isabel de Douvres , sister of Richard de Douvres , bishop of Bayeux (1107-1133).

Noted events in his life were:

• 2nd Lord of Glamorgan: by right of his wife

• Created: 1st Earl of Gloucester, Aug 1122.

Robert married Mabel FitzHamon, of Gloucester,242 339 340 daughter of Robert FitzHamon, Sieur de Creully and Sybil Montgomery, in 1107. Mabel was born in 1090 in Gloucestershire, England and died on 29 Sep 1157 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, England at age 67. Other names for Mabel were Maud FitzHammon and Maud FitzHamon.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 63-26 (Hawise de Beaumont)
-----
From Wikipedia - Mabel FitzHamon of Gloucester :

Mabel FitzHamon of Gloucester, Countess of Gloucester (1090- 29 September 1157[1]), was an Anglo-Norman noblewoman, and a wealthy heiress who brought the lordship of Gloucester , among other prestigious honours to her husband, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester upon their marriage. He was the illegitimate son of King Henry I of England . Her father was Robert Fitzhamon , Lord of Gloucester and Glamorgan . As she was the eldest daughter of four, and her younger sisters had become nuns, Mabel inherited all of his honours and properties upon his death in 1107.


Family
Mabel was born in Gloucestershire , England in 1090, the eldest of the three daughters of Robert FitzHamon, Lord of Glamorgan, and Gloucester, and his wife, Sybil de Montgomery. Her three younger sisters, Hawise, Cecile and Amice[2] all became nuns, making Mabel the sole heiress to her father's lordships and vast estates in England, Wales, and Normandy.

Her paternal grandfather was Hamon, Sheriff of Kent . Her maternal grandparents were Roger de Montgomery, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Mabel Talvas of Belleme.

In March 1107, her father died in Normandy , leaving his lordships and estates to Mabel. Her mother married secondly Jean, Sire de Raimes.[3]



Marriage and children
In 1107, Mabel married Robert of Caen, an illegitimate son of King Henry I by his mistress Sybil Corbet. Their marriage is recorded by Orderic Vitalis who also names her parents.[4] He would later become an important figure during the turbulent period in English history known as The Anarchy which occurred in the reign of King Stephen of England . Throughout the civil war , he was a loyal supporter of his half-sister Empress Matilda who would make him the chief commander of her army. He had originally sworn fealty to King Stephen, but after quarrelling with him in 1137, his English and Welsh possessions were forfeited, and thus he joined forces with Matilda.[5]

Mabel brought to her husband, the honours of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales, Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe, Evrecy and Creully in Normandy. By right of his wife, he became the 2nd Lord of Glamorgan, and gained possession of her father's castle of Cardiff in Wales. In August 1122, he was created 1st Earl of Gloucester; henceforth, Mabel was styled as Countess of Gloucester.

Together Robert and Mabel had at least eight children:

William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester (23 November 1112- 23 November 1183), married Hawise de Beaumont by whom he had five children, including Isabella of Gloucester , the first wife of King John of England , and Amice FitzRobert, Countess of Gloucester.
Roger, Bishop of Worcester (died 9 August 1179)
Hamon FitzRobert, (died 1159), killed in the Siege of Toulouse.
Robert FitzRobert of Ilchester (died before 1157), married Hawise de Redvers, by whom he had a daughter Mabel who in her turn married Jordan de Cambernon.
Richard FitzRobert, Sire de Creully (died 1175), inherited the seigneury of Creully from Mabel, and became the ancestor of the Sires de Creully. He married the daughter of Hughes de Montfort by whom he had five children.
Philip FitzRobert, (died after 1147), Castellan of Cricklade . He took part in the Second Crusade .
Maud FitzRobert (died 29 July 1190), married Ranulf de Gernon , 4th Earl of Chester by whom she had three children.
Mabel FitzRobert, married Aubrey de Vere

Robert also sired an illegitimate son, Richard, Bishop of Bayeux by Isabel de Douvres.

Mabel's husband died on 31 October 1147. Mabel herself died on 29 September 1157 in Bristol at the age of sixty-seven years.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 295 F    i. Maud FitzRobert, of Gloucester 242 341 342 was born about 1120 in Glouchestershire, England and died on 29 Jul 1190 in Chester, Cheshire, England about age 70.

+ 296 M    ii. William FitzRobert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester was born about 1128 and died on 23 Nov 1183 about age 55.

Robert next married Elizabeth.

Research Notes: Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Robert next married Maud.

Research Notes: Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

228. Elizabeth, Princess of England 245 246 (Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England169, Matilda, of Flanders133, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1095 in <Talby, Yorkshire, England>. Another name for Elizabeth was Isabel.

Research Notes: Probably the mother of Gunnild of Dunbar. Youngest illegitimate daughter of Henry I.

Elizabeth married Fergus, Lord of Galloway 246 343 in 1124 in Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland. Fergus was born about 1090 in <Galloway, Scotland>, died in 1161 in Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Edinburghshire, Scotland about age 71, and was buried on 12 May 1161 in Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Edinburghshire, Scotland.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 297 M    i. Uchtred, Lord of Galloway 246 343 was born about 1118 in <Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland> and died on 22 Sep 1174 about age 56.

229. Judith, of Bavaria (Henry I, Duke of Bavaria170, Judith, of Normandy134, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1100 and died in 1130 at age 30.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 166-25.

Judith married Frederick II, of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia,344 345 son of Frederick I von Büren, of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Alsace and Swabia and Agnes, of Germany, in 1121. Frederick was born in 1090 and died on 6 Apr 1147 at age 57. Another name for Frederick was Frederick II Duke of Swabia.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 45-25.

From Wikipedia - Frederick II, Duke of Swabia :

Frederick II (1090 - 6 April 1147 ), called the One-Eyed, was the second Hohenstaufen duke of Swabia from 1105. He was the eldest son of Frederick I and Agnes .

He succeeded his father in 1105. In 1121 he married Judith of Bavaria, a member of the powerful House of Guelph . On the death of Emperor Henry V , his uncle, Frederick stood for election as King of the Romans with the support of his younger brother Conrad , duke of Franconia and several houses. However, he lost this election of 1125 to Lothar III , crowned Emperor later in 1133.

A conflict erupted between Frederick and his supporters, and Lothar. Encouraged by Albert, Archbishop of Mainz , who loathed the supporters of the late Emperor Henry V, Lothar besieged Nuremberg in 1127. Frederick relieved the siege of Nuremberg in 1127 and occupied Speyer in 1128. The attempt of Henry the Proud , duke of Bavaria, to capture Frederick during negotiations failed (1129). However, afterwards supporters of Lothar won a number of victories both in Germany and in Italy. Speyer (1129), Nuremberg (1130) and Ulm (1134) were captured and in October 1134 Frederick submitted to the emperor. In 1135 both Frederick and Conrad were finally reconciled with Lothar. After Lothar's death (1137) and election of Conrad as King of the Romans (1138) Frederick supported his brother in the struggle with Guelphs . According to Otto of Freising , Frederick was "so faithful a knight to his sovereign and so helpful a friend to his uncle that by valor he supported the tottering honor of the realm, fighting manfully against its foes..."

Frederick's second wife, Agnes, was the niece of his old enemy Albert of Mainz.

Children
With Judith of Bavaria (d. 1130 or 1131), daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria :
Frederick III Barbarossa (1122-1190), duke of Swabia and Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick I
Bertha (1123-1195), married Matthias I, Duke of Lorraine
With Agnes of Saarbrücken (d.~1147):
Conrad of Hohenstaufen (also called Konrad) (1134/1136-1195), Count Palatine of the Rhine
Judith (1135-1191), married Louis II, Landgrave of Thuringia


The child from this marriage was:

+ 298 M    i. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor was born in 1122, died on 10 Jun 1190 at age 68, and was buried in Holy Land.

230. Hélie, of Burgundy 248 249 (Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy172, Henry, of Burgundy135, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1080 and died on 28 Feb 1141 in Abbey of Perseigne about age 61. Other names for Hélie were Alix of Burgundy and Ela of Burgundy.

Death Notes: May have died on 28 Feb 1142.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Helie of Burgundy :

Helie of Burgundy (c.1080 - 28 February 1141 ) was the daughter of Eudes I and Sibylla of Burgundy.

In June 1095, she married Bertrand of Toulouse , as his second wife. The two had one son, Pons of Tripoli (c.1098-1137).
Bertrand succeeded his father as Count of Toulouse in 1105, and in 1108, he set out for Outremer to claim his father's rights as Count of Tripoli . Helie accompanied him on this expedition, which resulted in the capture of Tripoli in 1109; shortly after, their nephew, William-Jordan died of wounds, giving Bertrand an undisputed claim to Tripoli.

Bertrand died in 1112, and Pons succeeded him in Tripoli. Helie returned to France, where she married William III of Ponthieu in 1115. They had twelve children, including two named Robert, two named William, and two named Enguerrand:
Guy II of Ponthieu (d. 1147)
William (d. aft. 1166)
Robert
Robert de Garennes (d. aft. 1171), a monk
William
Enguerrand
Enguerrand
Mabile
John I, Count of Alençon (d. 1191)
Clemence (d. bef. 1189), married Juhel, Sire de Mayenne
Philippa (d. bef. 1149)
Ela (d. 10 October 1174 ), married first William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey , and second Patrick of Salisbury, 1st Earl of Salisbury

Helie died on 28 February 1141 , in the Abbey de Perseigne.

Hélie married William III Talvas, Count of Alençon & Ponthieu,346 347 son of Robert II de Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury and Agnes, about 1115. William was born about 1095 and died on 30 Jun 1172 about age 77. Another name for William was William III of Ponthieu.

Death Notes: May have been 20 June 1172 or 30 June 1171.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William III, Count of Ponthieu :

William III of Ponthieu (c. 1095-20 June 1172), son of Robert II of Bellême and Agnes of Ponthieu . He is also called William (II; III) Talvas.

He assumed the county of Ponthieu some time before 1111, upon the death of his mother. His father escaped capture at the battle of Tinchebrai (1106); but later, as envoy for King Louis of France , he went to the English court and was arrested by King Henry of England and was never released from prison. William was naturally driven by this to oppose King Henry, and his allegiance to count Geoffrey of Anjou caused Henry to seize certain of William's castles in Normandy.

Family
His wife was Helie of Burgundy , daughter of Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy . The Gesta Normannorum Ducum says that they had five children, three sons and two daughters: Guy II is called "the eldest son", but the editors doubt this; he assumed the county of Ponthieu during his father Talvas' lifetime, but preceded him in death (Guy II died 1147; William Talvas died 1171); his daughters married Juhel, son of Walter of Mayenne , and William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 299 M    i. Guy II, of Ponthieu 348 was born about 1120 and died in 1147 about age 27.

+ 300 F    ii. Ela Talvas, of Alençon and Ponthieu 153 323 324 was born about 1124 in <Alençon, Normandy>, France, died on 10 Oct 1174 in Bradenstoke Priory, Bradenstoke, Wiltshire, England about age 50, and was buried on 4 Dec 1174.

Hélie next married Bertrand, Count of Toulouse 346 in 1095. Bertrand died in 1112.

231. Adélarde de Vignory 251 (Beatrice, of Burgundy174, Henry, of Burgundy135, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died after 1140. Another name for Adélarde was Hodiarde de Vignory.

Adélarde married Roger I de Joinville, Seigneur de Joinville, son of Geoffroi de Joinville, Seigneur de Joinville and Blanche, of Reynel,. Roger died after 1137.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 71A-26


The child from this marriage was:

+ 301 M    i. Geoffroi III de Joinville, Sénéchal of Champagne and of Bar-sur-Seine 349 was born before 1127 and died in 1188.


232. Afonso I, King of Portugal 252 253 (Henry, of Burgundy, Count of Portugal176, Henry, of Burgundy135, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born on 25 Jul 1109 in Viseu, Viseu, Portugal, died on 6 Dec 1185 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal at age 76, and was buried in Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Other names for Afonso were Affonso I "the Conqueror" King of Portugal and the Algarves, Afonso Henriques King of Portugal, Alfonso I King of Portugal, and Henriquez I King of Portugal.

Research Notes: First king of Portugal.

From Wikipedia - Afonso I of Portugal :

Afonso I (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pronounced [?'fõsu ?'?ik??] ), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician ) or Alphonsus (Latin version), (Viseu , 1109 , traditionally July 25 - Coimbra , 1185 December 6 ), also known as the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal , declaring his independence from León .


Life
Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León , the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León . He was proclaimed King on July 26 , 1139 , immediately after the Battle of Ourique , and died on December 6 , 1185 in Coimbra .

At the end of the 11th century , the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista , the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Cordoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades , Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors . In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy , younger son of the Count of Burgundy , and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León , wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy , younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy . Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia , where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112 , under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120 , the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga , a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county , under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century . He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora , raised an army , and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães , at the Battle of São Mamede (1128 ) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia , making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León . Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of Castile and León , another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile . On April 6 , 1129 , Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

...In 1169 , Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse , and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum , Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Castilian attempts at annexation.

In 1184 , in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. He died shortly after, on December 6 , 1185 .

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation . There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge.



Afonso married Maud, of Savoy,65 350 351 daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy, Maurienne and Turin and Mathilde, Comtesse d'Albon, before Jun 1146 in Chambéry, Savoie, France. Maud was born in 1125 in <Chambéry, Savoie>, France, died on 4 Nov 1158 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal at age 33, and was buried in Igreja Santa Cruz, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Other names for Maud were Mafalda of Savoy, Mahaut of Savoy, Mathilda of Savoy, and Matilde Countess of Savoy.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 1157

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Maud of Savoy :

Maud of Savoy (1125 -1158 ), also known as Mafalda, Mahaut or Matilda (in Portuguese always as Mafalda),was the first queen of Portugal. She was Queen consort of Portugal through her marriage to King Afonso I of Portugal (of the House of Burgundy ; first king of Portugal ) in 1146 .
She was the second or third daughter of Amadeus III of Savoy , Count of Savoy and Maurienne , and Mahaut of Albon (the sister of Guigues IV, Comte d'Albon , "le Dauphin").


Afonso's and Maud descendants
Henrique (died 1147 ).
Mafalda, Princess of Portugal (1148 -c.1160 ).
Urraca, princess of Portugal (1151 -1188 ), married to King Ferdinand II of León .
Sancho I, King of Portugal (1154 -1212 ), married to Dulce Berenguer of Barcelona , Princess of Aragon (daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona and Queen Petronila of Aragon ).
Teresa, Princess of Portugal (1157 -1218 ), married to Philip I of Flanders and next to Eudes III of Burgundy .
João (?-?).
Sancha (?-?).


Children from this marriage were:

+ 302 F    i. Urraca, of Portugal 65 352 353 was born about 1150 in <Coimbra, Coimbra>, Portugal and died on 16 Oct 1188 in Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain about age 38.

+ 303 M    ii. Sancho I, King of Portugal was born on 11 Nov 1154 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal and died on 26 Mar 1212 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal at age 57.

233. InfantaSancha (Urraca, of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon178, Constance, of Burgundy136, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born before 1095.

234. Alfonso VII, King of Castile and Léon 65 254 255 (Urraca, of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon178, Constance, of Burgundy136, Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy107, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born on 1 Mar 1105 in Toledo, Castile, Spain, died on 21 Aug 1157 in La Fresneda, Teruel, Aragon, Spain at age 52, and was buried in Catedral De Toledo, Toledo, Castile. Other names for Alfonso were Alfonso Raimundez, Alfonso VII of Léon and Castile, Alfonso VII Emperor of Spain, and Alfonso VII "Pierre-Raimund" King of Castile and Leon and Galicia.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. in La Fresneda, Teruel, Aragon. Wikipedia (?) has Sierra Morena.

Research Notes: Second husband of Berenguela of Barcelona.

From Wikipedia - Alfonso VII of León and Castile :
Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 - 21 August 1157 ), called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains " in 1135. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy , the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania .

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Hispania over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón ) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler . He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143. He was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru .

Succession to three kingdoms
In 1111, Diego Gelmírez , Bishop of Compostela , and the count of Traba crowned Alfonso King of Galicia in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela . He was but a child at the time, but his mother had already (1109) succeeded to the united throne of León-Castile-Galicia and desired to assure her son's prospects and groom him for his eventual succession. By 1125 he had inherited the formerly Muslim Kingdom of Toledo . On 10 March 1126 , after the death of his mother, he was crowned in León and immediately began the recovery of the Kingdom of Castile , which was then under the domination of Alfonso the Battler. By the Peace of Támara of 1127, the Battler recognised Alfonso VII of Castile. The territory in the far east of his dominion, however, had gained much independence during the rule of his mother and experienced many rebellions. After his recognition in Castile, Alfonso fought to curb the autonomy of the local barons.

