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Descendants of CHARLEMAGNE (747-814)


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1. Charlemagne, King of France, Holy Roman Emperor,1 2 3 4 son of Pepin III "the Short", King of the Franks and Berthe, of Laon, was born on 2 Apr 747 in Ingelheim, Rheinhessen (Rhineland-Palatinate), Hesse-Darmstadt, Austrasia (Germany), died on 28 Jan 814 in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany) at age 66, and was buried in Notre-Dame d'Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhineland, Prussia (Germany). Other names for Charlemagne were Carolus Magnus, Charles I Holy Roman Emperor, and Charles the Great.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-13 has b. 2 Apr 747, d. Aix la Chapelle, 28 Jan 813/4, King of France 768-814, crowned Holy Roman Emperor 25 Dec. 800.

From Wikipedia - Charlemagne :

Charlemagne (Latin : Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (742 /747 - 28 January 814 ) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople . His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance , a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church . Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages . He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France , Germany , and the Holy Roman Empire .

The son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon , he succeeded his father and co-ruled with his brother Carloman I . The latter got on badly with Charlemagne, but war was prevented by the sudden death of Carloman in 771. Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the Saracens , who menaced his realm from Spain . It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at Roncesvalles (778). He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons , and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule. By forcibly converting them to Christianity, he integrated them into his realm and thus paved the way for the later Ottonian dynasty .

Today he is not only regarded as the founding father of both French and German monarchies, but as the father of Europe: his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity..,

Date and place of birth
Charlemagne is traditionally believed to have been born on April 2 , 742; however, several factors have led to a reconsideration of this date. First, the year 742 was calculated from his age given at death, rather than from attestation in primary sources. Another date is given in the Annales Petarienses , April 1 , 747. In that year, April 1 was at Easter . The birth of an emperor at eastertime is a coincidence likely to provoke comment, but there was no such comment documented in 747, leading some to suspect that the Easter birthday was a pious fiction concocted as a way of honoring the Emperor. Other commentators weighing the primary records have suggested that his birth was one year later, in 748. At present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne. The best guesses include April 1 , 747, after April 15 , 747, or April 1 , 748, in Herstal (where his father was born, a city close to Liège in modern day Belgium ), the region from where both the Merovingian and Carolingian families originate. He went to live in his father's villa in Jupille when he was around seven, which caused Jupille to be listed as a possible place of birth in almost every history book. Other cities have been suggested, including, Prüm , Düren , Gauting and Aachen ...

Early life
Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pippin the Short (714 - 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 - 12 July 783 ), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne . Records name only Carloman , Gisela , and a short-lived child named Pippin as his younger siblings. The semi-mythical Redburga , wife of King Egbert of Wessex , is sometimes claimed to be his sister (or sister-in-law or niece), and the legendary material makes him Roland 's maternal uncle through a lady Bertha.

Much of what is known of Charlemagne's life comes from his biographer, Einhard , who wrote a Vita Caroli Magni (or Vita Karoli Magni), the Life of Charlemagne...

Charles and his children
During the first peace of any substantial length (780-782), Charles began to appoint his sons to positions of authority within the realm, in the tradition of the kings and mayors of the past. In 781 he made his two younger sons kings, having them crowned by the Pope. The elder of these two, Carloman , was made king of Italy , taking the Iron Crown which his father had first worn in 774, and in the same ceremony was renamed "Pippin". The younger of the two, Louis , became king of Aquitaine . He ordered Pippin and Louis to be raised in the customs of their kingdoms, and he gave their regents some control of their subkingdoms, but real power was always in his hands, though he intended each to inherit their realm some day. Nor did he tolerate insubordination in his sons: in 792, he banished his eldest, though illegitimate, son, Pippin the Hunchback , to the monastery of Prüm, because the young man had joined a rebellion against him.

The sons fought many wars on behalf of their father when they came of age. Charles was mostly preoccupied with the Bretons, whose border he shared and who insurrected on at least two occasions and were easily put down, but he was also sent against the Saxons on multiple occasions. In 805 and 806, he was sent into the Böhmerwald (modern Bohemia ) to deal with the Slavs living there (Czechs ). He subjected them to Frankish authority and devastated the valley of the Elbe, forcing a tribute on them. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders, but also fought the Slavs to his north. He was uniquely poised to fight the Byzantine Empire when finally that conflict arose after Charlemagne's imperial coronation and a Venetian rebellion. Finally, Louis was in charge of the Spanish March and also went to southern Italy to fight the duke of Benevento on at least one occasion. He took Barcelona in a great siege in the year 797 (see below).
Charlemagne's attitude toward his daughters has been the subject of much discussion. He kept them at home with him, and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages - possibly to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line, as had been the case with Tassilo of Bavaria - yet he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands, and treasured the bastard grandchildren they produced for him. He also, apparently, refused to believe stories of their wild behaviour. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert , a member of Charlemagne's court circle...

Death
In 813, Charlemagne called Louis the Pious , king of Aquitaine , his only surviving legitimate son, to his court. There he crowned him with his own hands as co-emperor and sent him back to Aquitaine. He then spent the autumn hunting before returning to Aachen on 1 November . In January, he fell ill with pleurisy (Einhard 59). He took to his bed on 21 January and as Einhard tells it:
He died January twenty-eighth, the seventh day from the time that he took to his bed, at nine o'clock in the morning, after partaking of the Holy Communion , in the seventy-second year of his age and the forty-seventh of his reign.

