Andrew II of Hungary 1
- Born: Abt 1177
- Marriage (1): Yolanda de Courtenay in Feb 1215 in Székesfehérvár, Hungary
- Died: 21 Sep 1235 about age 58
Another name for Andrew was Andrew II "the Jerosolimitan" of Hungary.
From Wikipedia - Andrew II of Hungary :
Andrew II the Jerosolimitan (Hungarian : Jeruzsálemi II András/Endre, Croatian : Andrija II. Arpadovic Slovak : Ondrej) (c. 1177 - 21 September, 1235), King of Hungary (1205-1235). He was the younger son of King Béla III of Hungary , who invested him with the government of the Principality of Halych . However, the boyars of Halych rebelled against his rule and expelled the Hungarian troops. Following their father's death, Andrew continuously conspired against his brother, King Emeric of Hungary who had to grant him the government of Croatia and Dalmatia . When his brother and his infant son died, Andrew ascended the throne and started to grant royal domains to his partisans. He participated in the Fifth Crusade but he could not achieve any major military success. He was obliged to issue the Golden Bull confirming the privileges of the noblemen of Hungary and later he was also obliged to confirm the special privileges of the clergy. During his long reign, he had several quarrels with his sons.
The turbulent duke
Andrew was the second son of King Béla III and his first wife, Agnes of Antioch . As younger son, Andrew had no hope to inherite the Kingdom of Hungary from his father who wanted to ensure the inheritance of his elder son, Emeric and had him crowned already in 1182.
Nevertheless, when Prince Volodymyr II of Halych , who had been expelled from his country by his subjects, fled to Hungary seeking for assistance in 1188, King Béla III had him arrested and occupied his principality and he invested Andrew with Halych . The child Andrew's rule in Halych must have been only nominal; he even did not visit his principality. Although, the young prince's troops could get the mastery in 1189 when the boyars of Halych rose against his rule, but shortly afterwards Prince Volodymyr II managed to escape from his captivity and he expelled the Hungarian troops from Halych.
On 23 April 1196, King Béla III died and he left the Kingdom of Hungary unportioned to his eldest son, Emeric, while Andrew inherited a large amount of money in order to fulfill his father's Crusader oath. However, Andrew used the money to recruit followers among the barons and also sought the assistance of Leopold V, Duke of Austria . In December 1197, Andrew's troops defeated King Emeric's armies in a battle near to Macsek in December 1197. Following Andrew's victory, the king was obliged to transfer the government of the Duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia to Andrew.
In the beginning of 1198, Pope Innocent III requested Andrew to fulfill his father's last will and lead a Crusade to the Holy Land . However, instead of a Crusade, Andrew made a campaign against the neighbouring provinces and occupied Zahumlje and Rama . Andrew also went on conspiring with some prelates against his brother, but King Emeric was informed on Andrew's plans and he personally arrested Bishop Boleszlo of Vác , one of Andrew's main supporters, and he also deprived his brother's followers (e.g., Palatine Mog ) of their dignities. In the summer of 1199, King Emeric defeated Andrew in the Battle of Rád and Andrew had to fleed to Austria. Finally, the two brothers made peace with the mediation of the Papal Legate Gregory, and the king granted again the government of Croatia and Dalmatia to his brother.
Around 1200, Andrew married Gertrude , a daughter of Berthold IV, Duke of Merania . It was probably his wife who persuaded him to conspire against his brother again, but when King Emeric, who had realised that Andrew's troops outnumbered his armies, went unarmed, wearing only the crown and the sceptre , to Andrew's camp near Varasd , Andrew surrendered voluntarily on the spur of the scene. The king had his brother arrested, but Andrew managed to escape shortly afterwards.
Nevertheless, the king become more and more ill, and wanted to secure the ascension of his young son, Ladislaus , who had been crowned on 26 August 1204. Shortly afterwards, the king reconciled with Andrew whom he appointed to govern the kingdom during his son's minority. After his brother's death on 30 September/November 1204, Andrew took over the government of the kingdom as his nephew's tutor and he also seized the money his brother had deposited on behalf of the child Ladislaus. The Dowager Queen Constance was anxious about her son's life and she escaped with King Ladislaus to the court of Leopold VI, Duke of Austria . Andrew made preparations for a war against Austria , but the child king died on 7 May 1205, thus Andrew inherited the throne.
Andrew was crowned by Archbishop John of Kalocsa on 29 May 1205 in Székesfehérvár , but before the coronation, he had to take an oath. Andrew made a radical alteration in the internal policy followed by his predecessors and he began to bestow the royal estates to his partisans. He called this new policy novć institutiones in his deeds, and he declared that "Nothing can set bounds to generosity of the Royal Majesty, and the best measure of grants, for a monarch, is immeasurableness". He gave away everything - money, villages, domains, whole counties - to the utter impoverishment of the treasury. Andrew was generous primarily with his wife's German relatives and followers, which caused discontent among his subjects.
His last years
On 14 May 1234, Andrew, who had lost his second wife in the previous year, married Beatrice D'Este who was thirty years younger than himself. Because of the new marriage, his relationship enworthened with his sons.
In the summer of 1234, the Bishop John of Bosnia excommunicated Andrew because he had not respected some provisions of the Agreement of Bereg. Andrew appealed to the Pope against the bishop's measure. In the autumn of 1234, Prince Danylo laid siege to the capital of Andrew's youngest son who died during the siege. Thus, the Hungarian supremacy over Halych disappeared.
In the beginning of 1235, Andrew made a campaign against Austria and enforced Duke Frederick II to make a peace.
He was still alive when one of his daughters, Elisabeth , who had died some years before, was canonized on 28 May 1235. Before his death, he was absolved from the excommunication; moreover, the Pope also promised that the King of Hungary and his relatives would not be excommunicated without the special permission of the Pope.
Marriages and children
#1. around 1200: Gertrude of Merania (1185 - 8 September 1213), a daughter of Berthold IV, Duke of Merania and his wife, Agnes of Wettin
Anna Maria of Hungary (c. 1204 - 1237), wife of Tzar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria
King Béla IV of Hungary (1206 - 3 May 1270)
Saint Elisabeth of Hungary (1207 - 10 November 1231), wife of Landgraf Louis IV of Thuringia
King Coloman of Halych (1208 - after 11 April 1241)
Prince Andrew II of Halych (c. 1210 - 1234)
#2. February 1215: Yolanda de Courtenay (c. 1200 - 1233), daughter of Peter I , Emperor of the Latin Empire and his second wife, Yolanda I , Empress of the Latin Empire
Violant of Hungary or Yolanda (c. 1215 - 12 October 1251), wife of King James I of Aragon
#3. 14 May 1234: Beatrice D'Este (c. 1215 - before 8 May 1245), daughter of Aldobrandino I D'Este and his wife
Stephen (1236 - 10 April 1271)
Noted events in his life were:
• King of Hungary, 1205-1235.
Andrew married Yolanda de Courtenay, daughter of Pierre de Courtenay and Yolanda of Flanders, in Feb 1215 in Székesfehérvár, Hungary. (Yolanda de Courtenay was born about 1200 and died in 1233.)