When Alfonso the Battler, King of Navarre and Aragón , died without descendants in 1134, he willed his kingdom to the military orders . The aristocracy of both kingdoms did not accept this and García Ramírez , Count of Monzón was elected in Navarre while Alfonso pretended to the throne of Aragón. The nobles chose another candidate in the dead king's brother, Ramiro II . Alfonso responded by occupying La Rioja , conquering Zaragoza , and governing both realms in unison. From this point, the arms of Zaragoza began to appear in those of León.

In several skirmishes, he defeated the joint Navarro-Aragonese army and put the kingdoms to vassalage. He had the strong support of the lords north of the Pyrenees , who held lands as far as the River Rhône . In the end, however, the combined forces of the Navarre and Aragón were too much for his control. At this time, he helped Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona , in his wars with the other Catalan counties to unite the old Marca Hispanica .

Imperial rule
A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign who held León. Sancho the Great considered the city the imperiale culmen and minted coins with the inscription Imperator totius Hispaniae after being crowned in it. Such a sovereign was considered the most direct representative of the Visigothic kings, who had been themselves the representatives of the Roman Empire . But though appearing in charters, and claimed by Alfonso VI of León and Alfonso the Battler , the title had been little more than a flourish of rhetoric.

In 1135, Alfonso was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in the Cathedral of León . By this, he probably wished to assert his authority over the entire peninsula and his absolute leadership of the Reconquista . He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity which Hispania had never possessed since the fall of the Visigothic kingdom. The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together. The weakness of Aragon enabled him to make his superiority effective, although Afonso I of Portugal never recognised him as liege , thereby affirming Portugal's independence. In 1143, he himself recognised this status quo and consented to the marriage of Petronila of Aragon with Ramon Berenguer IV , a union which combined Aragon and Catalonia into the Crown of Aragon .

Family
In November 1128, he married Berenguela , daughter of Ramon Berenguer III. She died in 1149. Their children were:
Sancho III of Castile (1134-1158)
Ramon, living 1136, died in infancy
Ferdinand II of León (1137-1188)
Constance (c.1138-1160), married Louis VII of France
Sancha (c.1139-1179), married Sancho VI of Navarre
García (c.1142-1145/6)
Alfonso (c.1144-by 1149)
In 1152, Alfonso married Richeza of Poland , the daughter of Ladislaus II the Exile . They had:
Ferdinand, (1153-1157)
Sancha (1155-1208), the wife of Alfonso II of Aragón .

Alfonso also had two mistresses, having children by both. By an Asturian noblewoman named Guntroda Pérez , he had an illegitimate daughter, Urraca (1132-1164), who married García Ramírez of Navarre , the mother retiring to a convent in 1133. Later in his reign, he formed a liaison with Urraca Fernández, widow of count Rodrigo Martínez and daughter of Fernando García of Hita, an apparent grandson of García Sánchez III of Navarre , having a daughter Stephanie 'the Unfortunate' (1148-1180), who was killed by her jealous husband, Fernan Ruiz de Castro.

Noted events in his life were:

• King of Galicia: 1111-1157, Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.

• King of León and Castile: 10 Mar 1126-21 Aug 1157.

• Emperor of All the Spains: 1135-1157, Cathedral of Léon.

Alfonso married Berenguela, of Barcelona,121 354 daughter of Raymond III Berenger, Count of Barcelona and Dulce Aldonza Milhaud, in Nov 1128. Berenguela was born about 1116 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 3 Feb 1149 in Palencia, Léon, Spain about age 33. Another name for Berenguela was Berenguela Raimundo de Barcelona.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 2 Feb 1148/1149


Children from this marriage were:

+ 304 M    i. Sancho III, of Castile 355 356 was born in 1134 and died on 30 Aug 1158 at age 24.

+ 305 M    ii. Fernando II, King of Léon 65 357 358 was born in 1137 in Toledo, Castile, Spain and died on 22 Jan 1188 in Benavente, Zamora, Castile, Spain at age 51.

+ 306 F    iii. Sancha was born in 1137 and died in 1179 at age 42.

+ 307 F    iv. Constance was born in 1141 and died in 1160 at age 19.

235. Alberic I, Count of Dammartin 121 (Aelis de Dammartin179, Hugues de Dammartin, Count of Dammartin137, Constance Capet109, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1110 in <Dammartin, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died in 1183 about age 73.

Alberic married Joan Basset 84 before 1150. Joan was born about 1114 in <Wellingford, Oxfordshire>, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 308 M    i. Albri de Luzarches, Count of Dammartin 121 359 was born about 1135 in <Dammartin, Seine-et-Marne>, France, died on 19 Sep 1200 in London, Middlesex, England about age 65, and was buried in Abbaye de Jumieges, Jumieges, Seine-Maritime, France.

236. Margaret de Rie 34 258 (Rohese FitzRichard de Clare180, Richard I, of Clare and Tonbridge138, Giselbert "Crispin" de110, Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1065 in <Rycott, Oxford>, England and died in <England>. Another name for Margaret was Margaret De Rie.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1088, Rycott, Oxford, England.

Margaret married William de Mandeville,34 360 361 son of Geoffrey de Mandeville and Adeliza de Balts, about 1083 in England. William was born in 1062 in <Rycott, Oxford>, England and died between 1105 and 1116 in England.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1054, Great Waltham, Essex, England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William de Mandeville :

William de Mandeville (died sometime between 1105 and 1116) inherited the estates of his father Geoffrey around 1100. He was constable of the Tower of London at that time, and thus keeper of the first person known to be imprisoned there for political reasons, Ranulf Flambard . Flambard's escape in February, 1101 would have significant consequences for William.

It is not known if William was in some way a confederate of Flambard, or was simply a lax guardian. Either way, king Henry I apparently took away the heart of William's Essex estates. Little is known of William's activities after this.

William probably married Margaret, daughter of Eudo FitzHubert (Dapifer)[1] and Rohese de Clare. Their son Geoffrey would recover the seized estates, and gain much else besides.

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable: of the Tower of London, 1100-1101.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 309 M    i. Geoffrey de Mandeville 34 362 363 was born in 1092 in <Rycott, Oxford, England>, died on 14 Sep 1144 in Mildenhall, Suffolk, England at age 52, and was buried in New Temple Church, Holborn, Suffolk, England.

237. Adeliza de Clare 264 265 266 (Gilbert, de Clare182, Richard I, of Clare and Tonbridge138, Giselbert "Crispin" de110, Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born between 1066 and 1080 in <Essex, England> and died about 1163 in <Clare, Suffolk, England>. Other names for Adeliza were Alice de Clare, Alice FitzRichard, Adeliza fitz Richard, and Alice fitz Richard.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1077, Essex, England.

Adeliza married Aubrey II de Vere, of Great Addington & Drayton,364 365 366 367 son of Aubrey I de Vere and Beatrice de Gand, about 1105. Aubrey was born about 1080 in <Hedingham, Essex, England>, died on 15 May 1141 in London, Middlesex, England about age 61, and was buried in Colne Priory, Earls Colne, Essex, England. Other names for Aubrey were Alberic de Ver and Albericus de Ver.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019514.htm has b. 1062 in Hedingham, Essex, England.

Death Notes: Killed by a London mob

Research Notes: Aubrey II de Vere of Great Addington and Drayton, co. Northampton, Sheriff of London and Middlesex 1121, 1125, Justice and Master Chamberlain of England 1133.
----
From Wikipedia - Aubrey de Vere II

Aubrey de Vere II (c. 1080 -1141 ) was also known as "Alberic[us] de Ver". He was the second of that name in post Norman Conquest England , being the eldest surviving son of Alberic or Aubrey I de Vere who had followed William the Conqueror to England in or after 1066 .

Their lineage is probably Norman , possibly originally from the eponymous town of Ver/Vire in western Normandy , and were [erroneously] said to descend from Charlemagne himself through the Counts of Flanders by late antiquarians. In fact, their connection with Guînes , in Flanders , was temporary; Aubrey de Vere III was briefly married to Beatrice, heiress to that county, about 1137 -1144 or 1146 .

Aubrey II served as Sheriff of many shires and as a Justiciar under kings Henry I and Stephen .[1] King Henry I had declared the estates and office of the first Lord Chamberlain , Robert Malet , to be forfeit, and in 1133 awarded the office of Lord Chamberlain of England to Aubrey.

William of Malmesbury reports that Aubrey represented King Stephen in 1139 , when the king had been summoned to a church council to answer for the seizure of castles held by Roger, Bishop of Salisbury.

His eldest son Aubrey de Vere III , was later created Earl of Oxford , and their descendants were to hold that title and the office that came to be known as the Lord Great Chamberlain until the extinction of the male line in 1703 .[2] He was killed by a London mob in May, 1141 , and buried in the family priory at Colne, Essex .

Aubrey II married Adeliza/Alice, daughter of Gilbert fitz Richard of Clare. Their known children: Aubrey de Vere III , first earl of Oxford; Rohese de Vere, Countess of Essex , Robert; Alice "of Essex;" Geoffrey; Juliana, Countess of Norfolk; William de Vere , Bishop of Hereford; Gilbert, prior of the Knights Hospitaller in England; and an unnamed daughter who married Roger de Ramis.

^ Davis, et al.: "Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum". Oxford University Press, 1913-68: v. 2.
^ Cokayne, G. E: "Complete Peerage of England....", v. 10. St. Catherine Press, 1910-58.

Noted events in his life were:

• Sheriff: of London and Middlesex.

• Justice: and Master Chamberlain of England, 1133.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 310 F    i. Rohese de Vere, Countess of Essex 34 364 368 was born about 1103 in <Hedingham, Essex, England>, died after 21 Oct 1166 in <England>, and was buried in Chicksands Priory, Bedfordshire, England.

+ 311 M    ii. Aubrey III de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford and Count of Guînes 369 was born about 1115 and died on 26 Dec 1194 about age 79.

+ 312 F    iii. Juliana de Vere 367 370 was born about 1116 in <Hedingham, Essex, England>, was christened in Hedingham, Essex, England, and died about 1199 about age 83.

+ 313 F    iv. Alice de Vere, of Essex 364 371 was born before 1141 and died after 1185.

+ 314 M    v. Robert de Vere .364

+ 315 M    vi. Geoffrey de Vere .

+ 316 M    vii. William de Vere, Bishop of Hereford .

+ 317 M    viii. Gilbert de Vere .

238. Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford 34 267 268 269 (Gilbert, de Clare182, Richard I, of Clare and Tonbridge138, Giselbert "Crispin" de110, Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born between 1084 and 1090 in <Hertford, Hertfordshire>, England, was christened in Clare, Suffolk, England, died on 15 Apr 1136 in [near Abergavenny], Monmouthshire, England, and was buried in Gloucester. Other names for Richard were Richard de Clare Earl of Hertford and Earl of Clare, Richard FitzGilbert de Clare Lord of Clare, Suffolk, Richard Fitz Gilbert Lord of Clare, and Suffolk.

Death Notes: Slain by the Welsh near Abergavenny

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Richard FitzGilbert was also known as Richard de Clare.1 He succeeded to the title of 3rd Lord of Clare [feudal baron] circa 1117.1 He is supposed to have been created Earl of Hertford by King Stephen I (or by King Henry I), but Cokayne states that there is no grounds for this belief.1 He founded the Priory of Tonbridge.1 He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.

--------
From Wikipedia - Richard de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford :

Lineage
Richard FitzGilbert de Clare. 1st Earl of Hertford
(1094-15 April 1136 ) was the son of Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare and Alice de Claremont also known as Adeliza de Claremont .
He founded the priory of Tonbridge .

Welsh revolt
Richard held the Lordship of Ceredigion in Wales . A Welsh revolt against Norman rule had begun in south Wales where, on 1 January 1136 the Welsh won a victory over the local Norman forces between Loughor and Swansea .


Ambush & death
Richard had been away from his lordship in the early part of the year. Returning to the borders of Wales in April, he ignored warnings of the danger and pressed on toward Ceredigion with only a small force. He had not gone far when he was ambushed and killed by the men of Gwent under Iorwerth ab Owain and his brother Morgan, grandsons of Caradog ap Gruffydd , in a woody tract called "the ill-way of Coed Grano", near Llanthony Abbey , north of Abergavenny .

Spur for Welsh invasion
The news of Richard's death induced Owain Gwynedd , son of Gruffydd ap Cynan , king of Gwynedd to invade his Lordship. In alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth , he won a crushing victory over the Normans at the Battle of Crug Mawr , just outside Cardigan . The town of Cardigan was taken and burnt, and Richard's widow, Adelize, took refuge in Cardigan Castle , which was successfully defended by Robert fitz Martin . She was rescued by Miles of Gloucester who led an expedition to bring her to safety in England .

Noted events in his life were:

• Lord of Clare, Suffolk:

Richard married Adelize de Gernon,34 268 372 daughter of Ranulf le Meschin, 3rd Earl of Chester and Lucy, of Bolingbroke, about 1116. Adelize was born about 1094 in <Hertford, Hertfordshire>, England and died in 1128 about age 34. Other names for Adelize were Alice de Gernon, Alicia de Gernon, Adeliza de Meschines, and Alice de Meschines.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia has b. abt 1102


Children from this marriage were:

+ 318 F    i. Alice de Clare 242 373 was born about 1102 in <Tunbridge, Kent>, England and died after 1148 in England.

+ 319 M    ii. Gilbert de Clare 374 was born in 1115 in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England and died in 1153 at age 38.

+ 320 M    iii. Roger de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford 34 269 375 376 was born in 1116 in <Tunbridge Castle>, Kent, England, died in 1173 in Oxfordshire, England at age 57, and was buried in Eynsham Priory, Oxfordshire, England.

239. Rohese FitzRichard 187 (Gilbert, de Clare182, Richard I, of Clare and Tonbridge138, Giselbert "Crispin" de110, Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1090 in <Clare, Suffolk>, England and died in 1149 in England about age 59. Another name for Rohese was Rohesia de Clare.

Rohese married Badeion de Monmouth, of Monmouth, Monmouthshire.377

The child from this marriage was:

+ 321 F    i. Rohese de Monmouth .377

240. Baldwin FitzGilbert de Clare, Lord of Bourne, Deeping and Skellingthorpe 270 271 (Gilbert, de Clare182, Richard I, of Clare and Tonbridge138, Giselbert "Crispin" de110, Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1092 and died in 1154 about age 62.

Research Notes: Lord of Bourne, Deeping and Skellingthorpe, co. Lincoln, founder of Bourne Abbey

241. Gilbert FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke 212 270 272 (Gilbert, de Clare182, Richard I, of Clare and Tonbridge138, Giselbert "Crispin" de110, Geoffrey, Count of Eu & Count of Brionne87, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1100 and died on 6 Jan 1148 about age 48. Another name for Gilbert was Gilbert de Clare 1st Earl of Pembroke.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke also went by the nick-name of Gilbert 'Strongbow'. He was also known as Gilbert FitzGilbert.2 He was created 1st Earl of Pembroke [England] circa 1138.

Gilbert married Isabel de Beaumont,218 daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan and Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester,. Isabel was born between 1100 and 1107 and died after 1172. Another name for Isabel was Isabella of Meulan.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Isabella of Meulan was born between 1102 and 1107.1 She was the daughter of Robert de Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois.2 She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke, son of Gilbert fitz Richard and Adeliza de Clermont . She died after 1172.2
As a result of her marriage, Isabella of Meulan was styled as Countess of Pembroke.
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From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Isabel de Beaumont (b Aft. 1102), a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke by whom she was mother of Richard Strongbow , who invaded Ireland 1170 ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland (this marriage is not conclusively proven)

(Duplicate Line. See Person 207)

242. Fulk V "the Young", Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem 276 277 278 (Bertrade, de Montfort183, Agnes d'Évreux139, Richard, Count of Évreux111, Robert II, Count of Évreux88, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1092 in Angers, France and died on 10 Nov 1144 in Acre, Palestine at age 52. Other names for Fulk were Fulk of Jerusalem, Fulk V Count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem.

Birth Notes: May have been born in Anjou.

Death Notes: May have died in Jerusalem.

Research Notes: From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871915 :

Count of Anjou; King of Jerusalem (1131-1143). Fulk married the only daughter of Helias, Count of Maine, thereby uniting Anjou and Maine. In 1120 he went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In 1128 a delegation from Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem (RIN # 4676), arrived in France, asking Louis VII to choose one of the French nobility to marry his daughter Melisande and become heir to the throne of Jerusalem. Fulk, by then a widower, was chosen. He married Melisande in 1129 and succeeded as King of Jerusalem in 1131. To defend the holy city from the Muslim champion, Zengi, Fulk allied with the emir of Damascus and the emperor of Constantinople during the early 1130's. Turkish raiders took him prisoner in 1137, but then freed him.
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 19,37-9,46-8,60-1

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From Wikipedia - Fulk of Jerusalem :

Fulk (1089/1092 in Angers - November 13, 1143 in Acre ), also known as Fulk the Younger, was Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129, and King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. He was also the paternal grandfather of Henry II of England .

Count of Anjou
Fulk was born in Angers between 1089 and 1092, the son of Count Fulk IV of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort . In 1092, Bertrade deserted her husband and bigamously married King Philip I of France .