He was buried on the day of his death, in Aachen Cathedral , although the cold weather and the nature of his illness made such a hurried burial unnecessary. A later story, told by Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen in the time of Otto III , would claim that he and Emperor Otto had discovered Charlemagne's tomb: the emperor, they claimed, was seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, his flesh almost entirely incorrupt. The story was proved false by Frederick I , who discovered the remains of the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the chapel.[7]


Charlemagne's death greatly affected many of his subjects, particularly those of the literary clique who had surrounded him at Aachen...

Marriages and heirs
Charlemagne had seventeen children over the course of his life with eight of his ten known wives or concubinues.

His first relationship was with Himiltrude . The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage , a legal marriage or as a Friedelehe .[12] Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata. The union produced two children:
Amaudru, a daughter[13]
Pippin the Hunchback (c. 769-811)
After her, his first wife was Desiderata , daughter of Desiderius , king of the Lombards , married in 770, annulled in 771

His second wife was Hildegard (757 or 758-783), married 771, died 783. By her he had nine children:
Charles the Younger (c.772-4 December 811 ), Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800
Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 773-8 July 810 ), King of Italy
Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons
Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775-6 June 810 )
Louis (778-20 June 840 ), twin of Lothair, King of Aquitaine since 781, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 813, senior Emperor from 814
Lothair (778 -6 February 779 /780 ), twin of Louis, he died in infancy[14]
Bertha (779-826)
Gisela (781-808)
Hildegarde (782-783)

His third wife was Fastrada , married 784, died 794. By her he had:
Theodrada (b.784), abbess of Argenteuil
Hiltrude (b.787)
His fourth wife was Luitgard , married 794, died childless

Concubinages and illegitimate children
His first known concubine was Gersuinda . By her he had:
Adaltrude (b.774)
His second known concubine was Madelgard . By her he had:
Ruodhaid (775-810), abbess of Faremoutiers
His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne . By her he had:
Alpaida (b.794)
His fourth known concubine was Regina . By her he had:
Drogo (801-855), Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey
Hugh (802-844), archchancellor of the Empire
His fifth known concubine was Ethelind . By her he had:
Richbod (805-844), Abbott of Saint-Riquier
Theodoric (b. 807)

Noted events in his life were:

• Acceded: as Emperor of the West & King of Franks, 768.

• Acceded: as King of the Lombards, 774.

• Crowned: Holy Roman Emperor, 25 Dec 800.

Charlemagne married Hildegard, of Vinzgouw,5 6 7 8 daughter of Gerold, of Swabia, Count in Linzgau, Prefect in Bavaria and Emma, of Allemania, before 30 Apr 771 in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany). Hildegard was born about 758 in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany), died on 30 Apr 783 in Thionville, (Moselle, Lorraine), Austrasia (France) about age 25, and was buried in Abbaye de St. Arnoul, Metz, (Moselle, Lorraine), Austrasia (France). Other names for Hildegard were Hildegard "the Swabian" of Vinzgau, Hildegarde of Swabia, and Hildegarde of Savoy.

Research Notes: Charlemagne's second wife.

From Wikipedia - Hildegard of Vinzgouw :
(758 -30 April 783 ) was the daughter of Count Gerold of Vinzgouw and Emma of Alamannia , daughter of Hnabi , Duke of Alamannia .

Marriage and issue
Hildegard was the second wife of Charlemagne [1], who married her about 771 . They had the following children:
Charles , (772 or 773-811), Count of Maine from 781, joint King of the Franks with Charlemagne from 800
Adelaide (773-773 or 774-774)
Pippin (773 or 777-810), born Carloman and later renamed at baptism, king of Italy from 781
Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (777-810)
Louis the Pious , king of Aquitaine from 781 , emperor from 813 (sole Emperor from 814) until 840
Lothair, twin brother of Louis, died young in 780
Bertha (779-823?)
Gisela (781-808?)
Hildegarde (782-783?)
References
1
As described by historians such as Pierre Riché (The Carolingians, p.86.), Lewis Thorpe (Two Lives of Charlemagne, p.216) and others. Other historians list Himiltrude, described by Einhard as a concubine, as Charlemagne's first wife, and reorder his subsequent wives; accordingly Hildegard is sometimes numbered as his third wife. See Dieter Hägemann (Karl der Große. Herrscher des Abendlands, Ullstein 2003, p. 82f.), Collins (Charlemagne, p. 40.).


Children from this marriage were:

+ 2 M    i. Charles "Karl" von Ingelheim, Duke of Ingelheim 9 was born in 772 and died in 811 at age 39.

+ 3 M    ii. Pepin, King of Italy and Lombardy 10 11 was born in Apr 773, was christened on 12 Apr 781 in Rome, (Italy), and died on 8 Jul 810 in Milan, Italy at age 37.

+ 4 M    iii. Louis I, Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks 12 13 14 15 was born on 16 Apr 778 in <Villa Cassinogilum (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou), (Poitou-Charentes)>, Aquitaine (France) and died on 20 Jun 840 in Ingelheim Kaiserpfalz, (Ingelheim am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) at age 62.

Charlemagne had a relationship with Himiltrude. This couple did not marry.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Charlemagne

Charlemagne next married Desiderata in 770.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Charlemagne. Marriage annulled in 771

Charlemagne next married Fastrade in 784. Fastrade died in 794.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Charlemagne

Charlemagne next married Luitgard in 794. They had no children.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Charlemagne


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2. Charles "Karl" von Ingelheim, Duke of Ingelheim 9 was born in 772 and died in 811 at age 39.