He became count of Anjou upon his father's death in 1109, at the age of approximately twenty. In that year, he married Erembourg of Maine , cementing Angevin control over the County of Maine .

He was originally an opponent of King Henry I of England and a supporter of King Louis VI of France , but in 1127 he allied with Henry when Henry arranged for his daughter Matilda to marry Fulk's son Geoffrey of Anjou . Fulk went on crusade in 1120, and became a close friend of the Knights Templar . After his return he began to subsidize the Templars, and maintained two knights in the Holy Land for a year.

Crusader and King
By 1127 Fulk was preparing to return to Anjou when he received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem . Baldwin II had no male heirs but had already designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him. Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughter's inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord. Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, and a widower. His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a frontier state always in the grip of war.

However, Fulk held out for better terms than mere consort of the Queen; he wanted to be king alongside Melisende. Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulk's fortune and military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk abdicated his county seat of Anjou to his son Geoffery and left for Jerusalem , where he married Melisende on June 2, 1129. Later Baldwin II bolstered Melisende's position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III , born in 1130.

Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin II's death. From the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, excluding Melisende altogether. He favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility. The other crusader states to the north feared that Fulk would attempt to impose the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them, as Baldwin II had done; but as Fulk was far less powerful than his deceased father-in-law, the northern states rejected his authority. Melisende's sister Alice of Antioch , exiled from the Principality by Baldwin II, took control of Antioch once more after the death of her father. She allied with Pons of Tripoli and Joscelin II of Edessa to prevent Fulk from marching north in 1132; Fulk and Pons fought a brief battle before peace was made and Alice was exiled again.

In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the second generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade. These "natives" focused on Melisende's cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset , count of Jaffa , who was devotedly loyal to the Queen. Fulk saw Hugh as a rival, and it did not help matters when Hugh's own stepson accused him of disloyalty. In 1134, in order to expose Hugh, Fulk accused him of infidelity with Melisende. Hugh rebelled in protest. Hugh secured himself to Jaffa, and allied himself with the Muslims of Ascalon . He was able to defeat the army set against him by Fulk, but this situation could not hold. The Patriarch interceded in the conflict, perhaps at the behest of Melisende. Fulk agreed to peace and Hugh was exiled from the kingdom for three years, a lenient sentence.

However, an assassination attempt was made against Hugh. Fulk, or his supporters, were commonly believed responsible, though direct proof never surfaced. The scandal was all that was needed for the queen's party to take over the government in what amounted to a palace coup. Author and historian Bernard Hamilton wrote that the Fulk's supporters "went in terror of their lives" in the palace. Contemporary author and historian William of Tyre wrote of Fulk "he never attempted to take the initiative, even in trivial matters, without (Melisende's) consent". The result was that Melisende held direct and unquestioned control over the government from 1136 onwards. Sometime before 1136 Fulk reconciled with his wife, and a second son, Amalric was born.

Securing the borders
Jerusalem's northern border was of great concern. Fulk had been appointed regent of the Principality of Antioch by Baldwin II. As regent he had Raymund of Poitou marry the infant Constance of Antioch , daughter of Bohemund II and Alice of Antioch , and niece to Melisende. However, the greatest concern during Fulk's reign was the rise of Atabeg Zengi of Mosul .

In 1137 Fulk was defeated in battle near Barin but allied with Mu'in ad-Din Unur , the vizier of Damascus . Damascus was also threatened by Zengi. Fulk captured the fort of Banias , to the north of Lake Tiberias and thus secured the northern frontier.

Fulk also strengthened the kingdom's southern border. His butler Paganus built the fortress of Kerak to the south of the Dead Sea , and to help give the kingdom access to the Red Sea , Fulk had Blanche Garde , Ibelin , and other forts built in the south-west to overpower the Egyptian fortress at Ascalon. This city was a base from which the Egyptian Fatimids launched frequent raids on the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Fulk sought to neutralise this threat.

In 1137 and 1142, Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus arrived in Syria attempting to impose Byzantine control over the crusader states . John's arrival was ignored by Fulk, who declined an invitation to meet the emperor in Jerusalem.

Death
In 1143, while the king and queen were on holiday in Acre , Fulk was killed in a hunting accident. His horse stumbled, fell, and Fulk's skull was crushed by the saddle, "and his brains gushed forth from both ears and nostrils", as William of Tyre describes. He was carried back to Acre, where he lay unconscious for three days before he died. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Though their marriage started in conflict, Melisende mourned for him privately as well as publicly. Fulk was survived by his son Geoffrey of Anjou by his first wife, and Baldwin III and Amalric I by Melisende.

According to William, Fulk was "a ruddy man, like David... faithful and gentle, affable and kind... an experienced warrior full of patience and wisdom in military affairs." His chief fault was an inability to remember names and faces.

William of Tyre described Fulk as a capable soldier and able politician, but observed that Fulk did not adequately attend to the defense of the crusader states to the north. Ibn al-Qalanisi (who calls him al-Kund Anjur, an Arabic rendering of "Count of Anjou") says that "he was not sound in his judgment nor was he successful in his administration." The Zengids continued their march on the crusader states, culminating in the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144, which led to the Second Crusade (see Siege of Edessa ).

Family
In 1110, Fulk married Ermengarde of Maine (died 1126), the daughter of Elias I of Maine . Their four children were:
Geoffrey V of Anjou , father of Henry II of England .
Sibylla of Anjou (1112-1165, Bethlehem ), married in 1123 William Clito (div. 1124), married in 1134 Thierry, Count of Flanders .
Alice (or Isabella ) (1107-1154, Fontevrault), married William Adelin ; after his death in the White Ship she became a nun and later Abbess of Fontevrault .
Elias II of Maine (died 1151)

His second wife was Melisende , Queen of Jerusalem
Baldwin III of Jerusalem
Amalric I of Jerusalem

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Anjou: 1109-1129.

• King of Jerusalem: 1131-1144.

Fulk married Erembourg, Countess of Maine,378 379 daughter of Hélie de la Flêche, Count of Maine and Matilda, of Château-du-Loire, in 1110. Erembourg died in 1126. Other names for Erembourg were Eremburg of Maine, Eremburga of La Flêche, Ermengarde of Maine, and Erembourg de la Flêche.

Marriage Notes: May have been married in 1109.

Research Notes: First wife of Fulk V. Only daughter of Helie de la Flêche.

From Wikipedia - Ermengarde of Maine :

Ermengarde or Erembourg of Maine, also known as Erembourg de la Flèche (died 1126 ), was Countess of Maine and the Lady of Château-du-Loir from 1110 to 1126 . She was the daughter of Elias I of Maine , Count of Maine, and Mathilda of Château-du-Loire.

In 1109 she married Fulk V of Anjou , thereby finally bringing Maine under Angevin control. She gave birth to:
Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (d. 1151 )
Elias II of Maine (d. 1151 )
Matilda of Anjou (d. 1119 ), who married William Adelin , the son and heir to Henry I of England
Sibylla of Anjou (d. 1119 ), married in 1121 to William Clito , and then (after an annulment in 1124) to Thierry, Count of Flanders

She died in 1126 , on either the 15th January or the 12 October. After her death, Fulk left his lands to their son Geoffrey, and set out for the Holy Land , where he married Melisende of Jerusalem and became King of Jerusalem .

Noted events in her life were:

• Countess of Maine: 1110-1126.

• Lady of Château-du-Loire: 1110-1126.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 322 F    i. Sybil, of Anjou 328 329 was born about 1112 in <Anjou, France> and died in 1165 about age 53.

+ 323 M    ii. Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy 336 337 338 was born on 24 Aug 1113 in Anjou, France, died on 7 Sep 1151 at age 38, and was buried in Le Mans, France.

Fulk next married Melisende de Rethel 380 on 2 Jun 1129. Melisende died on 11 Sep 1161.

Research Notes: Second wife of Fulk V. Eldest daughter of Baldwin II, Count of Rethel.

243. Agnes de Montfort 90 (Amaury de Montfort184, Agnes d'Évreux139, Richard, Count of Évreux111, Robert II, Count of Évreux88, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1123 in <Montfort-de-Risle, Eure>, France and died on 15 Dec 1181 about age 58. Another name for Agnes was Elizabeth de Montfort.

Agnes married Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan,90 221 son of Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan and Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester, about 1141 in Normandy, France. Waleran was born in 1104 in <Meulan, Île-de-France>, France, died on 10 Apr 1166 in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France at age 62, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois
Younger twin. Twin brother was Robert de Beaumont (aka Robert Bossu).

(Duplicate Line. See Person 210)

244. Ranulf le Meschin, 3rd Earl of Chester 7 281 282 283 284 (Ranulph II, Vicomte of Bayeux in Normandy185, Alice, of Normandy140, Richard III, Duke of Normandy112, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1070 in <Briquessart, Livry, France>, died on 17 Jan 1129 in Chester, Cheshire, England about age 59, and was buried in St Werburgh, Chester, Cheshire, England. Other names for Ranulf were Ranulph III le Meschin de Briquessart 3rd Earl of Chester, Ranulph le Meschin 1st Earl of Chester, Ranulf de Meschines Lord of Cumberland, and Vicomte of Bayeux in Normandy.

Death Notes: Death date may be 27 Jan 1128/29.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Ranulph le Meschin, 1st Earl of Chester gained the title of Vicomte de Bayeux [Normandy].3 He was also known as Ranulph de Briquessart.3 He succeeded to the title of Vicomte d'Avranches [Normandy] on 25 November 1120.3 He was created 1st Earl of Chester [England] in 1121.3 He was Commander of the Royal forces in Normandy in 1124.


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From Wikipedia - Ranulf le Meschin, 3rd Earl of Chester :

Ranulf le Meschin, Ranulf de Briquessart or Ranulf I [Ranulph, Ralph] (died 1129) was a late 11th- and early 12th-century Norman magnate based in northern and central England. Originating in Bessin in Normandy, Ranulf made his career in England thanks to his kinship with Hugh d'Avranches , the earl of Chester, the patronage of kings William II Rufus and Henry I Beauclerc , and his marriage to Lucy , heiress of the Bolingbroke-Spalding estates in Lincolnshire.

Ranulf fought in Normandy on behalf of Henry I, and served the English king as a kind of semi-independent governor in the far north-west, Cumberland and Westmorland , before attaining the palatine county of Chester on the Anglo-Welsh marches in 1120. He held this position for the remainder of his life, and passed the title on to his son.

Family and origins
Ranulf was the son of Ranulf de Briquessart , viscount of the Bessin, and likely for this reason the former Ranulf was styled le Meschin, "the younger".[2] His mother was Matilda, daughter of Richard, viscount of the Avranchin . We know from an entry in the Durham Liber Vitae , c. 1098 x 1120, that he had an older brother named Richard (who died in youth), and a younger brother named William.[3] He had a sister called Agnes, who later married Robert de Grandmesnil (died 1136).[2]

Ranulf's earliest appearance in extant historical records was 24 April 1089 , the date of a charter of Robert Curthose , Duke of Normandy , to Bayeux Cathedral .[2] Ranulf, as "Ranulf son of Ranulf the viscount", was one of the charter's witnesses.[2] He appeared again in the sources, c. 1093/4, as a witness to the foundation charter of Chester Abbey , granted by his uncle Hugh d'Avranches , palantine count ("earl") of Chester.[2] Between 1098 and 1101, probably in 1098, Ranulf became a major English landowner in his own right when he became the third husband of Lucy , heiress of the honour of Bolingbroke in Lincolnshire.[4] This acquisition also brought him the lordship of Appleby in Cumberland , previously held by Lucy's second husband Ivo Taillebois .[2]

Lord of Cumberland and Westmorland

A charter issued in 1124 by David I , King of the Scots , to Robert I de Brus granting the latter the lordship of Annandale recorded that Ranulf was remembered as holding lordship of Carlisle and Cumberland, holding with the same semi-regal rights by which Robert was to hold Annandale .[2] A source from 1212 attests that the jurors of Cumberland remembered Ranulf as quondam dominus Cumberland ("sometime Lord of Cumberland").[5] Ranulf possessed the power and in some respects the dignity of a semi-independent earl in the region, though he lacked the formal status of being called such. A contemporary illustration of this authority is one charter in the records of Wetheral Priory , which recorded Ranulf addressing his own sheriff, "Richer" (probably Richard de Boivill).[6]

Ivo Taillebois, when he married Ranulf's future wife Lucy, had acquired her Lincolnshire lands; sometime after 1086 he acquired authority in Westmorland and Kendal . Adjacent lands in Lancashire and Westmorland, previously controlled by Earl Tostig Godwinson , were probably carved up in the 1080s by the king, between Roger the Poitevin and Ivo, a territorial division at least partially responsible for the later boundaries between the two counties.[7] Norman lordship in the heartland of Cumberland dates to around 1092, the year King William Rufus seized the region from its previous ruler, Dolfin.[8] There is inconclusive evidence that this happened around the same time as William II's expedition to Carlisle, and that settlers from Ivo's Lincolnshire lands came into Cumberland as a result.[9]

When Ranulf acquired Ivo's authority, or an extended version of it, is not clear. Between 1094 and 1098 Lucy was married to Roger fitz Gerold de Roumare, so it is possible that this marriage was the king's way of transferring authority in the region to Roger fitz Gerold.[10] The "traditional view", and that held by the historian William Kapelle , was that Ranulf's authority in the region did not come about until 1106 or after, as a reward for Ranulf's participation in the Battle of Tinchebrai .[11] Another historian, Richard Sharpe , has recently attacked this view and argued that it probably came in or soon after 1098. Sharpe believed that Lucy was the main mechanism by which this authority changed hands here, and pointed out that Ranulf had been married to Lucy years before Tinchebrai, and that, moreover, Ranulf can be found months before Tinchebrai taking evidence from county jurors at York (which may have been responsible for parts of this partially-shired region at this point).[12]

Firm dates for Ranulf's authority in the region do however come only from 1106 and after, well into the reign of Henry I .[2] It was in 1106 that Ranulf founded a Benedictine monastic house at Wetheral , Wetheral Priory.[2] The record of the jurors of Cumberland dating to 1212 claimed that Ranulf created two baronies in the region, Burgh-by-Sands for Robert de Trevers, Ranulf's brother-in-law, and Liddel for Turgis Brandos.[13] He appears to have attempted to give Gilsland to his brother William, though its lord, "Gille", held out; later the lordship of Allerdale (also called Egremont or Copeland ) was given to William.[14] Kirklinton may have been given to Richard de Boivill, Ranulf's sheriff.[2]

Earl of Chester

Marriage to the a great heiress came only with royal patronage, which in turn came only through having royal respect and trust. Ranulf was however not recorded often at the court of Henry I, and did not form part of the king's closest group of administrative advisers.[15] He was however one of the king's military companions, and served under Henry as an officer of the royal household when the latter was on campaign; Ranulf was in fact one of his three commanders at the Battle of Tinchebrai, where he led the vanguard of Henry's army, and was often in Normandy when the king's interests were threatened there.[16] He is found serving as a royal justice in both 1106 and 1116. Later in his career, 1123-4, he commanded the king's garrison at Évreux during the war with William Clito , and in March 1124 he assisted in the capture of Waleran, Count of Meulan .[2]

The death of Richard , count-palatine of Chester in the White Ship Disaster of 1120 near Barfleur , paved the way for Ranulf's elevation to comital rank.[2] Merely four days before the disaster, Ranulf and his cousin Richard had witnessed a charter together at Cerisy .[2] Henry recognized Ranulf as Richard's successor to the county of Chester.[2] Ranulf's accession may have involved him giving up many of his other lands, including much of his wife's Lincolnshire lands and his land in Cumbria, though direct evidence for this beyond convenient timing is lacking.[17] Richard Sharpe suggested that Ranulf may have had to sell much land in order to pay the king for the palatine-county of Chester, though it could not have covered the whole fee, as Ranulf's son Ranulf de Gernon , when he succeeded his father to Chester in 1129, owed the king £1000 "from his father's debt for the land of Earl Hugh".[18]

Ranulf died in January 1129, and was buried in Chester Abbey.[2] He was survived by his wife and countess, Lucy, and succeeded by his son Ranulf de Gernon.[2] A daughter, Alicia, married Richard de Clare , a lord in the Anglo-Welsh marches.[2]

Noted events in his life were:

• Earl of Chester: 1120-1129. following the death of his first cousin, Hugh d'Avranches, Earl of Chester

• Commander of the Royal Forces in Normandy: 1124.

Ranulf married Lucy, of Bolingbroke,381 382 383 daughter of Thorold, Sheriff of Lincoln and < > Malet, about 1098. Lucy was born about 1070 in <Spalding, Lincolnshire>, England and died about 1136 about age 66. Another name for Lucy was Lucia.