Charles married someone.

His child was:

+ 5 M    i. Rowland, de Burgh

3. Pepin, King of Italy and Lombardy 10 11 was born in Apr 773, was christened on 12 Apr 781 in Rome, (Italy), and died on 8 Jul 810 in Milan, Italy at age 37.

Christening Notes: Baptized at Rome, 12 Apr. 781, by Pope Adrian I

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-14

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford) has b. Apr 777.

Wikipedia has b. April 773.

From Wikipedia - Pepin of Italy :

Pepin (April 773 - 8 July 810 ) was the son of Charlemagne and king of Italy (781 -810) under the authority of his father.

Pepin was the third son of Charlemagne , and the second with his wife Hildegard . He was born Carloman, but when his brother Pepin the Hunchback betrayed their father, the royal name Pepin passed to him. He was made king of Italy after his father's conquest of the Lombards , in 781, and crowned by Pope Hadrian I with the Iron Crown of Lombardy .

He was active as ruler of Italy and worked to expand the Frankish empire. In 791 , he marched a Lombard army into the Drava valley and ravaged Pannonia , while his father marched along the Danube into Avar territory. Charlemagne left the campaigning to deal with a Saxon revolt in 792 . Pepin and Duke Eric of Friuli continued, however, to assault the Avars' ring-shaped strongholds. The great Ring of the Avars, their capital fortress, was taken twice. The booty was sent to Charlemagne in Aachen and redistributed to all his followers and even to foreign rulers, including King Offa of Mercia .

His activities included a long, but unsuccessful siege of Venice in 810. The siege lasted six months and Pepin's army was ravaged by the diseases of the local swamps and was forced to withdraw. A few months later Pepin died.
He married Bertha, daughter of William of Gellone , count of Toulouse , and had five daughters with her (Adelaide , married Lambert I of Nantes ; Atala; Gundrada; Bertha; and Tetrada), all of whom but the eldest were born between 800 and Pepin's death and died before their grandfather's death in 814 . Pepin also had an illegitimate son Bernard . Pepin was expected to inherit a third of his father's empire, but he predeceased him. The Italian crown passed on to his son Bernard, but the empire went to Pepin's younger brother Louis the Pious .

Noted events in his life were:

• Baptized: by Pope Adrian I, 12 Apr 781, Rome, (Italy).

• King of Italy: 781-810.

• Consecrated: King of Lombardy, 15 Apr 781.

Pepin had a relationship with < >, [Daughter of Duke Bernard],16 daughter of Duke Bernard and Unknown,. This couple did not marry.

Their child was:

+ 6 M    i. Bernard, King of Italy 17 18 was born in 797 in Vermand, Picardy, France and died on 17 Apr 818 in Milan, Italy at age 21.

Pepin married Bertha before 800.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-14 (Pepin)



4. Louis I, Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks 12 13 14 15 was born on 16 Apr 778 in <Villa Cassinogilum (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou), (Poitou-Charentes)>, Aquitaine (France) and died on 20 Jun 840 in Ingelheim Kaiserpfalz, (Ingelheim am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) at age 62. Other names for Louis were Louis I "the Fair" Holy Roman Emperor, Louis the Debonaire Holy Roman Emperor, and Louis the Pious Holy Roman Emperor.

Death Notes: Near Mainz

Research Notes: Holy Roman Emperor 814-840

King of the Franks, Crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rheims 816-840. Louis began the partitioning of his father's empire.

-------------
From Wikipedia - Louis the Pious :

Louis the Pious (also known as Louis I, Louis the Fair, and Louis the Debonaire, German : Ludwig der Fromme, French : Louis le Pieux or Louis le Débonnaire, Italian : Luigi il Pio or Ludovico il Pio, Spanish : Luis el Piadoso or Ludovico Pío) (778 - 20 June 840 ) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks from 814 to his death in 840 .

Birth and Rule in Aquitaine
Louis was born while his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain, at the Carolingian villa of Cassinogilum, according to Einhard and the anonymous chronicler called Astronomus ; the place is usually identified with Chasseneuil , near Poitiers.[1] He was the third son of Charlemagne by his wife Hildegard .

Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine as a child in 781 and sent there with regents and a court. Charlemagne constituted the sub-kingdom in order to secure the border of his kingdom after his devastating defeat at the hands of Basques in Roncesvalles in (778).

In 794, Charlemagne settled four former Gallo-Roman villas on Louis, in the thought that he would take in each in turn as winter residence: Doué-la-Fontaine in today's Anjou , Ebreuil in Allier , Angeac-Charente , and the disputed Cassinogilum. Charlemagne's intention was to see all his sons brought up as natives of their given territories, wearing the national costume of the region and ruling by the local customs. Thus were the children sent to their respective realms at so young an age. Each kingdom had its importance in keeping some frontier, Louis's was the Spanish March . In 797 , Barcelona , the greatest city of the Marca, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba and, failing, handed it to them. The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799 . However, Louis marched the entire army of his kingdom, including Gascons with their duke Sancho I of Gascony , Provençals under Leibulf , and Goths under Bera , over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801 , when it capitulated. The sons were not given independence from central authority, however, and Charlemagne ingrained in them the concepts of empire and unity by sending them on military expeditions far from their home bases. Louis campaigned in the Mezzogiorno against the Beneventans at least once.

Louis was one of Charlemagne's three legitimate sons to survive infancy, and, according to Frankish custom, Louis had expected to share his inheritance with his brothers, Charles the Younger , King of Neustria , and Pepin , King of Italy . In the Divisio Regnorum of 806 , Charlemagne had slated Charles the Younger as his successor as emperor and chief king, ruling over the Frankish heartland of Neustria and Austrasia , while giving Pepin the Iron Crown of Lombardy , which Charlemagne possessed by conquest. To Louis's kingdom of Aquitaine, he added Septimania , Provence , and part of Burgundy .

But in the event, Charlemagne's other legitimate sons died - Pepin in 810 and Charles in 811 - and Louis alone remained to be crowned co-emperor with Charlemagne in 813 . On his father's death in 814 , he inherited the entire Frankish kingdom and all its possessions (with the sole exception of Italy, which remained within Louis's empire, but under the direct rule of Bernard , Pepin's son).

Emperor
He was in his villa of Doué-la-Fontaine , Anjou , when he received news of his father's passing. Hurrying to Aachen , he crowned himself and was proclaimed by the nobles with shouts of Vivat Imperator Ludovicus.
In his first coinage type, minted from the start of his reign, he imitated his father Charlemagne's portrait coinage, giving an image of imperial power and prestige in an echo of Roman glory [2]. He quickly enacted a "moral purge", in which he sent all of his unmarried sisters to nunneries, forgoing their diplomatic use as hostage brides in favour of the security of avoiding the entanglements that powerful brothers-in-law might bring. He spared his illegitimate half-brothers and tonsured his father's cousins, Adalard and Wala, son of Bernard , shutting them up in Noirmoutier and Corbie , respectively, despite the latter's initial loyalty.

His chief councillors were Bernat, margrave of Septimania , and Ebbo , whom, born a serf, Louis would raise to the archbishopric of Rheims but who would ungratefully betray him later. He retained some of his father's ministers, such as Elisachar , abbot of St Maximin near Trier , and Hildebold, Archbishop of Cologne . Later he replaced Elisachar with Hildwin, abbot of many monasteries.

He also used Benedict of Aniane (the Second Benedict), a Septimanian Visigoth and monastic founder, to help him reform the Frankish church. One of Benedict's primary reforms was to ensure that all religious houses in Louis' realm adhered to the Rule of St Benedict , named for its creator, the First Benedict, Benedict of Nursia (480 -550 ).

In 816 , Pope Stephen V , who had succeeded Leo III , visited Rheims and again crowned Louis. The Emperor thereby strengthened the papacy by recognising the importance of the pope in imperial coronations.

Ordinatio imperii
On Maundy Thursday 817 , Louis and his court were crossing a wooden gallery from the cathedral to the palace in Aachen when the gallery collapsed, killing many. Louis, having barely survived and feeling the imminent danger of death, began planning for his succession; three months later he issued an Ordinatio Imperii, an imperial decree that laid out plans for an orderly succession. In 815 , he had already given his two eldest sons a share in the government, when he had sent his elder sons Lothair and Pepin to govern Bavaria and Aquitaine respectively, though without the royal titles. Now, he proceeded to divide the empire among his three sons and his nephew Bernard of Italy :

Lothair was proclaimed and crowned co-emperor in Aix-la-Chapelle by his father. He was promised the succession to most of the Frankish dominions (excluding the exceptions below), and would be the overlord of his brothers and cousin.

Bernard, the son of Charlemagne's son Pippin of Italy , was confirmed as King of Italy, a title he had been allowed to inherit from his father by Charlemagne.

Pepin was proclaimed King of Aquitaine, his territory including Gascony, the march around Toulouse, and the counties of Carcassonnne, Autun, Avallon and Nevers.

Louis , the youngest son, was proclaimed King of Bavaria and the neighbouring marches.

If one of the subordinate kings died, he was to be succeeded by his sons. If he died childless, Lothar would inherit his kingdom. In the event of Lothar dying without sons, one of Louis the Pious' younger sons would be chosen to replace him by "the people". Above all, the Empire would not be divided: the Emperor would rule supreme over the subordinate kings, whose obedience to him was mandatory.

With this settlement, Louis tried to combine his sense for the Empire's unity, supported by the clergy, while at the same time providing positions for all of his sons. Instead of treating his sons equally in status and land, he elevated his first-born son Lothair above his younger brothers and gave him the largest part of the Empire as his share.

Bernard's rebellion and Louis's penance
The ordinatio imperii of Aachen left Bernard of Italy in an uncertain and subordinate position as king of Italy, and he began plotting to declare independence upon hearing of it. Louis immediately directed his army towards Italy, and betook himself to Chalon-sur-Saône . Intimidated by the emperor's swift action, Bernard met his uncle at Chalon, under invitation, and surrendered. He was taken to Aix-la-Chapelle by Louis, who there had him tried and condemned to death for treason. Louis had the sentence commuted to blinding, which was duly carried out; Bernard did not survive the ordeal, however, dying after two days of agony. Others also suffered: Theodulf of Orleans , in eclipse since the death of Charlemagne, was accused of having supported the rebellion, and was thrown into a monastic prison, where he died soon after - poisoned, it was rumoured.[3] The fate of his nephew deeply marked Louis's conscience for the rest of his life.