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. abt 1138

Research Notes: Husbands:
Ivo de Tailbois
Roger Fitz Gerold
Ranulph III le Meschin, de Briquessart

From Wikipedia - Lucy of Bolingbroke :

Lucy (died c. 1138), sometimes called Lucy of Bolingbroke[1] was an Anglo-Norman heiress in central England and, later in life, countess-consort of Chester . Probably related to the old English earls of Mercia , she came to possess extensive lands in Lincolnshire which she passed on to her husbands and sons. She was a notable religious patron, founding or co-founding two small religious houses and endowing several with lands and churches.

Ancestry
A charter of Crowland Abbey , now thought to be spurious, described Thorold of Bucknall, perhaps the same as her probable father Thorold of Lincoln, as a brother of Godgifu (Godiva), wife of Leofric, Earl of Mercia .[2] The same charter contradicted itself on the matter, proceeding to style Godgifu's son (by Leofric), Ælfgar, as Thorold's cognatus (cousin).[3] Another later source, from Coventry Abbey , made Lucy the sister of Earls Edwin and Morcar Leofricsson , while two other unreliable sources, the Chronicle of Abbot Ingmund of Crowland and the Peterbrough Chronicle also make Lucy the daughter of Earl Ælfgar.[3] Keats-Rohan's explanation for these accounts is that they were ill-informed and were confusing Lucy with her ancestor, William Malet's mother, who was in some manner related to the family of Godgifu.[3]


Although there is much confusion about Lucy's ancestry in earlier writings, recent historians tend to believe that she was the daughter of Thorold, sheriff of Lincoln , by a daughter of William Malet (died 1071).[4] She inherited a huge group of estates centred on Spalding in Lincolnshire , probably inherited from both the Lincoln and the Malet family.[5] This group of estates have come to be called the "Honour of Bolingbroke ".[6]

Marriages
The heiress Lucy was married to three different husbands, all of whom died in her lifetime. The first of these was to Ivo Taillebois , a marriage which took place "around 1083".[7] Ivo took over her lands as husband, and seems in addition to have been granted estates and extensive authority in Westmorland and Cumberland .[8] Ivo died in 1094.[9]


The second marriage was to one Roger de Roumare or Roger fitz Gerold, with whom she had one son, William de Roumare (future Earl of Lincoln ), who inherited some of her land.[10] The latter was the ancestor of the de Roumare family of Westmorland.[11] Roger died in either 1097 or 1098.[12]
Sometime after this, though before 1101, she was married to Ranulf le Meschin , her last and longest marriage.[13] A son Ranulf de Gernon , succeeded his father to the earldom of Chester (which Ranulf acquired in 1121) and a daughter, Alice, married Richard de Clare .[6]


Upon her death, most of the Lincolnshire lands she inherited passed to her younger son William de Roumare, while the rest passed to Ranulf II of Chester (forty versus twenty knights' fees).[14] The 1130 pipe roll informs us that Lucy had paid King Henry I 500 marks after her last husband's death for the right not to have to remarry.[15] She died around 1138.[6]

Religious patronage
Lucy, as widowed countess, founded the convent of Stixwould in 1135, becoming, in the words of one historian, "one of the few aristocratic women of the late eleventh and twelfth centuryes to achieve the role of independent lay founder".[16] Her religious patronage however centered on Spalding Priory , a religious house for which her own family was the primary patron. This house (a monastic cell of Crowland) was founded, or re-founded, in 1085 by Lucy and her first husband Ivo Taillebois.[16]


Later, she was responsible for many endowments, for instance in the 1120s she and her third husband Earl Ranulf granted the priory the churches of Minting, Belchford and Scamblesby.[16] In 1135, Lucy, now widowed for the last time, granted the priory her own manor of Spalding for the permanent use of the monks.[16] The records indicate that Lucy went to great effort to ensure that, after her own death, her sons would honour and uphold her gifts.[17]

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1130.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 324 F    i. Adelize de Gernon 34 268 372 was born about 1094 in <Hertford, Hertfordshire>, England and died in 1128 about age 34.

+ 325 M    ii. Ranulf IV, de Gernon, 4th Earl of Chester 7 384 385 was born about 1100 in Gernon Castle, Normandy, France, died on 16 Dec 1153 about age 53, and was buried in St. Werburg's, Chester, Cheshire, England.

245. William le Meschin, Lord of Skipton-in-Craven, Yorkshire 7 285 286 (Ranulph II, Vicomte of Bayeux in Normandy185, Alice, of Normandy140, Richard III, Duke of Normandy112, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1100 in <Gernon Castle, Normandy, France>. Another name for William was William de Meschines.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132B-26

William married Cecily de Rumilly,7 386 daughter of Robert de Rumilly, of Molland, Devon and Unknown,. Cecily was born about 1100 in <Normandy, France>. Another name for Cecily was Cecily de Rumigny.

Research Notes: Daughter and heiress of Robert de Rumilly.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132B-26 (William le Meschin)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 326 F    i. Maud la Meschine 7 387 was born about 1126 in <Harringworth, Northumberland>, England and died after 1190.

246. Renaud I, Count of Mousson, Count of Bar-le-Duc 84 288 (Ermentrude, of Burgundy187, Guillaume I de Bourgogne141, Adelais, de Normandie113, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1077 in Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, France and died on 10 Mar 1149 about age 72. Other names for Renaud were Reinald I Count of Mousson, Count of Bar-le-Duc and Renaud I kEEP Comte de Bar.

Renaud married Gisele, of Vaudemont,84 388 daughter of Gerard, of Lorraine, Count of Vaudemont and Helwide, Countess of Egisheim,. Gisele was born about 1090 in Vaudemont, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France and died after 1141. Another name for Gisele was Gisele de Vaudemont.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 327 F    i. Clémence de Bar-le-Duc, Countess of Dammartin 84 389 was born about 1110 in <Dammartin, Île-de-France>, France and died after 20 Jan 1183.

247. Adelaide, of Savoy 290 (Gisele, of Burgundy188, Guillaume I de Bourgogne141, Adelais, de Normandie113, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1092 and died on 1 Aug 1154 about age 62.

Death Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 274A-25 has d. 18 Nov. 1154.

Research Notes: Second wife of Louis VI, m. April or May 1115.

Adelaide married Louis VI "the Fat", King of France Apr or May 1115 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Louis was born in 1081 and died on 1 Aug 1137 in Chiteau Bethizy, Paris at age 56.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 101-24

Research Notes: King of France 1108-1137, Crusader.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 117-24 and 101-24.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 328 M    i. Peter, of France, Count of Montargis and Courtenay 390 was born about 1125 and died between 1179 and 1183 in Palestine.

248. Amadeus III, Count of Savoy, Maurienne and Turin 291 (Gisele, of Burgundy188, Guillaume I de Bourgogne141, Adelais, de Normandie113, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1095 in <Savoie>, France and died on 30 Aug 1148 in Cyprus about age 53. Another name for Amadeus was Amadeo III Count of Savoy.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 1 Apr 1149

Amadeus married Mathilde, Comtesse d'Albon,121 391 daughter of Guigues VIII, Comte d'Albon and Mathilde, in 1123. Mathilde was born about 1116 in <Albon>, France and died after Jan 1145. Other names for Mathilde were Mahaud d'Albon and Maud Countess of Albon.

Marriage Notes: FamilySearch has m. 1120

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 274B-25 (Amadeus III)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 329 F    i. Maud, of Savoy 65 350 351 was born in 1125 in <Chambéry, Savoie>, France, died on 4 Nov 1158 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal at age 33, and was buried in Igreja Santa Cruz, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

249. Maud, of Huntingdon 223 293 294 (Judith, of Lens190, Adelaide, of Normandy, Countess of Aumale143, Robert I, Duke of Normandy114, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1074 and died in 1131 about age 57. Other names for Maud were Matilda of Huntingdon and Maude of Huntingdon.

Research Notes: Widow of Simon de St. Liz.

From Wikipedia - Maud, Countess of Huntingdon :

Maud of Northumbria (1074-1130), countess for the Honour of Huntingdon , was the daughter of Waltheof II, Earl of Northumbria and Judith of Lens , the last of the major Anglo-Saxon earls to remain powerful after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. She inherited her father's earldom of Huntingdon and married twice.

Her mother, Judith, refused to marry Simon I of St Liz, 1st Earl of Northampton . This refusal angered her uncle, King William I of England , who confiscated Judith's estates after she fled the country. Instead her daughter Maud was married to Simon of St Liz in 1090. She had a number of children with St Liz including:
Matilda of St Liz (Maud), married Robert FitzRichard and then Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester ..
Simon II de St Liz, 4th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton .
Saint Walteof de St Liz (1100 - bt 1159 - 1160).

Her first husband died in 1109 and Maud next married King David I of Scotland in 1113. From this marriage she had one son, Henry .

The Scottish House of Dunkeld produced the remaining Earls of Huntingdon of the first creation of the title. She was succeeded to the Earldom of Huntingdon by her son Henry.

According to John of Fordun , she died in 1130 and was buried at Scone, but she appears in a charter dated 1147.

Noted events in her life were:

• Countess of Huntingdon and Northumberland:

Maud married Simon de Senlis, Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton,392 393 son of Ranulph the Rich and Unknown, about 1090. Simon died about 1110. Other names for Simon were Simon de St. Liz and Simon de Senliz Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton.

Research Notes: Crusader, son of Ranulph the Rich, a Norman.

From Wikipedia - Simon I de Senlis, Earl of Huntingdon-Northampton :

Simon I of St Liz, 1st Earl of Northampton and 1st Earl of Huntingdon[1] (died 1109) was a Norman nobleman.

He built Northampton Castle and the town walls[2]. He also built one of the three remaining Round churches in England , the The Holy Sepulchre , Sheep Street, Northampton ).

Family
He married Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon . Simon de Senlis, 4th Earl of Northampton was their son. A daughter, Maud de St. Liz, married Robert Fitz Richard . Waltheof of Melrose was also a son.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 330 F    i. Maud de St. Liz 259 260 261 died in 1140.


Maud next married David I "The Saint", King of Scots,394 395 son of Malcolm III Canmore, King of Scots and Saint Margaret, of Scotland, 1113 or 1114. David was born about 1083, died on 24 May 1153 in Carlisle about age 70, and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland. Another name for David was Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - David I of Scotland :

David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern : Daibhidh I mac [Mhaoil] Chaluim;[1] 1083 x 1085 - 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians (1113-1124) and later King of the Scots (1124-1153). The youngest son of Malcolm III and Margaret , David spent most of his childhood in Scotland , but was exiled to England temporarily in 1093. Perhaps after 1100, he became a dependent at the court of King Henry I . There he was influenced by the Norman and Anglo-French culture of the court.

When David's brother Alexander I of Scotland died in 1124, David chose, with the backing of Henry I, to take the Kingdom of Scotland (Alba ) for himself. He was forced to engage in warfare against his rival and nephew, Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair . Subduing the latter seems to have taken David ten years, a struggle that involved the destruction of Óengus , Mormaer of Moray . David's victory allowed expansion of control over more distant regions theoretically part of his Kingdom. After the death of his former patron Henry I, David supported the claims of Henry's daughter and his own niece, the former Empress-consort, Matilda , to the throne of England. In the process, he came into conflict with King Stephen and was able to expand his power in northern England, despite his defeat at the Battle of the Standard in 1138.

The term "Davidian Revolution " is used by many scholars to summarise the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during his reign. These included his foundation of burghs , implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform , foundation of monasteries , Normanisation of the Scottish government, and the introduction of feudalism through immigrant French and Anglo-French knights.

Childhood and flight to England
David was born at an unknown point between 1083 and 1085.[2] He was probably the eighth son of King Malcolm III , and certainly the sixth and youngest produced by Malcolm's second marriage to Queen Margaret .[3]

In 1093 King Malcolm and David's brother Edward were killed at the river Aln during an invasion of Northumberland .[4] David and his two brothers Alexander and Edgar , both future kings of Scotland, were probably present when their mother died shortly afterwards.[5] According to later medieval tradition, the three brothers were in Edinburgh when they were besieged by their uncle, Donald Bane .[6]


Donald became King of Scotland.[7] It is not certain what happened next, but an insertion in the Chronicle of Melrose states that Donald forced his three nephews into exile, although he was allied with another of his nephews, Edmund .[8] John of Fordun wrote, centuries later, that an escort into England was arranged for them by their maternal uncle Edgar Ætheling .[9]


Intervention of William Rufus and English exile
William Rufus , King of the English, opposed Donald's accession to the northerly kingdom. He sent the eldest son of Malcolm III, David's half-brother Donnchad , into Scotland with an army. Donnchad was killed within the year,[10] and so in 1097 William sent Donnchad's half-brother Edgar into Scotland. The latter was more successful, and was crowned King by the end of 1097.[11]

During the power struggle of 1093-97, David was in England. In 1093, was probably about nine years old.[12] From 1093 until 1103 David's presence cannot be accounted for in detail, but he appears to have been in Scotland for the remainder of the 1090s. When William Rufus was killed, his brother Henry Beauclerc seized power and married David's sister, Matilda . The marriage made David the brother-in-law of the ruler of England. From that point onwards, David was probably an important figure at the English court.[13] Despite his Gaelic background, by the end of his stay in England, David had become a full-fledged Normanised prince. William of Malmesbury wrote that it was in this period that David "rubbed off all tarnish of Scottish barbarity through being polished by intercourse and friendship with us".[14]

Prince of the Cumbrians, 1113-1124

David's time as Prince of the Cumbrians marks the beginning of his life as a great territorial lord. The year of these beginnings was probably 1113, when Henry I arranged David's marriage to Matilda, Countess of Huntingdon , who was the heiress to the Huntingdon-Northampton lordship. As her husband David used the title of Earl , and there was the prospect that David's children by her would inherit all the honours borne by Matilda's father Waltheof . 1113 is the year when David, for the first time, can be found in possession of territory in what is now Scotland.

Obtaining the inheritance
David's brother, King Edgar, had visited William Rufus in May 1099 and bequeathed to David extensive territory to the south of the river Forth .[15] On 8 January 1107, Edgar died. It has been assumed that David took control of his inheritance , the southern lands bequeathed by Edgar, soon after the latter's death.[16] However, it cannot be shown that he possessed his inheritance until his foundation of Selkirk Abbey late in 1113.[17] According to Richard Oram , it was only in 1113, when Henry returned to England from Normandy, that David was at last in a position to claim his inheritance in southern "Scotland".[18]

King Henry's backing seems to have been enough to force King Alexander to recognise his younger brother's claims. This probably occurred without bloodshed, but through threat of force nonetheless.[19] David's aggression seems to have inspired resentment amongst some native Scots. A Gaelic quatrain from this period complains that:
Olc a ndearna mac Mael Colaim, It's bad what Máel Coluim's son has done;, ar cosaid re hAlaxandir, dividing us from Alexander; do-ní le gach mac rígh romhaind, he causes, like each king's son before; foghail ar faras Albain. the plunder of stable Alba. [20] If "divided from" is anything to go by, this quatrain may have been written in David's new territories in southern "Scotland".[21]

The lands in question consisted of the pre-1975 counties of Roxburghshire , Selkirkshire , Berwickshire , Peeblesshire and Lanarkshire . David, moreover, gained the title princeps Cumbrensis, "Prince of the Cumbrians ", as attested in David's charters from this era.[22] Although this was a large slice of Scotland south of the river Forth, the region of Galloway-proper was entirely outside David's control.[23]

David may perhaps have had varying degrees of overlordship in parts of Dumfriesshire , Ayrshire , Dunbartonshire and Renfrewshire .[24] In the lands between Galloway and the Principality of Cumbria, David eventually set up large-scale marcher lordships, such as Annandale for Robert de Brus, Cunningham for Hugh de Morville, and possibly Strathgryfe for Walter Fitzalan .[25]

In England

In the later part of 1113, King Henry gave David the hand of Matilda of Huntingdon, daughter and heiress of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland . The marriage brought with it the "Honour of Huntingdon", a lordship scattered through the shires of Northampton , Huntingdon , and Bedford ; within a few years, Matilda de Senlis bore a son, whom David named Henry after his patron.[26]

The new territories which David controlled were a valuable supplement to his income and manpower, increasing his status as one of the most powerful magnates in the Kingdom of the English. Moreover, Matilda's father Waltheof had been Earl of Northumberland , a defunct lordship which had covered the far north of England and included Cumberland and Westmorland , Northumberland -proper, as well as overlordship of the bishopric of Durham. After King Henry's death, David would revive the claim to this earldom for his son Henry.[27]

David's activities and whereabouts after 1114 are not always easy to trace. He spent much of his time outside his principality, in England and in Normandy. Despite the death of his sister on 1 May 1118, David still possessed the favour of King Henry when his brother Alexander died in 1124, leaving Scotland without a king.[28]


Political and military events in Scotland during David's kingship

Michael Lynch and Richard Oram portray David as having little initial connection with the culture and society of the Scots;[29] but both likewise argue that David became increasingly re-Gaelicised in the later stages of his reign.[30] Whatever the case, David's claim to be heir to the Scottish kingdom was doubtful. David was the youngest of eight sons of the fifth from last king. Two more recent kings had produced sons. William fitz Duncan , son of King Donnchad II, and Máel Coluim , son of the last king Alexander, both preceded David in terms of the slowly emerging principles of primogeniture . However, unlike David, neither William nor Máel Coluim had the support of Henry. So when Alexander died in 1124, the aristocracy of Scotland could either accept David as King, or face war with both David and Henry I.[31]

Coronation and struggle for the kingdom

Alexander's son Máel Coluim chose war. Orderic Vitalis reported that Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair "affected to snatch the kingdom from [David], and fought against him two sufficiently fierce battles; but David, who was loftier in understanding and in power and wealth, conquered him and his followers".[32] Máel Coluim escaped unharmed into areas of Scotland not yet under David's control, and in those areas gained shelter and aid.[33]

In either April or May of the same year David was crowned King of Scotland (Gaelic : rí(gh) Alban; Latin : rex Scottorum )[34] at Scone . If later Scottish and Irish evidence can be taken as evidence, the ceremony of coronation was a series of elaborate traditional rituals,[35] of the kind infamous in the Anglo-French world of the 12th century for their "unchristian" elements.[36] Ailred of Rievaulx, friend and one time member of David's court, reported that David "so abhorred those acts of homage which are offered by the Scottish nation in the manner of their fathers upon the recent promotion of their kings, that he was with difficulty compelled by the bishops to receive them".[37]

Outside his "Cumbrian" principality and the southern fringe of Scotland-proper, David exercised little power in the 1120s, and in the words of Richard Oram, was "king of Scots in little more than name".[38] He was probably in that part of Scotland he did rule for most of the time between late 1127 and 1130.[39] However, he was at the court of Henry in 1126 and in early 1127,[40] and returned to Henry's court in 1130, serving as a judge at Woodstock for the treason trial of Geoffrey de Clinton .[39] It was in this year that David's wife, Matilda of Huntingdon, died. Possibly as a result of this,[41] and while David was still in southern England,[42] Scotland-proper rose up in arms against him.