In 822, as a deeply religious man, Louis performed penance for causing Bernard's death, at his palace of Attigny near Vouziers in the Ardennes , before Pope Paschal I , and a council of ecclesiastics and nobles of the realm that had been convened for the reconciliation of Louis with his three younger half-brothers, Hugo whom he soon made abbot of St-Quentin, Drogo whom he soon made Bishop of Metz , and Theodoric. This act of contrition, partly in emulation of Theodosius I , had the effect of greatly reducing his prestige as a Frankish ruler, for he also recited a list of minor offences about which no secular ruler of the time would have taken any notice. He also made the egregious error of releasing Wala and Adalard from their monastic confinements, placing the former in a position of power in the court of Lothair and the latter in a position in his own house.

Frontier wars
At the start of Louis's reign, the many tribes - Danes , Obotrites , Slovenes , Bretons , Basques - which inhabited his frontierlands were still in awe of the Frankish emperor's power and dared not stir up any trouble. In 816, however, the Sorbs rebelled and were quickly followed by Slavomir, chief of the Obotrites, who was captured and abandoned by his own people, being replaced by Ceadrag in 818. Soon, Ceadrag too had turned against the Franks and allied with the Danes, who were to become the greatest menace of the Franks in a short time.

A greater Slavic menace was gathering on the southeast. There, Ljudevit Posavski , duke of Pannonia , was harassing the border at the Drava and Sava rivers. The margrave of Friuli , Cadolah , was sent out against him, but he died on campaign and, in 820, his margarvate was invaded by Slovenes. In 821, an alliance was made with Borna , duke of the Dalmatia , and Ljudevit was brought to heel. Peace continued until 827, when the younger Louis had to deal with a Bulgar horde descending on Pannonia.

On the far southern edge of his great realm, Louis had to control the Lombard princes of Benevento whom Charlemagne had never subjugated. He extracted promises from Princes Grimoald IV and Sico , but to no effect.
On the southwestern frontier, problems commenced early when, in 815, Séguin , duke of Gascony , revolted. He was defeated and replaced by Lupus III , who was dispossessed in 818 by the emperor. In 820 an assembly at Quierzy-sur-Oise decided to send an expedition against the Cordoban caliphate. The counts in charge of the army, Hugh , count of Tours , and Matfrid , count of Orléans , were slow in acting and the expedition came to naught.

First civil war
In 818, as Louis was returning from a campaign to Brittany , he was greeted by news of the death of his wife, Ermengarde . Ermengarde was the daughter of Ingerman , the duke of Hesbaye. Louis had been close to his wife, who had been involved in policymaking. It was rumoured that she had played a part in her nephew's death and Louis himself believed her own death was divine retribution for that event. It took many months for his courtiers and advisors to convince him to remarry, but eventually he did, in 820, to Judith , daughter of Welf , count of Altdorf . In 823 Judith gave birth to a son, who was named Charles .

The birth of this son damaged the Partition of Aachen, as Louis's attempts to provide for his fourth son met with stiff resistance from his older sons, and the last two decades of his reign were marked by civil war.

At Worms in 829, Louis gave Charles Alemannia with the title of king or duke (historians differ on this), thus enraging his son and co-emperor Lothair,[4] whose promised share was thereby diminished. An insurrection was soon at hand. With the urging of the vengeful Wala and the cooperation of his brothers, Lothair accused Judith of having committed adultery with Bernard of Septimania, even suggesting Bernard to be the true father of Charles. Ebbo and Hildwin abandoned the emperor at that point, Bernard having risen to greater heights than either of them. Agobard , Archbishop of Lyon , and Jesse , bishop of Amiens , too, opposed the redivision of the empire and lent their episcopal prestige to the rebels.

In 830, at Wala's insistence that Bernard of Septimania was plotting against him, Pepin of Aquitaine led an army of Gascons , with the support of the Neustrian magnates, all the way to Paris . At Verberie , Louis the German joined him. At that time, the emperor returned from another campaign in Brittany to find his empire at war with itself. He marched as far as Compiègne , an ancient royal town, before being surrounded by Pepin's forces and captured. Judith was incarcerated at Poitiers and Bernard fled to Barcelona.

Then Lothair finally set out with a large Lombard army, but Louis had promised his sons Louis the German and Pepin of Aquitaine greater shares of the inheritance, prompting them to shift loyalties in favour of their father. When Lothair tried to call a general council of the realm in Nijmegen , in the heart of Austrasia , the Austrasians and Rhinelanders came with a following of armed retainers, and the disloyal sons were forced to free their father and bow at his feet (831). Lothair was pardoned, but disgraced and banished to Italy. Pepin returned to Aquitaine and Judith - after being forced to humiliate herself with a solemn oath of innocence - to Louis's court. Only Wala was severely dealt with, making his way to a secluded monastery on the shores of Lake Geneva . Though Hilduin , abbot of Saint Denis , was exiled to Paderborn and Elisachar and Matfrid were deprived of their honours north of the Alps; they did not lose their freedom.

Second civil war
The next revolt occurred a mere two years later (832). The disaffected Pepin was summoned to his father's court, where he was so poorly received he left against his father's orders. Immediately, fearing that Pepin would be stirred up to revolt by his nobles and desiring to reform his morals, Louis the Pious summoned all his forces to meet in Aquitaine in preparation of an uprising, but Louis the German garnered an army of Slav allies and conquered Swabia before the emperor could react. Once again the elder Louis divided his vast realm. At Jonac , he declared Charles king of Aquitaine and deprived Pepin (he was less harsh with the younger Louis), restoring the whole rest of the empire to Lothair, not yet involved in the civil war. Lothair was, however, interested in usurping his father's authority. His ministers had been in contact with Pepin and may have convinced him and Louis the German to rebel, promising him Alemannia, the kingdom of Charles.

Soon Lothair, with the support of Pope Gregory IV , whom he had confirmed in office without his father's support, joined the revolt in 833. While Louis was at Worms gathering a new force, Lothair marched north. Louis marched south. The armies met on the plains of the Rothfeld. There, Gregory met the emperor and may have tried to sow dissension amongst his ranks. Soon much of Louis's army had evaporated before his eyes, and he ordered his few remaining followers to go, because "it would be a pity if any man lost his life or limb on my account." The resigned emperor was taken to Saint Médard at Soissons , his son Charles to Prüm , and the queen to Tortona . The despicable show of disloyalty and disingenuousness earned the site the name Field of Lies, or Lügenfeld, or Campus Mendacii, ubi plurimorum fidelitas exstincta est[5]


On November 13 , 833 , Ebbo of Rheims presided over a synod in the Church of Saint Mary in Soissons which deposed Louis and forced him to publicly confess many crimes, none of which he had, in fact, committed. In return, Lothair gave Ebbo the Abbey of Saint Vaast. Men like Rabanus Maurus , Louis' younger half-brothers Drogo and Hugh, and Emma, Judith's sister and Louis the German's new wife, worked on the younger Louis to make peace with his father, for the sake of unity of the empire. The humiliation to which Louis was then subjected at Notre Dame in Compiègne turned the loyal barons of Austrasia and Saxony against Lothair, and the usurper fled to Burgundy , skirmishing with loyalists near Châlons-sur-Saône . Louis was restored the next year, on 1 March 834 .

On Lothair's return to Italy, Wala, Jesse, and Matfrid, formerly count of Orléans, died of a pestilence and, on 2 February 835 , the Synod of Thionville deposed Ebbo, Agobard, Bernard , Bishop of Vienne , and Bartholomew , Archbishop of Narbonne . Lothair himself fell ill; events had turned completely in Louis favour once again.

In 836, however, the family made peace and Louis restored Pepin and Louis, deprived Lothair of all save Italy, and gave it to Charles in a new division, given at the diet of Crémieux . At about that time, the Vikings terrorised and sacked Utrecht and Antwerp . In 837, they went up the Rhine as far as Nijmegen, and their king, Rorik , demanded the wergild of some of his followers killed on previous expeditions before Louis the Pious mustered a massive force and marched against them. They fled, but it would not be the last time they harried the northern coasts. In 838, they even claimed sovereignty over Frisia , but a treaty was confirmed between them and the Franks in 839. Louis the Pious ordered the construction of a North Sea fleet and the sending of missi dominici into Frisia to establish Frankish sovereignty there.

Third civil war
In 837, Louis crowned Charles king over all of Alemannia and Burgundy and gave him a portion of his brother Louis's land. Louis the German promptly rose in revolt, and the emperor redivided his realm again at Quierzy-sur-Oise , giving all of the young king of Bavaria's lands, save Bavaria itself, to Charles. Emperor Louis did not stop there, however. His devotion to Charles knew no bounds. When Pepin died in 838, Louis declared Charles the new king of Aquitaine. The nobles, however, elected Pepin's son Pepin II . When Louis threatened invasion, the third great civil war of his reign broke out. In the spring of 839, Louis the German invaded Swabia, Pepin II and his Gascon subjects fought all the way to the Loire , and the Danes returned to ravage the Frisian coast (sacking Dorstad for a second time).

Lothair, for the first time in a long time, allied with his father and pledged support at Worms in exchange for a redivision of the inheritance. By a final placitum issued there, Louis gave Bavaria to Louis the German and disinherited Pepin II, leaving the entire remainder of the empire to be divided roughly into an eastern part and a western. Lothair was given the choice of which partition he would inherit and he chose the eastern, including Italy, leaving the western for Charles. The emperor quickly subjugated Aquitaine and had Charles recognised by the nobles and clergy at Clermont-en-Auvergne in 840. Louis then, in a final flash of glory, rushed into Bavaria and forced the younger Louis into the Ostmark . The empire now settled as he had declared it at Worms, he returned in July to Frankfurt am Main , where he disbanded the army. The final civil war of his reign was over.

Death
Louis fell ill soon after his final victorious campaigns and went to his summer hunting lodge on an island in the Rhine, by his palace at Ingelheim . On 20 June 840 , he died, in the presence of many bishops and clerics and in the arms of his half-brother Drogo, though Charles and Judith were absent in Poitiers. Soon dispute plunged the surviving brothers into a civil war that was only settled in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun , which split the Frankish realm into three parts, to become the kernels of France and Germany , with Burgundy and the Low Countries between them. The dispute over the kingship of Aquitaine was not fully settled until 860.

Louis the Pious, along with his half-brother Drogo, were buried in Saint Pierre aux Nonnains Basilica in Metz .