The instigator was, again, his nephew Máel Coluim, who now had the support of Óengus of Moray . King Óengus was David's most powerful "vassal", a man who, as grandson of King Lulach of Scotland , even had his own claim to the kingdom. The rebel Scots had advanced into Angus , where they were met by David's Mercian constable , Edward ; a battle took place at Stracathro near Brechin . According to the Annals of Ulster , 1000 of Edward's army, and 4000 of Óengus' army, including Óengus himself, died.[43]

According to Orderic Vitalis, Edward followed up the killing of Óengus by marching north into Moray itself, which, in Orderic's words, "lacked a defender and lord"; and so Edward, "with God's help obtained the entire duchy of that extensive district".[44] However, this was far from the end of it. Máel Coluim escaped, and four years of continuing "civil war" followed; for David this period was quite simply a "struggle for survival".[45]

It appears that David asked for and obtained extensive military aid from his patron, King Henry. Ailred of Rievaulx related that at this point a large fleet and a large army of Norman knights, including Walter l'Espec, were sent by Henry to Carlisle in order to assist David's attempt to root out his Scottish enemies.[46] The fleet seems to have been used in the Irish Sea , the Firth of Clyde and the entire Argyll coast, where Máel Coluim was probably at large among supporters. In 1134 Máel Coluim was captured and imprisoned in Roxburgh Castle .[47] Since modern historians no longer confuse him with Malcolm MacHeth , it is clear that nothing more is ever heard of Máel Coluim mac Alaxadair, except perhaps that his sons were later allied with Somerled .[48]

Pacification of the west and north
Richard Oram puts forward the suggestion that it was during this period that David granted Walter fitz Alan the kadrez of Strathgryfe , with northern Kyle and the area around Renfrew , forming what would become the "Stewart" lordship of Strathgryfe; he also suggests that Hugh de Morville may have gained the kadrez of Cunningham and the settlement of "Strathyrewen" (i.e. Irvine ). This would indicate that the 1130-34 campaign had resulted in the acquisition of these territories.[49]

How long it took to pacify Moray is not known, but in this period David appointed his nephew William fitz Duncan to succeed Óengus, perhaps in compensation for the exclusion from the succession to the Scottish throne caused by the coming of age of David's son Henry . William may have been given the daughter of Óengus in marriage, cementing his authority in the region. The burghs of Elgin and Forres may have been founded at this point, consolidating royal authority in Moray.[50] David also founded Urquhart Priory , possibly as a "victory monastery", and assigned to it a percentage of his cain (tribute) from Argyll.[51]

During this period too, a marriage was arranged between the son of Matad, Mormaer of Atholl , and the daughter of Haakon Paulsson , Earl of Orkney . The marriage temporarily secured the northern frontier of the Kingdom, and held out the prospect that a son of one of David's Mormaers could gain Orkney and Caithness for the Kingdom of Scotland. Thus, by the time Henry I died on 1 December 1135, David had more of Scotland under his control than ever before.[52]

Dominating the north

While fighting King Stephen and attempting to dominate northern England in the years following 1136, David was continuing his drive for control of the far north of Scotland. In 1139, his cousin, the five year old Harald Maddadsson , was given the title of "Earl" and half the lands of the earldom of Orkney , in addition to Scottish Caithness. Throughout the 1140s Caithness and Sutherland were brought back under the Scottish zone of control.[53] Sometime before 1146 David appointed a native Scot called Aindréas to be the first Bishop of Caithness , a bishopric which was based at Halkirk , near Thurso , in an area which was ethnically Scandinavian.[54]

In 1150, it looked like Caithness and the whole earldom of Orkney were going to come under permanent Scottish control. However, David's plans for the north soon began to encounter problems. In 1151, King Eystein II of Norway put a spanner in the works by sailing through the waterways of Orkney with a large fleet and catching the young Harald unawares in his residence at Thurso. Eystein forced Harald to pay fealty as a condition of his release. Later in the year David hastily responded by supporting the claims to the Orkney earldom of Harald's rival Erlend Haraldsson , granting him half of Caithness in opposition to Harald. King Eystein responded in turn by making a similar grant to this same Erlend, cancelling the effect of David's grant. David's weakness in Orkney was that the Norwegian kings were not prepared to stand back and let him reduce their power.[55]

England

David's relationship with England and the English crown in these years is usually interpreted in two ways. Firstly, his actions are understood in relation to his connections with the King of England. No historian is likely to deny that David's early career was largely manufactured by King Henry I of England. David was the latter's "greatest protégé",[56] one of Henry's "new men".[57] His hostility to Stephen can be interpreted as an effort to uphold the intended inheritance of Henry I, the succession of his daughter, Matilda , the former Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. David carried out his wars in her name, joined her when she arrived in England, and later knighted her son, the future Henry II .[58]

However, David's policy towards England can be interpreted in an additional way. David was the independence-loving king trying to build a "Scoto-Northumbrian" realm by seizing the most northerly parts of the English kingdom. In this perspective, David's support for Matilda is used as a pretext for land-grabbing. David's maternal descent from the House of Wessex and his son Henry's maternal descent from the English Earls of Northumberland is thought to have further encouraged such a project, a project which only came to an end after Henry II ordered David's child successor Máel Coluim IV to hand over the most important of David's gains. It is clear that neither one of these interpretations can be taken without some weight being given to the other.[59]


Usurpation of Stephen and First Treaty of Durham
Henry I had arranged his inheritance to pass to his daughter Empress Matilda . Instead, Stephen , younger brother of Theobald II, Count of Blois , seized the throne.[60] David had been the first lay person to take the oath to uphold the succession of Matilda in 1127, and when Stephen was crowned on 22 December 1135, David decided to make war.[61]

Before December was over, David marched into northern England, and by the end of January he had occupied the castles of Carlisle , Wark , Alnwick , Norham and Newcastle . By February David was at Durham, but an army led by King Stephen met him there. Rather than fight a pitched battle, a treaty was agreed whereby David would retain Carlisle, while David's son Henry was re-granted the title and half the lands of the earldom of Huntingdon, territory which had been confiscated during David's revolt. On Stephen's side he received back the other castles; and while David would do no homage, Stephen was to receive the homage of Henry for both Carlisle and the other English territories. Stephen also gave the rather worthless but for David face-saving promise that if he ever chose to resurrect the defunct earldom of Northumberland, Henry would be given first consideration. Importantly, the issue of Matilda was not mentioned. However, the first Durham treaty quickly broke down after David took insult at the treatment of his son Henry at Stephen's court.[62]


Renewal of war and Clitheroe
When the winter of 1136-37 was over, David again invaded England. The King of the Scots confronted a northern English army waiting for him at Newcastle. Once more pitched battle was avoided, and instead a truce was agreed until November. When November fell, David demanded that Stephen hand over the whole of the old earldom of Northumberland. Stephen's refusal led to David's third invasion, this time in January 1138.[63]

The army which invaded England in the January and February 1138 shocked the English chroniclers. Richard of Hexham called it "an execrable army, savager than any race of heathen yielding honour to neither God nor man" and that it "harried the whole province and slaughtered everywhere folk of either sex, of every age and condition, destroying, pillaging and burning the vills, churches and houses".[64] Several doubtful stories of cannibalism were recorded by chroniclers, and these same chroniclers paint a picture of routine enslavings, as well as killings of churchmen, women and infants.[65]

By February King Stephen marched north to deal with David. The two armies avoided each other, and Stephen was soon on the road south. In the summer David split his army into two forces, sending William fitz Duncan to march into Lancashire , where he harried Furness and Craven . On 10 June, William fitz Duncan met a force of knights and men-at-arms. A pitched battle took place, the battle of Clitheroe , and the English army was routed.[66]


Battle of the Standard and Second Treaty of Durham
By later July, 1138, the two Scottish armies had reunited in "St Cuthbert's land", that is, in the lands controlled by the Bishop of Durham , on the far side of the river Tyne . Another English army had mustered to meet the Scots, this time led by William, Earl of Aumale . The victory at Clitheroe was probably what inspired David to risk battle. David's force, apparently 26,000 strong and several times larger than the English army, met the English on 22 August at Cowdon Moor near Northallerton , North Yorkshire .[67]

The Battle of the Standard , as the encounter came to be called, was unsuccessful for the Scots. Afterwards, David and his surviving notables retired to Carlisle. Although the result was a defeat, it was not by any means decisive. David retained the bulk of his army and thus the power to go on the offensive again. The siege of Wark, for instance, which had been going on since January, continued until it was captured in November. David continued to occupy Cumberland as well as much of Northumberland .[68]

On 26 September Cardinal Alberic , Bishop of Ostia , arrived at Carlisle where David had called together his kingdom's nobles, abbots and bishops. Alberic was there to investigate the controversy over the issue of the Bishop of Glasgow's allegiance or non-allegiance to the Archbishop of York. Alberic played the role of peace-broker, and David agreed to a six week truce which excluded the siege of Wark. On 9 April David and Stephen's wife Matilda of Boulogne met each other at Durham and agreed a settlement. David's son Henry was given the earldom of Northumberland and was restored to the earldom of Huntingdon and lordship of Doncaster ; David himself was allowed to keep Carlisle and Cumberland. King Stephen was to retain possession of the strategically vital castles of Bamburgh and Newcastle. This effectively fulfilled all of David's war aims.[68]

Arrival of Matilda and the renewal of conflict
The settlement with Stephen was not set to last long. The arrival in England of the Empress Matilda gave David an opportunity to renew the conflict with Stephen. In either May or June, David travelled to the south of England and entered Matilda's company; he was present for her expected coronation at Westminster Abbey , though this never took place. David was there until September, when the Empress found herself surrounded at Winchester .[69]

This civil war, or "the Anarchy " as it was later called, enabled David to strengthen his own position in northern England. While David consolidated his hold on his own and his son's newly acquired lands, he also sought to expand his influence. The castles at Newcastle and Bamburgh were again brought under his control, and he attained dominion over all of England north-west of the river Ribble and Pennines , while holding the north-east as far south as the river Tyne, on the borders of the core territory of the bishopric of Durham. While his son brought all the senior barons of Northumberland into his entourage, David rebuilt the fortress of Carlisle. Carlisle quickly replaced Roxburgh as his favoured residence. David's acquisition of the mines at Alston on the South Tyne enabled him to begin minting the Kingdom of Scotland 's first silver coinage. David, meanwhile, issued charters to Shrewsbury Abbey in respect to their lands in Lancashire .[70]


Bishopric of Durham and the Archbishopric of York
However, David's successes were in many ways balanced by his failures. David's greatest disappointment during this time was his inability to ensure control of the bishopric of Durham and the archbishopric of York. David had attempted to appoint his chancellor, William Comyn, to the bishopric of Durham, which had been vacant since the death of Bishop Geoffrey Rufus in 1140. Between 1141 and 1143, Comyn was the de facto bishop, and had control of the bishop's castle; but he was resented by the chapter . Despite controlling the town of Durham, David's only hope of ensuring his election and consecration was gaining the support of the Papal legate, Henry of Blois , Bishop of Winchester and brother of King Stephen. Despite obtaining the support of the Empress Matilda, David was unsuccessful and had given up by the time William de St Barbara was elected to the see in 1143.[71]

David also attempted to interfere in the succession to the archbishopric of York. William FitzHerbert , nephew of King Stephen, found his position undermined by the collapsing political fortune of Stephen in the north of England, and was deposed by the Pope. David used his Cistercian connections to build a bond with Henry Murdac , the new archbishop. Despite the support of Pope Eugenius III , supporters of King Stephen and William FitzHerbert managed to prevent Henry taking up his post at York. In 1149, Henry had sought the support of David. David seized on the opportunity to bring the archdiocese under his control, and marched on the city. However, Stephen's supporters became aware of David's intentions, and informed King Stephen. Stephen therefore marched to the city and installed a new garrison. David decided not to risk such an engagement and withdrew.[72] Richard Oram has conjectured that David's ultimate aim was to bring the whole of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria into his dominion. For Oram, this event was the turning point, "the chance to radically redraw the political map of the British Isles lost forever".[73]

Scottish Church

Historical treatment of David I and the Scottish church usually emphasises David's pioneering role as the instrument of diocesan reorganisation and Norman penetration, beginning with the bishopric of Glasgow while David was Prince of the Cumbrians, and continuing further north after David acceded to the throne of Scotland. Focus too is usually given to his role as the defender of the Scottish church's independence from claims of overlordship by the Archbishop of York and the Archbishop of Canterbury .

Ecclesiastical disputes
One of the first problems David had to deal with as king was an ecclesiastical dispute with the English church. The problem with the English church concerned the subordination of Scottish sees to the archbishops of York and/or Canterbury, an issue which since his election in 1124 had prevented Robert of Scone from being consecrated to the see of St Andrews (Cell Ríghmonaidh). It is likely that since the 11th century the bishopric of St Andrews functioned as a de facto archbishopric. The title of "Archbishop" is accorded in Scottish and Irish sources to Bishop Giric [82] and Bishop Fothad II .[83]

The problem was that this archiepiscopal status had not been cleared with the papacy, opening the way for English archbishops to claim overlordship of the whole Scottish church. The man responsible was the new aggressively assertive Archbishop of York, Thurstan . His easiest target was the bishopric of Glasgow, which being south of the river Forth was not regarded as part of Scotland nor the jurisdiction of St Andrews. In 1125, Pope Honorius II wrote to John, Bishop of Glasgow ordering him to submit to the archbishopric of York.[84] David ordered Bishop John of Glasgow to travel to the Apostolic See in order to secure a pallium which would elevate the bishopric of St Andrews to an archbishopric with jurisdiction over Glasgow.[85]

Thurstan travelled to Rome, as did the Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil , and both presumably opposed David's request. David however gained the support of King Henry, and the Archbishop of York agreed to a year's postponement of the issue and to consecrate Robert of Scone without making an issue of subordination.[86] York's claim over bishops north of the Forth were in practice abandoned for the rest of David's reign, although York maintained her more credible claims over Glasgow.[87]

In 1151, David again requested a pallium for the Archbishop of St Andrews. Cardinal John Paparo met David at his residence of Carlisle in September 1151. Tantalisingly for David, the Cardinal was on his way to Ireland with four pallia to create four new Irish archbishoprics. When the Cardinal returned to Carlisle, David made the request. In David's plan, the new archdiocese would include all the bishoprics in David's Scottish territory, as well as bishopric of Orkney and the bishopric of the Isles . Unfortunately for David, the Cardinal does not appear to have brought the issue up with the papacy. In the following year the papacy dealt David another blow by creating the archbishopric of Trondheim, a new Norwegian archbishopric embracing the bishoprics of the Isles and Orkney.[88]

Succession and death

Perhaps the greatest blow to David's plans came on 12 July 1152 when Henry, Earl of Northumberland, David's only son and successor, died. He had probably been suffering from some kind of illness for a long time. David had under a year to live, and he may have known that he was not going to be alive much longer. David quickly arranged for his grandson Máel Coluim to be made his successor, and for his younger grandson William to be made Earl of Northumberland. Donnchad I, Mormaer of Fife , the senior magnate in Scotland-proper, was appointed as rector, or regent , and took the 11 year-old Máel Coluim around Scotland-proper on a tour to meet and gain the homage of his future Gaelic subjects. David's health began to fail seriously in the Spring of 1153, and on 24 May 1153, David died.[89] In his obituary in the Annals of Tigernach , he is called Dabíd mac Mail Colaim, rí Alban & Saxan, "David, son of Máel Coluim, King of Scotland and England", a title which acknowledged the importance of the new English part of David's realm.[90]

Monastic patronage
David was one of medieval Scotland's greatest monastic patrons. In 1113, in perhaps David's first act as Prince of the Cumbrians, he founded Selkirk Abbey for the Tironensians .[118] David founded more than a dozen new monasteries in his reign, patronising various new monastic orders.[119]

Not only were such monasteries an expression of David's undoubted piety, but they also functioned to transform Scottish society. Monasteries became centres of foreign influence,, and provided sources of literate men, able to serve the crown's growing administrative needs.[120] These new monasteries, and the Cistercian ones in particular, introduced new agricultural practices.[121] Cistercian labour, for instance, transformed southern Scotland into one of northern Europe's most important sources of sheep wool.[122]

Noted events in his life were:

• Prince of the Cumbrians: 1113-1124.