Marriage and issue
By his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye (married ca 794-98), he had three sons and three daughters:
Lothair (795 -855 ), king of Middle Francia
Pepin (797 -838 ), king of Aquitaine
Adelaide (b. c. 799 ), perhaps married Robert the Strong
Rotrude (b. 800 ), married Gerard
Hildegard (or Matilda) (b. c. 802 ), married Gerard , Count of Auvergne
Louis the German (c. 805 -875 ), king of East Francia
By his second wife, Judith of Bavaria , he had a daughter and a son:
Gisela , married Eberhard I of Friuli
Charles the Bald , king of West Francia
By Theodelinde of Sens[citation needed ], he had two illegitimate children:
Arnulf of Sens
Alpais
-------
From Wikipedia - Chasseneuil-du-Poitou :

The town, then simply the villa Cassinogilum, was a royal residence of first the Merovingian , and then Carolingian dynasties in France.[8] Louis the Pious , later King of Aquitaine and King of the Franks was born in the villa on 16 April 778 , when his mother, Hildegard of Vinzgouw was staying in the villa whilst his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain .

Noted events in his life were:

• King of Aquitaine: 781-817.

• King of the Franks: 814-840.

• Holy Roman Emperor: 814-840.

Louis married Ermengarde, of Hesbaye,19 20 21 daughter of Ingram, Count of Hesbaye and Hedwig, of Bavaria, between 794 and 795 in Garonne, France. Ermengarde was born about 778 in <Hesbaye (Belgium)> and died on 3 Oct 818 in Angers, Anjou, (Maine-et-Loire, France) about age 40. Another name for Ermengarde was Irmengarde of Hesbaye.

Research Notes: First wife of Louis I.

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871904 has b. abt 774

From Wikipedia - Ermengarde of Hesbaye :
Ermengarde, or Irmengarde of Hesbaye (c. 778 - 818 ) was the daughter of Ingram , count of Hesbaye and Hedwig of Bavaria. She was a Frank . Her family is known as the Robertians
Ermengarde married in 794 /795 Louis the Pious , king of Aquitania , king of Franks , king of Italy, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire .
She had six children :
Lothair I , born 795 in Altdorf, Bavaria
Pepin of Aquitaine , born 797
Adelaide, born. ca. 799 . Possible wife of Robert the Strong , possible mother of Odo, Count of Paris and Robert I of France .
Rotrude, born 800 .
Hildegard / Matilda, born ca. 802 . Wife of Gerard, Count of Auvergne , possible mother of Ranulf I of Poitiers .
Louis the German , born ca. 805 .
She died at Angers , France on 3 October 818 . Louis was married to Judith a few years later and became father of Charles the Bald .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 7 M    i. Lothair I, Holy Roman Emperor 22 23 24 25 was born in 795 in Altdorf, Bavaria, (Germany), died on 29 Sep 855 in Prüm, Westeifel, Prussia (Germany) at age 60, and was buried in St. Sauveur, France.

   8 M    ii. Pepin I, of Aquitaine 26 was born in 797 and died on 13 Dec 838 at age 41.

Research Notes: Died childless.

From Wikipedia - Pepin I of Aquitaine :
Pepin I (797 - December 13 , 838 ) was King of Aquitaine . He was the second son of Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye .
When his father assigned to each of his sons a kingdom (within the Empire ) in August 817, he received Aquitaine, which had been Louis's own subkingdom during his father Charlemagne's reign. Ermoldus Nigellus was his court poet and accompanied him on a campaign into Brittany in 824.
Pepin rebelled in 830 at the insistence of his brother Lothair 's advisor Wala . He took an army of Gascons with him and marched all the way to Paris , with the support of the Neustrians . His father marched back from a campaign in Brittany all the way to Compiègne , where Pepin surrounded and captured him. The rebellion, however, broke up.
In 832, Pepin rebelled again and his brother Louis the German soon followed. Louis the Pious was in Aquitaine to subdue any revolt, but the younger Louis' Bavarian insurrection drew him off. Pepin took Limoges and other Imperial territories. The next year, Lothair joined the rebellion and, with the assistance of Ebbo , archbishop of Rheims , they deposed their father in 833. Lothair's later behaviour alienated him and he was on his father's side when Louis the Pious was reinstated on 1 March 834 . Pepin was restored to his former status.
Pepin died scarcely four years later and was buried in Sainte-Croix in Poitiers . Louis the Pious named Charles, his son by a second wife, king. The Aquitainians, however, elected Pepin's son, Pepin II .

In 822, he married Ingeltrude,[1] daughter of Theodobert, count of Madrie , with whom he had two sons: Pepin (823-after 864), his successor in Aquitaine, and Charles (b.825-830, d.4 June 863), who became archbishop of Mainz and briefly claimed the kingdom. Both died childless.

   9 F    iii. Adelaide was born about 799.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Ermengarde of Hesbaye :

Adelaide, born. ca. 799 . Possible wife of Robert the Strong , possible mother of Odo, Count of Paris and Robert I of France .

+ 10 F    iv. Rotrude 27 was born about 800 in <(France)>.

   11 F    v. Hildegard was born about 802. Another name for Hildegard was Matilda.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Ermengarde of Hesbaye

+ 12 M    vi. Louis II, King of Germany was born about 805 and died on 8 Sep 876 in Frankfurt, Germany about age 71.

Louis next married Judith, of Bavaria,28 29 30 daughter of Welf I, of Metz and Hedwig, Duchess of Bavaria, in Feb 819. Judith was born about 798 in Bavaria, Germany and died on 19 Apr 843 in Tours, Touraine (Indre-et-Loire), France about age 45. Another name for Judith was Iudit of Bavaria.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 148-14 (Louis I) has m. 819

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. abt 805. Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871879 has b. abt 798.