• Crowned: King of Scots, 23 Apr 1124, Scone, (Perth and Kinross), Scotland. King of Scots 23 Apr. 1124-1153.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 331 M    i. Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon 223 326 was born in 1114 and died on 12 Jun 1152 at age 38.

250. Alice Huntingdon 42 145 (Judith, of Lens190, Adelaide, of Normandy, Countess of Aumale143, Robert I, Duke of Normandy114, Richard II, Duke of Normandy89, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1085 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died after 1126. Other names for Alice were Adelise and Adeliza Huntingdon.

Alice married Ralph de Toeni, de Conches,42 son of Ralph de Toeni, de Conches and Isabel de Montfort, in 1103 in England. Ralph was born about 1079 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England, died about 1126 in Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France about age 47, and was buried in Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France. Another name for Ralph was Ralph de Conches.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 120)

251. Margaret, of Hereford 297 (Sibyl de Neufmarché191, Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon144, Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died in 1146. Other names for Margaret were Margaret de Gloucester and Margery of Hereford.

Margaret married Humphrey III de Bohun, Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford,396 397 398 son of Humphrey II "the Great" de Bohun, Lord of Bohun and Maud d'Evreux,. Humphrey was born about 1057 and died about 1129 about age 72. Another name for Humphrey was Humphrey "the Magnificent" de Bohun Lord of Bohun.

Research Notes: From Magna Charta Barons, p. 80:

"Humphrey de Bohun, eldest son and heir, who was steward and sewer to King Henry I. At the instigation of his father-in-law he espoused the cause of the Empress Maud and her son against King Stephen, and so faithfully maintained his allegiance that the Emress, by her especial charter, granted him the office of steward and sewer, in both Normandy and England. In 20 Henry II. he accompanied Richard de Lacie, Justiciary of England, into Scotland, with an army, to waste the country; and was one of the witnesses to the accord made by William of Scotland and Henry of England, as to the subjection of Scotland to the crown of England.

"This feudal Baron m. Margery, daughter and coheiress of Milo de Gloucester, first Earl of Hereford, lord high constable of England, whose charter was the earliest of express creation, the patent being dated in 1140, and, dying April 6, 1187, had issue: Humphrey de Bohun [IV]."

Noted events in his life were:

• Steward and sewer: to King Henry I.

• Steward and sewer: to Empress Maud.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 332 M    i. Humphrey IV de Bohun, Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford 399 400 died about 1182.

252. Bertha, of Hereford 62 296 298 (Sibyl de Neufmarché191, Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon144, Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1130 in <Gloucester, Gloucestershire, > England. Other names for Bertha were Bertha de Pitres and Bertha de Gloucester.

Bertha married William de Braose, 3rd Lord of Bramber,62 401 402 son of Philip de Braose, 2nd Lord of Bramber, Sussex and Aenor de Totenais, about 1150. William was born about 1100 in Brecon, Breconshire, (Powys), Wales and died about 1193 in England about age 93. Another name for William was William de Braose of Brecknock, Abergavenney and Gower.

Research Notes: Eldest son fo Philip de Braose.

From Wikipedia - William de Braose, 3rd Lord of Bramber :

William de Braose, Third Lord of Bramber (born 1112 in Brecon ) (d. ca. 1192) was the eldest son of Philip de Braose , Second Lord of Bramber.

Family and early career
William was born into a second generation English Norman dynasty holding Lordships and land in Sussex at Bramber , also at Totnes in Devon and Radnor and Builth in the Welsh Marches of Wales . He maintained his Sussex lands and titles, extended St Mary de Haura Church in Shoreham and contributed to a priory at Sele, West Sussex . His mother was Aenor Fitz Judhel of Totnes.
He also inherited one half of the honour of Barnstaple in Devon , paying a fee of 1000 marks for the privilege.

William married Bertha de Pitres , also known as Bertha de Hereford , daughter of Miles of Gloucester , Earl of Hereford . Through this marriage, William acquired lordships of Brecon and Abergavenny in 1166 because Bertha's four brothers all died young without heirs.
These vast land holdings greatly expanded the territorial power and income of the de Braose dynasty. They now held the Middle March with extensive interests in Sussex and Devon.
William's younger brother Phillip accompanied King Henry II to Ireland , receiving in 1172 the honour of Limerick .

Marcher titles
In 1174, William became sheriff of Hereford . He died in about 1192 and was succeeded as Lord of Bramber by his son, William . He had also fathered two daughters, Maud and Sibilla, who married well and possibly a later son, named John.

Noted events in his life were:

• 1st Baron of Gwentland:

• Acquired: lordships of Brecon and Abergavenny, 1166. upon the death of his wife's fourth and last brother. (Her brothers all died without heirs.)

• Sheriff of Hereford: 1174.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 333 F    i. Bertha de Braose 62 was born about 1151 in Bramber, Sussex, England.

+ 334 F    ii. Sibyl de Braose 90 403 was born about 1157 in Bramber, Sussex, England and died after 5 Feb 1228 in England.

+ 335 M    iii. William de Braose, 5th Lord de Braose 187 404 was born about 1175 in <Bramber, Sussex>, England, died on 9 Aug 1211 in Corbeil near Paris, Marne, France about age 36, and was buried on 10 Aug 1211 in France.

Bertha next married someone.

253. Richard FitzMiles, 2nd Earl of Hereford 296 (Sibyl de Neufmarché191, Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon144, Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

254. Walter de Hereford (Sibyl de Neufmarché191, Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon144, Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died after 1159 in Palestine.

Noted events in his life were:

• Sheriff of Gloucester: 1155-1157.

• Sheriff of Hereford: 1155-1159.

255. Henry FitzMiles (Sibyl de Neufmarché191, Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon144, Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died on 12 Apr 1165. Another name for Henry was Henry of Hereford.

256. William, de Hereford 296 (Sibyl de Neufmarché191, Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon144, Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died before 1160.

257. Mahel, de Hereford 296 (Sibyl de Neufmarché191, Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon144, Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died in Oct 1165 in Bronllys Castle, Breconshire, Wales and was buried in Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales.

258. Maud, of Hereford 299 (Sibyl de Neufmarché191, Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon144, Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

259. Lucy, of Hereford 296 300 (Sibyl de Neufmarché191, Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon144, Ada FitzGilbert, de Hugleville115, <Papia>90, Richard I, Duke of Normandy73, William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy62, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died after 1220 and was buried in Chapter House of Lanthony, near Gloucester. Another name for Lucy was Lucy of Gloucester.

Research Notes: Heir to a 1/3 interest in the barony of her father.

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1220.

• Lady of Blaen Llyfni and Bwlch y Dinas:

260. Anund "the Trail Blazer", King in Sweden [Legendary] 1 301 (Ingvar "the Tall" Eysteinsson, King in Sweden [Legendary]192, Eysteinn, King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]145, Eadgils, King in Uppsala [Semi-Legendary]116, Ohthere, King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]91, Ongentheow, King in Sweden [Semi-legendary]74, Aun "the Old" Jorundsson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]63, Jorund Yngvasson, King in Uppsala [Legendary]53, Yngvi Alreksson, King in Sweden [Legendary]44, Alrik Agnesson, King in Sweden [Legendary]34, Agne Dagsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]29, Dag "the Wise" Dyggvisson, King in Sweden [Mythological]24, Dyggvi Domarsson, King in Sweden [Mythological]19, Domar Domaldasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]16, Domalde Visbursson, King in Sweden [Mythological]13, Visbur Vanlandasson, King in Sweden [Mythological]10, Driva Snaersdotter, [Mythological]7, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in Sweden. Other names for Anund were Braut-Önundr, Brøt-Anundr, and Onund "Braut" Ingvarsson King in Sweden.

Research Notes: Legendary Swedish king of the House of Yngling.

From Wikipedia - Anund :

Brøt-Anundr (Old East Norse ) or Braut-Önundr (Old West Norse ) (meaning trail-blazer Anund or Anund the land-clearer) was a legendary Swedish king of the House of Yngling who reigned in the mid-seventh century. The name would have been Proto-Norse *Anuwinduz [1] , meaning "winning ancestor".

In his Ynglinga saga , Snorri Sturluson relates that Anund succeeded his father Ingvar on the Swedish throne, and after his father's wars against Danish vikings and Estonian pirates, peace reigned over Sweden and there were good harvests. Anund was a popular king who became very rich, not only because of the peace and the good harvests but also because he avenged his father in Estonia. That country was ravaged far and wide and in the autumn Anund returned with great riches.

In those days Sweden was dominated by vast and uninhabited forests, so Anund started making roads and clearing land and vast districts were settled by Swedes. Consequently he was named Bröt-Anund. He made a house for himself in every district and used to stay as a guest in many homes.

One autumn, King Anund was travelling between his halls (see Husbys ) and came to a place called Himinheiðr (sky heath) between two mountains. He was surprised by a landslide which killed him.

Anund married someone.

His child was:

+ 336 M    i. Ingjald "Illråde" Anundsson, King in Sweden [Legendary] 1 405 was born about 660 in Sweden.

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261. Olof "Mitkg" Bjornsson, King of Sweden 42 (Bjorn "the Old" Eriksson, King of Sweden193, Erik Edmundsson146, Emund Eriksson117, Erik Refillsson93, Refill Bjornsson76, Bjorn "Ironside" Ragnarsson66, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 885 in Sweden.

Olof married Ingeberg Thrandsdotter.42 Ingeberg was born about 886 in <Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 337 M    i. Styrbjorn "the Strong" Olafsson, Prince of Sweden 42 was born about 903 in Sweden and died in 985 in Fyrisval, Uppsala, Sweden about age 82.

262. Grelod Duncansdatter 3 (Groa Thorsteinsdatter194, Thorstein "the Red" Olafsson147, Olaf "the White" Ingjaldsson, King of Ireland118, Ingjald "the White" Helgasson, Petty King in Ireland94, Thora Sigurdsdatter77, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 898 in <Caithness, Scotland>. Other names for Grelod were Gerlaf Duncansdatter and Grelauga Duncansdatter.

Grelod married Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer" Einarsson,3 son of Einar "Torf" Rögnvaldsson, Earl of Orkney and Unknown, in 914 in Orkney Islands, Scotland. Thorfinn was born about 890 in <Orkney Islands, Scotland>, died after 977, and was buried in Burial Mound, Hoxa, Ronaldsay, Scotland. Another name for Thorfinn was Brico Einarsson.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 60)

263. Ulf Thorgilsson 42 (Thorgil "Sprakaleg" Styrjornsson195, Thyra Haraldsdatter, Queen of Norway148, Harald "the Blue Tooth" Gormsson, King of Denmark119, Geva Knudsson, King of Denmark95, Knud Sigurdsson78, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 993 in <Halland>, Sweden, died on 29 Sep 1027 in Roskilde, Denmark about age 34, and was buried in Hellige-Trefolg, Kirken, Roskilde, , Denmark.

Ulf married Estrid Svensdatter, Princess of Denmark,42 daughter of Svend I "Forked Beard", King of Denmark, Norway and England and Swietoslava,. Estrid was born about 997 in Denmark and was buried in Cathedral, Roskilde, Roskilde, Denmark. Another name for Estrid was Margrete Svensdatter.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 196)

264. Bjorn Ulfiusson 42 (Estrid Svensdatter, Princess of Denmark196, Svend I "Forked Beard", King of Denmark, Norway and England149, Harald "the Blue Tooth" Gormsson, King of Denmark119, Geva Knudsson, King of Denmark95, Knud Sigurdsson78, Sigurd "Snake-Eye" Ragnarsson67, Aslaug Sigurdsdatter57, Brynhild Budlasdatter48, Budi38, Leinfni32, Attip27, Budli22, Halfdan "the Old"17, Hring14, Raum "the Old"11, Norr8, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1021 in <Denmark> and died about 1049 about age 28. Another name for Bjorn was Bjorn Estridsen.

Bjorn married someone.

His child was:

+ 338 M    i. Sigurd, Earl of Northumberland 42 406 407 was born before 1013 in <Denmark>, died in 1055 in York, Yorkshire, England, and was buried in Galmanho Abby, York, Yorkshire, England.

265. Roger de Toeni 42 (Ralph de, de Conches197, Roger de, de Conches150, Ralph de, de Conches120, Ralph de, de Conches96, Roger "the Spaniard" de80, Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1156 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died about Jan 1209 about age 53.

Roger married Constance de Beaumont,187 daughter of Richard de Beaumont and Unknown,. Constance was born about 1202 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died after 1226.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 339 M    i. Ralph de Toeni 42 was born about 1190 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died about 29 Sep 1239 about age 49.

266. Amice de Gael de Montfort 2 205 220 (Ralph de Gael de Montfort198, Ralph de Gael, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Suffolk & Cambridge151, Emma FitzOsbern121, Alice de Toeni97, Roger "the Spaniard" de80, Ralph II de, Seigneur de Tosni69, Ralph I de58, Hugh de49, Malahule41, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1108 and died 31 Aug 1168 or 1169 about age 60. Other names for Amice were Amice de Gael, Amicia, and Amice de Montfort.

Amice married Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester,2 219 220 son of Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan and Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester, after 1120. Robert was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. Another name for Robert was Robert "Bossu" de Beaumont 2nd Earl of Leicester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois -
Younger twin of Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan. Nicknamed Robert Bossu (the Humpback).

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester :

Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 - 5 April 1168 ) was Justiciar of England 1155-1168.
The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French ).

Early Life and Education
Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois . He was the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont . There is no knowing whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they probably were in fact identical.

The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William earl of Warenne or Surrey . They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy , to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119 , when the king incited them to debate philosophy with the cardinals . Both twins were literate, and Abingdon Abbey later claimed to have been Robert's school, but though this is possible, its account is not entirely trustworthy. A surviving treatise on astronomy (British Library ms Royal E xxv) carries a dedication "to Earl Robert of Leicester, that man of affairs and profound learning, most accomplished in matters of law" who can only be this Robert. On his death he left his own psalter to the abbey he founded at Leicester, which was still in its library in the late fifteenth century. The existence of this indicates that like many noblemen of his day, Robert followed the canonical hours in his chapel.

Career at the Norman Court
In 1120 Robert was declared of age and inherited most of his father's lands in England, while his twin brother took the French lands. However in 1121 , royal favour brought Robert the great Norman honors of Breteuil and Pacy-sur-Eure , with his marriage to Amice de Montfort , daughter of a Breton intruder the king had forced on the honor after the forfeiture of the Breteuil family in 1119 . Robert spent a good deal of his time and resources over the next decade integrating the troublesome and independent barons of Breteuil into the greater complex of his estates. He did not join in his brother's great Norman rebellion against King Henry I in 1123 -. He appears fitfully at the royal court despite his brother's imprisonment until 1129 . Thereafter the twins were frequently to be found together at Henry I's court.

Robert held lands throughout the country. In the 1120s and 1130s he tried to rationalise his estates in Leicestershire. Leicestershire estates of the See of Lincoln and the Earl of Chester were seized by force. This enhanced the integrity of Robert's block of estates in the central midlands, bounded by Nuneaton , Loughborough , Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough .

In 1135 , the twins were present at King Henry's deathbed. Robert's actions in the succession period are unknown, but he clearly supported his brother's decision to join the court of the new king Stephen before Easter 1136 . During the first two years of the reign Robert is found in Normandy fighting rival claimants for his honor of Breteuil. Military action allowed him to add the castle of Pont St-Pierre to his Norman estates in June 1136 at the expense of one of his rivals. From the end of 1137 Robert and his brother were increasingly caught up in the politics of the court of King Stephen in England, where Waleran secured an ascendancy which lasted till the beginning of 1141. Robert participated in his brother's political coup against the king's justiciar, Roger of Salisbury (the Bishop of Salisbury ).

...
Family and children
He married after 1120 Amice de Montfort , daughter of Ralph, senior of Gael or Montfort . They had four children:
Hawise, who married William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester ;
Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester ;
Isabel, who married with:
Simon II of St Liz, 4th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton ;
Gervase Paynel of Dudley.
Margaret, who married Ralph V de Toeni

Literary references
He is a minor character in The Holy Thief, one of the Brother Cadfael series by Ellis Peters .

Notes
^ a b c Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 69

References
D. Crouch, The Beaumont Twins: the Roots and Branches of Power in the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1986).
D. Crouch, The Reign of King Stephen, 1135-1154 (London, 2000).
E. King, "Mountsorrel and its region in King Stephen's Reign", Huntington Library Quarterly, 44 (1980), 1-10.
Leicester Abbey, ed. J. Storey, J. Bourne and R. Buckley (Leicester, 2006).
Powicke, F. Maurice and E. B. Fryde Handbook of British Chronology 2nd. ed. London:Royal Historical Society 1961
British Library ms Royal E xxv.

Noted events in his life were:

• Knighted: 1122.

• Justiciar of England: 1155-1168.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 209)

267. Ragnhild Olafsdatter 7 (Ingebiorg Hakonsdatter199, Haakon153, Paul, Jarl of Orkney and Caithness123, Thorfinn II "the Black", Earl of Orkney99, Sigurd II "Digri"82, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1117 in <Isle of Man>.

Ragnhild married Somerled, King of the Isles,3 son of Gillebride and Unknown,. Somerled was born about 1113 in <Morven, Argyleshire, Scotland>, died on 1 Jan 1164 in Renfrew, (Renfrewshire), Scotland about age 51, and was buried in Abbey of Saddell, Kintyre, Argule, Scotland.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 340 M    i. Reginald, Lord of the Isles 3 408 was born about 1148 in <Morven, Argyleshire, Scotland> and died in 1207 in Kintyre, Argyleshire, Scotland about age 59.

268. Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale 302 (Adam200, Robert de154, Ragnvald124, Brusi100, Sigurd II "Digri"82, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1071 in <Skelton, Yorkshire, England>, died on 11 May 1141 in Skelton, North Yorkshire, England about age 70, and was buried in Gisborough Priory, Guisborough, North Yorkshire, England. Other names for Robert were Robert Bruce 1st Lord of Annandale and Robert I de Brus 1st Lord of Annandale.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale :

Robert I de Brus (died 1142) was an early 12th century Norman baron and knight, the first of the Bruce dynasty of Scotland. A monastic patron, he is remembered as the founder of Gisborough Priory in Yorkshire in 1119.[1]

Family
Nothing is known of Robert's father, except that he was a landowner in Normandy.[2] An early modern historiographical tradition that he was the son of a Norman noble named Robert de Brus who came to England with William the Conqueror has been found to be without basis.[2]
Modern historians contend that Robert may have come from Brix, Manche , near Cherbourg in the Cotentin Peninsula , and came to Britain after King Henry I of England 's conquest of Normandy (i.e: at the same time as Alan fitzFlaad , ancestor of the Stewart Royal Family). David fitz Malcolm (after 1124 King David I of Scotland ), was present in France with King Henry and was granted much of the Cotentin Peninsula. It is suggested that Robert de Brus's presences and absences at Henry's court coincide with David's.

Scotland
Whatever his immediate ancestry, what is known beyond doubt is that he went to Scotland, where the new King, David , made Robert Lord of Annandale in 1124,[3]. although there is scant evidence that this Robert took up residence on his Scottish estates.

Battle of The Standard
After the death of King Henry, David turned against Henry's successor, King Stephen . As a result Robert de Brus and King David parted company, with Robert bitterly renouncing his homage to David before taking the English side at the Battle of the Standard .[4]

[edit ] Marriage
Robert is said to have married twice: (1) Agnes, daughter of Geoffrey Bainard, sheriff of York and (2) Agnes, daughter and heiress of Fulk de Pagnall, Lord of Carleton, Yorkshire[5][6]
There were two sons, but it is unclear by which spouse:
Robert de Brus, 2nd Lord of Annandale , who inherited the Lordship of Annandale .
Adam de Brus, whose descendants continued to hold lands in England as Lords of Skelton . When Peter de Brus III, last Bruce Lord of Skelton, died in 1272, his sisters were co-heiresses. One of them, Laderia, carried Carleton to her marriage with John de Bellew, whose daughter, Sybil married Sir Miles de Stapleton (k. 1314, at the Battle of Bannockburn ), whose family were subsequently designated "of Carleton".[7][8] This appears to confirm the de Brus and de Pagnall of Carleton connection. Sir Miles Stapleton's son and heir, Sir Gilbert (d. 1321) married Agnes, daughter of Bryan FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan ,[9] and a granddaughter of Devorguilla of Galloway (d. 1290) wife of John de Balliol, Lord of Barnard Castle , whose son was King John of Scotland .[10]

Noted events in his life were:

• Created: Lord of Annandale, 1124. by David, King of Scotland

• Founded: Gisborough Abbey, 1119, Guisborough, North Yorkshire, England.

Robert married Agnes Bainard,409 daughter of Geoffrey Bainard, Sheriff of York and Unknown,.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale:

"Robert is said to have married twice: (1) Agnes, daughter of Geoffrey Bainard, sheriff of York and (2) Agnes, daughter and heiress of Fulk de Pagnall, Lord of Carleton, Yorkshire[5][6]
There were two sons, but it is unclear by which spouse:"

Robert next married Agnes de Pagnall,242 409 daughter of Fulk de Pagnall, Lord of Carleton, Yorkshire and Unknown,. Agnes was born about 1076 in <Skelton, Yorkshire, England>. Another name for Agnes was Agnes Pagnel.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale:

"Robert is said to have married twice: (1) Agnes, daughter of Geoffrey Bainard, sheriff of York and (2) Agnes, daughter and heiress of Fulk de Pagnall, Lord of Carleton, Yorkshire[5][6]
There were two sons, but it is unclear by which spouse:"


Children from this marriage were:

+ 341 M    i. Adam Brus 242 409 was born about 1101 in <Skelton, Yorkshire, England>, died in 1143 about age 42, and was buried in Gisborough Priory, Guisborough, North Yorkshire, England.

+ 342 M    ii. Robert de Brus, 2nd Lord of Annandale 410 died in 1194.

269. Gillebride 3 (Imergi Somerledson201, Somerled I Gillebrideson155, Gillebride125, Gille Adoman I Gilleson101, Hvarflad Hlodversdatter83, Hlodver, Earl of Orkney71, Thorfinn I Rollo "Hausakliffer"60, Einar "Torf", Earl of Orkney51, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1080 in <Scotland>.

Gillebride married someone.

His child was:

+ 343 M    i. Somerled, King of the Isles 3 was born about 1113 in <Morven, Argyleshire, Scotland>, died on 1 Jan 1164 in Renfrew, (Renfrewshire), Scotland about age 51, and was buried in Abbey of Saddell, Kintyre, Argule, Scotland.

270. Otto II, Count of Chiny (Adela, de Rameru202, Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died on 28 Mar 1125.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-23 (Adelaide of Namur)

Otto married Adelaide, of Namur,411 daughter of Albert III, Count of Namur and Ida, of Saxony,. Adelaide was born in 1068 and died in 1124 at age 56.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Otto II, Count of Chiny


The child from this marriage was:

+ 344 F    i. Ida, of Chiny and Namur 412 413 was born about 1083 and died between 1117 and 1122.

271. Maud, de Perche (Beatrix de Mondidier203, Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born in 1105 and died on 28 May 1143 at age 38. Another name for Maud was Mathilde de Perche.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A-24.

Maud married Raymond I, Viscount of Turenne, son of Boson I, Viscount of Turenne and Gerberge,. Raymond died about 1122. Another name for Raymond was Raimond I de Turenne.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A- (Maud de Perche)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 345 F    i. Marguerite, de Turenne .

272. Margaret de Perche 304 (Beatrix de Mondidier203, Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died after 1156. Another name for Margaret was Marguerite de Perche.

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1156.

Margaret married Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick,414 415 son of Roger de Beaumont, Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemer and Adeline, of Meulan, before 1100. Henry was born about 1046, died on 20 Jun 1123 about age 77, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France. Other names for Henry were Henry de Newburgh and Henry de Neubourg.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 1119 (Line 151-24, Margaret de Perche); Wikipedia has d. 20 Jun 1123.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick :

Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick (? - 20 June 1123 ) was a Norman nobleman. He is also known as Henry de Neubourg or Henry de Newburgh, from the castle of Newburg near Louviers , in Normandy where he was born.

Henry was the younger son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline of Meulan , daughter of Waleran III, Count de Meulan . He inherited the modest lordship of La Neubourg, in central Normandy, but acquired a much greater holding in England, when, in reward for help in suppressing the Rebellion of 1088 , William II of England made him Earl of Warwick .

His name is included in the roll of the knights who came over with the William the Conqueror , but he does not appear to have been present at the Battle of Hastings . He spent the greater part of his life in Normandy , his name is not found in the Domesday Book . He took a leading role in reconciling the Conqueror with his eldest son Robert Curthose in 1081 and he stood high in the Conqueror's favour. He was the companion and friend of Henry I , and when in 1100 a division took place amongst the barons who had gathered together to choose a successor to William II, it was mainly owing to his advice that Henry was selected and when in the following year most of the barons were openly or secretly disloyal and favoured the attempt of Duke Robert to gain the Crown, he and his brother were amongst the few that remained faithful to the King.

He had many honours conferred upon him, in 1068 he was made Constable of Warwick Castle and shortly afterwards King William gave it to him together with the borough and manor. The Castle was enlarged and strengthened during the long succession of powerful lords, and it eventually became one of the most renowned of English fortresses and it remains even to-day the glory of the midland shires. The Bear and Ragged Staff was the badge of Guy the great opponent of the Danes, and Henry on his elevation to the Earldom in 1076 by William I, assumed it, and it has ever since been used by successive Earls. Odericus tells us that "he earned this honour by his valour and loyalty" and Wace speaks of him as "a brave man". He was made a Councillor by the King in 1079 and a Baron of the Exchequer in Normandy 12 April 1080 .

In 1099 he fought against the Welsh and built a castle at Abertawy , near Swansea , which was unsuccessfully attacked by the Welsh in 1113 ; he also captured the Gower Peninsula in the south of Glamorganshire . He built other castles at Penrhys , Llandhidian and Swansea in ll20 , together with the others at Oystermouth and Aberllychor , the only remains of the latter are a mound and a keep.

Some time between 1106 and 1116 he was granted the lordship of Gower in Wales .

Henry was by disposition quiet and retiring, and was overshadowed by his elder brother Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester , reputedly one of the most brilliant men in England.

He died 20 June 1123 and was buried in the Abbey at Preaux .

Family and children
He married before 1100 Marguerite, daughter of Geoffrey II of Perche and Beatrix of Montdidier , and had children:
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick , who succeeded him as earl;
Henry de Neubourg, probably inherited Dorset and Devon estates.
Robert de Neubourg , who inherited Henry's Norman lands, and was Chief Justiciar of Normandy;
Rotrou (died 27 November 1183 ), who was Bishop of Évreux and then Archbishop of Rouen , and who was Chief Justiciar and Steward of Normandy.
Geoffroy.

Noted events in his life were:

• 1st Earl of Warwick: 1090.

• Granted: Lordship of Gower in Wales, 1107.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 346 M    i. Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick 317 318 was born about 1102 and died on 12 Jun 1153 about age 51.

273. Juliana, of Mortagne and Perche 305 (Beatrix de Mondidier203, Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1). Another name for Juliana was Juliana du Perche.

Juliana married Gilbert, de l'Aigle, Seigneur de l'Aigle in Normandy,416 417 son of Richer, de l'Aigle and Judith,. Another name for Gilbert was Gilbert de l'Aigle Seigneur de l'Aigle.

Noted events in his life were:

• Listed in Domesday Book: Tenant in England, 1086.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 347 F    i. Marguerite, de l'Aigle 416 417 died on 25 May 1141.

274. Adelaide de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis 212 262 263 (Marguerite de Rameru204, Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1058 in <Northamptonshire, England> and died in <England>. Other names for Adelaide were Alice de Claremont, Adeliza de Clermont, and Adeliza de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. by 1072, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019558.htm has b. 1058.

Adelaide married Gilbert FitzRichard, de Clare,184 185 186 187 son of Richard I FitzGilbert, of Clare and Tonbridge and Rohese Giffard, about 1083. Gilbert was born about 1065 in <Clare, Suffolk>, England and died about 1115 in <England> about age 50. Other names for Gilbert were Gilbert FitzRichard de Clare and Gilbert Fitz Richard Earl of Clare and Lord of Tonbridge.

Marriage Notes: FamilySearch has m. bef. 1076 in England. Thepeerage.com has m. abt 1083.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019557.htm has b. 1065

Death Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019557.htm has d. 1114

Research Notes: Lord of Clare, Tonbridge, and Cardigan, Wales; or Earl of Clare, Lord of Tonbridge and Cardigan.

From Wikipedia - Gilbert Fitz Richard :

Gilbert Fitz Richard (1065-1115) was son and heir of Richard Fitz Gilbert , earl of Clare, and heiress Rohese Giffard. He succeeded to his father's possessions in England in 1090; his brother, Roger Fitz Richard, inherited his father's lands in Normandy . Earl Gilbert's inheritance made him one of the wealthiest magnates in early twelfth-century England.

Gilbert may have been present at the suspicious death of William II in the New Forest in 1100. He was granted lands and the Lordship of Cardigan by Henry I , including Cardigan Castle . He and his wife Adeliza had nine children, two of whom became peers of the realm . He founded the Cluniac priory at Stoke-by-Clare, Suffolk.


Noted events in his life were:

• Lord of Clare, Tonbridge and Cardigan:

• Founded: Priory of Clare, 1090, Stoke-by-Clare, Suffolk, England. Cluniac priory

(Duplicate Line. See Person 182)

275. Ermentrude de Clermont 308 (Marguerite de Rameru204, Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1066 in <Clermont, Beauvais, France>.

Noted events in her life were:

• Countess of Chester:

Ermentrude married Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester,418 419 son of Richard le Goz, Viscomte d'Avranches and Emma de Conteville,. Hugh was born about 1047 in Avranches, Normandy, France, died on 27 Jul 1101 about age 54, and was buried in Chapter House of Chester Cathedral. Other names for Hugh were Hugh Lupus d'Avranches, Hugh "Lupus" d'Avranches 1st Earl of Chester, and Hugh "the Fat" d'Avranches 1st Earl of Chester.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
In 1066 he contributed 60 ships to the invasion of England, but did not fight at the Battle of Hastings.2,5 He was created 1st Earl of Chester [England] in 1071.1 He succeeded to the title of Vicomte d'Avranches after 1082.2 He founded the Abbey of St. Sever in Normandy and St. Werburg at Chester.2 On 23 July 1101 a monk.


----------

From Wikipedia - Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester :

Hugh d'Avranches (died 27 July 1101), called the Fat or the Wolf (Latin : Lupus, Welsh : Flaidd) was the first Earl of Chester and one of the great magnates of early Norman England .

Early career
Hugh was the son of Richard Goz, Viscount of Avranches , in the far southwest of Normandy , and inherited from his father a large estate, not just in the Avranchin but scattered throughout western Normandy.
Hugh became an important councillor of William, Duke of Normandy . He contributed sixty ships to the invasion of England , but did not fight at Hastings , instead being one of those trusted to stay behind and govern Normandy.

Earl of Chester
After William became king of England, Hugh was given the command of Tutbury Castle Staffordshire but in 1070 he was promoted to become Earl of Chester , with palatine powers in view of Cheshire 's situation on the Welsh border . Tutbury with its surrounding lands was passed to Henry de Ferrers . [1]

Hugh spent much of his time fighting savagely with his neighbours in Wales . Together with his cousin Robert of Rhuddlan he subdued a good part of northern Wales. Initially Robert of Rhuddlan held north-east Wales as a vassal of Hugh. However in 1081 Gruffydd ap Cynan King of Kingdom of Gwynedd was captured by treachery at a meeting near Corwen . Gruffydd was imprisoned by Earl Hugh in his castle at Chester, but it was Robert who took over his kingdom, holding it directly from the king. When Robert was killed by a Welsh raiding party in 1088 Hugh took over these lands, becoming ruler of most of North Wales, but he lost Anglesey and much of the rest of Gwynedd in the Welsh revolt of 1094, led by Gruffydd ap Cynan , who had escaped from captivity.

In time Hugh became so fat he could hardly walk; he is often referred to as "the Fat". The Welsh, for his brutality, called him Flaidd ("the Wolf").

Norwegian invasion
In the summer of 1098 Hugh joined with Hugh of Montgomery, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury in an attempt to recover his losses in Gwynedd. Gruffydd ap Cynan retreated to Anglesey, but then was forced to flee to Ireland when a fleet he had hired from the Danish settlement in Ireland changed sides. The situation was changed by the arrival of a Norwegian fleet under the command of King Magnus III of Norway , also known as Magnus Barefoot, who attacked the Norman forces near the eastern end of the Menai Straits . Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury was killed by an arrow said to have been shot by Magnus himself. The Normans were obliged to evacuate Anglesey, and the following year Gruffydd returned from Ireland to take possession again. Hugh apparently made an agreement with him and did not again try to recover these lands.

Marriage and succession
Hugh married Ermentrude of Claremont , by whom he had one son, Richard , who succeeded him. Richard married Matilda of Blois , daughter of Stephen, Count of Blois and Adela, a daughter of William the Conqueror . Both Richard and Matilda died in the White Ship disaster (1120), and Hugh was then succeeded by his nephew Ranulph le Meschin, Earl of Chester . Hugh was buried beneath the stained glass windows in the Chapter House of Chester Cathedral .

Noted events in his life were:

• Created: Earl of Chester, 1070.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 348 M    i. Richard d'Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester 420 was born in 1094 and died on 25 Nov 1120 at age 26.

+ 349 F    ii. Matilda d'Avranches

276. Renaud II, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis 84 309 310 (Marguerite de Rameru204, Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1108 in Clermont, Oise, France and died about 1162 about age 54. Another name for Renaud was Renaud de Clermont.

Research Notes: Second husband of Clémence de Bar-le-Duc. Fathered at least 7 children.

Renaud married Clémence de Bar-le-Duc, Countess of Dammartin,84 389 daughter of Renaud I, Count of Mousson, Count of Bar-le-Duc and Gisele, of Vaudemont, about 1140. Clémence was born about 1110 in <Dammartin, Île-de-France>, France and died after 20 Jan 1183. Another name for Clémence was Clemence de Bar.

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1183.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 350 F    i. Mathilda, of Clermont, Ponthieu & Dammartin 84 421 422 was born about 1138 in <Pontieu, Ain>, France and died after Oct 1200.

277. Alix de Rameru, Dame of Rameru 312 (Andre I de Rameru, and d'Arcis-sur-Aube205, Adele de Roucy156, Beatrix, of Hainaut126, Régnier V, Count of Hainaut102, Hedwig, of France84, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Alix married Erard I, Count of Brienne,423 son of Gautier I and Eustace, of Bar-sur-Seine,. Erard died in 1115.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 351 F    i. Félicité de Brienne 423 died on 21 Jul 1178.

278. Renaud de Courtenay, Sire de Courtenay 153 314 (Ermengarde, de Nevers206, Renaud II de Nevers, Count of Nevers and Auxerre157, William I, Count of Nevers127, Adèle, of France, Countess of Auxerre103, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1125 in <Courtenay, Loiret>, France and died about 1190 about age 65.

Renaud married Helvis, du Donjon and Corbeil.153 424

Research Notes: First wife of Renaud de Courtenay (the elder). Sister of Frederick (or Guy) du Donjon and Corbeil


Children from this marriage were:

+ 352 F    i. Elizabeth de Courtenay, Dame de Courtenay was born before 1150 and died after 1205.

+ 353 M    ii. Renaud de Courtenay 425 was born about 1150, died on 27 Sep 1194 about age 44, and was buried in Ford Abbey, Devonshire, England.

+ 354 F    iii. Egelina de Courtenay 153 was born about 1155 in <Colston, Nottinghamshire>, England and died about 1214 about age 59.

279. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester 2 315 316 (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester209, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1121 in Beaumont, France and died on 31 Aug 1190 in Durazzo, West Albania about age 69. Another name for Robert was Robert "Blanchemains" de Harcourt 3rd Earl of Leicester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester

Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester (died 1190 ) was an English nobleman, one of the principal followers of Henry the Young King in the Revolt of 1173-1174 against his father Henry II . He is also called Robert Blanchemains (meaning "White Hands" in French ).

He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester , a staunch supporter of Henry II, and he inherited from his father large estates in England and Normandy .

When the revolt of the younger Henry broke out in April 1173 , Robert went to his castle at Breteuil in Normandy . The rebels' aim was to take control of the duchy, but Henry II himself led an army to besiege the castle; Robert fled, and the Breteuil was taken on September 25 or 26.

Robert apparently went to Flanders , where he raised a large force of mercenaries, and landed at Walton, Suffolk , on September 29 , 1173. He joined forces with Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk , and the two marched west, aiming to cut England in two across the Midlands and to relieve the king's siege of Robert's castle at Leicester . However, they were intercepted by the king's supporters and defeated in battle at Fornham , near Bury St Edmunds , on October 17 . Robert, along with his wife and many others, was taken prisoner. Henry II took away the earl's lands and titles as well.

He remained in captivity until January 1177 , well after most of the other prisoners had been released. The king was in a strong position and could afford to be merciful; not long after his release Robert's lands and titles were restored, but not his castles. All but two of his castles had been destroyed, and those two (Montsorrel in Leicestershire and Pacy in Normandy) remained in the king's hands.

Robert had little influence in the remaining years of Henry II's reign, but was restored to favor by Richard I . He carried one of the swords of state at Richard's coronation in 1189 . In 1190 Robert went on pilgrimage to Palestine , but he died in Greece on his return journey.

Family
Robert married Pernelle[1], who was either a granddaughter or great-granddaughter of Hugh de Grandmesnil . They had five children:
Robert , who succeeded his father as Earl of Leicester ;
Roger , who became Bishop of St Andrews in 1189;
William, who was a leper;
Amicia, who married Simon III de Montfort , and whose son Simon subsequently became Earl of Leicester;
Margaret, who married Saer de Quincy , later 1st Earl of Winchester .

Noted events in his life were:

• Crusader: 1179.

Robert married Petronilla de Grandmesnil,1 316 426 daughter of Hugh de Grandmesnil and Alice Beaumont, about 1155. Petronilla was born about 1134 in <Leicestershire>, England and died on 1 Apr 1212 in Leicester, Leicestershire, England about age 78. Other names for Petronilla were Pernelle de Grandmesnil, Petronella de Grentemaisnil, and Petronille de Grentmesnil.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester


Children from this marriage were:

+ 355 F    i. Margaret de Beaumont 2 427 428 was born about 1156 in <Hampshire>, England and died about 12 Jan 1235 about age 79.

+ 356 M    ii. Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester 429 died about 21 Oct 1204.

+ 357 M    iii. Roger de Beaumont, Bishop of St Andrews .

+ 358 M    iv. William de Beaumont .

+ 359 F    v. Amicia de Beaumont .

280. Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester209, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died on 24 Apr 1197.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

Also Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 63-26

Hawise married William FitzRobert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, son of Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Mabel FitzHamon, of Gloucester, about 1150. William was born about 1128 and died on 23 Nov 1183 about age 55.

Research Notes: 2nd Earl of Gloucester, Lord of Tewkesbury and Glamorgan
2nd Earl of Gloucester, Lord of the manor of Glamorgan and of Cardiff Castle

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 123-27.
Also line 63-26 (Hawise de Beaumont)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 360 F    i. Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester 430 431 was born about 1160 and died on 1 Jan 1225 about age 65.

281. Isabel de Beaumont (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester209, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

282. Margaret de Beaumont (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester209, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1).

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

283. Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 90 (Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan210, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1140 in Meulan, Normandy, France and died in Oct 1207 in Palestine about age 67.

Robert married Maud de Dunstanville,90 daughter of Rainald de Dunstanville and Beatrice FitzWilliam, in 1165 in Cornwall, England. Maud was born about 1143 in Dunstanville, Kent, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 361 F    i. Mabel de Beaumont 90 was born about 1168 in <Meulan, Normandy>, France and died after 1 May 1204.

284. Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick 319 320 (Gundred de Warenne216, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born before 1153 and died on 24 Dec 1204. Another name for Waleran was Walerian de Newburg.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots, Line 84-26, has: "d. 24 Dec. 1203 or bef. 13 Oct. 1204"

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick :

Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick (1153 - 12 December 1204 ) was the younger son of Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick and Gundred de Warrenne , daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Elizabeth de Vermandois . He was also known as Walerian de Newburg.

After his brother 's death an impostor arose, claiming to be the deceased Earl; he gave Waleran a great deal of trouble in maintaining his claim. He does not appear to have been a great soldier, for he paid scutage money to escape military service in Wales . His position in the Court is attested by his bearing the right hand Sword of State at the Coronation of King John , 27 May 1199 .

He liberally supported the hospital of St. Michael's Hospital, Warwick and gave to the nuns of Pinley land at Claverdon , and land at Brailes to the nuns at Wroxall, Warwickshire .


Family and children
He married first to Margery, daughter of Henry d'Oily and Maud de Bohun and had children:
Henry de Beaumont, 5th Earl of Warwick , his heir.
Waleran de Beaumont of Gretham and Cotismore .
Gundred de Beaumont. She and her cousin Mabel became nuns at the Abbey of Pinley .

His second wife was Alice de Harcourt, widow of John de Limesy, Lord of Cavendish, daughter of Robert de Harcourt and had one child:
Alice de Beaumont (died before 1263), married William de Maudit , Baron of Hanslape , Chamberlain to the King. They children were:
William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick ;
Isabel de Maudit , married William de Beauchamp , Baron Emley. Their son was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick .

Waleran married Margery d'Oilly.432

Research Notes: First wife of Waleran de Beaumont

Waleran next married Alice de Harcourt,433 daughter of Robert de Harcourt, of Stanton-Harcourt, Oxfordshire and Isabel Camville, about 1196. Alice died after 1212.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Waleran de Beaumont; Waleran de Beaumont was her 2nd husband.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 362 F    i. Alice de Beaumont 434 died between 1246 and 1263.

285. Avice de Lancaster 225 322 (Gundred de Warenne216, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) was born about 1155 in Cumberland, England and died on 1 Jan 1191 about age 36. Another name for Avice was Avicia de Lancaster.

Avice married Richard de Morville, of Lauder in Lauderdale,322 435 son of Hugh de Morville and Beatrice de Beauchamp,. Richard was born about 1143 in <Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland, England> and died in 1189 about age 46.

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable of Scotland:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 363 F    i. Elena de Morville 322 435 was born about 1172 in <Kirkoswald, Cumberland, England>, died on 11 Jun 1217 about age 45, and was buried in Abbey of Dundrennan, Kirkcudbright, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland.

+ 364 M    ii. William de Morville 322 died in 1196.

286. Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey 325 (William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne217, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died on 13 Jul 1199. Another name for Isabelle was Isabel de Warenne Countess of Surrey.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

In [Elizabeth's] second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.

Isabelle married William, of Blois, Count of Boulogne. William died in 1159.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois

Also Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 83-26 (Isabel de Warenne)

Isabelle next married Hamelin Plantagenet, 5th Earl of Surrey,436 437 438 son of Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and < >, in Apr 1164. Hamelin was born about 1129, died on 7 May 1202 about age 73, and was buried in Chapter House, Lewes Priory, Surrey, England. Other names for Hamelin were Hamelin Earl of Surrey and Hamelin de Warenne 5th Earl of Surrey.

Research Notes: Natural son of Geoffrey V (Plantagenet). Second husband of Isabel de Warenne.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872178 :

Earl of Surrey, Count of Anjou and Maine, Viscount of Touraine and [illegitimate] half-brother of Henry II, King of England. Hamelin supported Henry II against the rebellion by his sons in 1173. In 1176, he escorted Henry's daughter Joan for her marriage to the King of Sicily. Hamelin was present at the Coronation of Richard I and was opposed to the rule of John while Richard was on crusade and later, imprisoned. In 1193, Hamelin was one of the Treasurers for the ransom of the King. Hamelin also attended the Coronation of King John in 1199. Hamelin was the benefactor of quite a number of Abbeys, Priorys and other religious communities in both England and France.
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From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois:

Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.

From Wikipedia - Hamelin de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey :
Hamelin de Warenne[citation needed ] (Plantagenet) 1129 - May 7 , 1202 ) was an English nobleman who was prominent at the courts of the Angevin kings of England , Henry II , Richard I , and John .

He was an illegitimate son of Geoffrey of Anjou , and thus a half-brother of King Henry II , and an uncle of Richard the Lionheart and King John . His half-brother Henry gave him one of the wealthiest heiresses in England, Isabella de Warenne , in her own right Countess of Surrey. She was the widow of William of Blois . Hamelin and Isabella married in April 1164, and after the marriage he was recognized as Comte de Warenne, that being the customary designation for what more technically should be Earl of Surrey . In consequence of the marriage Hamelin took the de Warenne toponymic, as did his descendants. He and Isabella would have four children.

Warenne land in England centered around Conisbrough in Yorkshire , a location in which Hamelin built a powerful castle. He also possessed the third penny (entitlement to one third of the fines levied in the county courts) of County Surrey and held the castles of Mortemer and Bellencombre in Normandy .

Hamelin joined in the denunciations of Thomas Becket in 1164, although after Becket's death he became a great believer in Becket's sainthood, having, the story goes, been cured of blindness by the saint's help. In 1176, he escorted his niece Joan of England to Sicily for her marriage.

He remained loyal to Henry through all the problems of the later part of the king's reign when many nobles deserted him, and continued as a close supporter of his nephew Richard I. During Richard's absence on the Third Crusade , he took the side of the regent William Longchamp . Hamelin appeared in the 2nd coronation of King Richard in 1194 and at King John's coronation in 1199.

He died in 1202 and was buried at the Chapter House at Lewes Priory , in Sussex . He was succeeded by his son William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey . A daughter, named Adela, was the mistress of her cousin King John of England, and by him the mother of Richard Fitz Roy .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 365 F    i. Maud de Warenne 439 440 was born about 1162 and died before 13 Dec 1228.

+ 366 M    ii. William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey was born about 1174 in Surrey, England, died on 27 May 1240 in London, England about age 66, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England.

287. Margaret, of Huntingdon 327 (Ada de Warenne218, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester158, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France131, Henry I, of France105, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2, Fornjotur, King in Kvenland [Mythological]1) died in 1201.

Research Notes: Second wife of Alan, Lord of Galloway.

Margaret married Humphrey IV de Bohun, Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford,399 400 son of Humphrey III de Bohun, Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford and Margaret, of Hereford, in 1175. Humphrey died about 1182.

Research Notes: Second husband of Margaret of Huntingdon.

From Magna Charta Barons, p. 81:

Humphrey de Bohun, who was Earl of Hereford and lord high constable of England, in right of is mother. He m. Margaret, daughter of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland, d. v. p. 1152 (and widow of Conale Petit, Earl of Brittany and Richmond, and sister of William the Lion, king of Scots), eldes son of David I., King of Scots, by his wife Matilda, widow of Simon de St. Liz, and daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland and Northampton, beheaded in 1075, and his wife, a niece of William the conqueror. Lady Margaret's mother, m. 1139, d. 1178, was Ada de Warren, daughter of William, second Earl of Surrey (by his wife, Isabel, or Elizabeth, d. 1131, widow of Robert, Earl of Mellent, and daughter of Hugh the Great, Count de Vermandois, son of Henry I., King of France), the son of William de Warren, Earl of Surrey, by his wife, Gundreda, the reputed daughter of William the Conqueror, or the daughter of his consort, Queen Maud, or Matilda, of Flanders, by Gherbod, advocate of the Abbey of St. Bestin, at St. Omer, before her marriage to William of Normandy. Humphrey de Bohun and Lady Margaret had: Henry de Bohun, eldest son and heir...

Noted events in his life were:

• Hereditary Constable of England:

The child from this marriage was:

+ 367 M    i. Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford 441 442 was born in 1176 and died on 1 Jun 1220 at age 44.

Margaret next married Alan, Lord of Galloway,246 son of Roland, Lord of Galloway and Elena de Morville, in 1209. Alan was born about 1186 in <Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland>, died in 1234 about age 48, and was buried in Abbey of Dundrennan, Kirkcudbright, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. Another name for Alan was Alan de Galloway.

Research Notes: Per Ancestral Roots, "A descendant of the English and Scottish Kings."

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable of Scotland: 1215-1234.

• Named: in the Magna Charta.

288. Matthew, of Alsace, Count of Boulogne 330 (Thierry I, of Lorraine, Count of Flanders221, Gertrude, of Flanders167, Robert I, Count of Flanders132, Adele Capet, Princess of France106, Robert II "the Pious", King of France85, Adelaide, de Poitou72, Adele, de Normandie61, Rollo, Duke of Normandy52, Ragnvald, Earl of Møre43, Eystein "Glumra", Jarl of Oppland33, Ivar, Jarl of Oppland28, Halfdan "the Aged", Jarl of Oppland23, Sveidi18, Svidri15, Heytir12, Gorr9, Thorri, King in Kvenland6, Snaer, King in Kvenland [Mythological]5, Jokull, [Mythological]4, Frosti, King in Kvenland [Mythological]3, Kara, King in Kvenland [Mythological]2,