Research Notes: Second wife of Louis I "the Fair."

From Wikipedia - Judith of Bavaria (795-843) :

Queen Judith or Iudit (805 - April 19 or 23, 843), also known as Judith of Bavaria, was the daughter of Count Welf and a Saxon noblewoman named Hedwig, Duchess of Bavaria (780 - 826). She became Queen consort of the Franks.

Marriage and issue
She became the second wife of Louis the Pious , Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks ; they married in Aachen in 819 and had the following children:
Gisela (820 - July 5 , 874 ), married Eberhard of Friuli
Charles the Bald

Impact on the Frankish kingdom

Judith ensured that her son Charles received a share of the kingdom, just like his three half-brothers from Louis' first marriage. This contributed to the ensuing civil war among Louis and his sons. Rebels temporarily imprisoned Judith in the convent of Poitiers on allegations of adultery during 830. From 833 to 834, she was exiled in Tortona .

Judith was the first member of the Elder House of Welf to have a leading role in the Frankish kingdom. Whether by coincidence or through Judith's influence, in the years following her marriage to Louis her mother and both of her brothers gained important offices in the kingdom. Her sister Hemma married Louis the German , a son of Louis the Pious from his first marriage, in 827. Judith was buried at the basilica of St. Martin in Tours .


Children from this marriage were:

   13 F    i. Gisèle 13 31 32 was born in 820 in France and died on 1 Jul 874 at age 54. Another name for Gisèle was Gisela.

Gisèle married Eberhard, Margrave of Friuli before 840. Eberhard was born about 818 in Friuli, Italy and died on 16 Dec 866 about age 48.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871876

+ 14 M    ii. Charles II "the Bald", of France and Holy Roman Emperor 33 34 was born on 13 Jun 823 in Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia (Germany), died on 5 Oct 877 in Mont Cenis, Brides-les-Bains, Bourgogne, (France) at age 54, and was buried in Basilica of St. Denis, Saint-Denis, [Île-de-France, France].

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5. Rowland, de Burgh

Rowland married someone.

His child was:

+ 15 M    i. Godfrey, de Burgh

6. Bernard, King of Italy 17 18 was born in 797 in Vermand, Picardy, France and died on 17 Apr 818 in Milan, Italy at age 21.

Research Notes: Natural son of Pepin, probably by a daughter of Duke Bernard.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-15

Also Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

From Wikipedia - Bernard of Italy :

Bernard (b. 797 , Vermandois , Normandy ; d. 17 April 818 , Milan , Lombardy ) was the King of Italy from 810 to 818. He plotted against his uncle, Emperor Louis the Pious , when the latter's Ordinatio Imperii made Bernard a vassal of his cousin Lothair . When his plot was discovered, Louis had him blinded, a procedure which killed him.

Life
Bernard was the illegitimate son of King Pepin of Italy , the second legitimate son of the Emperor Charlemagne . In 810, Pepin died from an illness contracted at a siege of Venice; although Bernard was illegitimate, Charlemagne allowed him to inherit Italy. Bernard married Cunigunda of Laon in 813. They had one son, Pepin, Count of Vermandois .
Prior to 817, Bernard was a trusted agent of his grandfather, and of his uncle. His rights in Italy were respected, and he was used as an intermediary to manage events in his sphere of influence - for example, when in 815 Louis the Pious received reports that some Roman nobles had conspired to murder Pope Leo III, and that he had responded by butchering the ringleaders, Bernard was sent to investigate the matter.
A change came in 817, when Louis the Pious drew up an Ordinatio Imperii, detailing the future of the Frankish Empire. Under this, the bulk of the Frankish territory went to Louis' eldest son, Lothair; Bernard received no further territory, and although his Kingship of Italy was confirmed, he would be a vassal of Lothair. This was, it was later alleged, the work of the Empress, Ermengarde , who wished Bernard to be displaced in favour of her own sons. Resenting Louis' actions, Bernard began plotting with a group of magnates: Eggideo, Reginhard, and Reginhar, the last being the grandson of a Thuringian rebel against Charlemagne, Hardrad. Anshelm, Bishop of Milan and Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans , were also accused of being involved: there is no evidence either to support or contradict this in the case of Theodulf, whilst the case for Anshelm is murkier.[1][2]
Bernard's main complaint was the notion of his being a vassal of Lothair. In practical terms, his actual position had not been altered at all by the terms of the decree, and he could safely have continued to rule under such a system. Nonetheless, "partly true" reports came to Louis the Pious that his nephew was planning to set up an 'unlawful' - i.e. independent - regime in Italy.[3]
Louis the Pious reacted swiftly to the plot, marching south to Chalon. Bernard and his associates were taken by surprise; Bernard travelled to Chalon in an attempt to negotiate terms, but he and the ringleaders were forced to surrender to him. Louis had them taken to Aix-la-Chapelle, where they were tried and condemned to death. Louis 'mercifully' commuted their sentences to blinding, which would neutralise Bernard as a threat without actually killing him; however, the process of blinding (carried out by means of pressing a red-hot stiletto to the eyeballs) proved so traumatic that Bernard died in agony two days after the procedure was carried out. At the same time, Louis also had his half-brothers Drogo, Hugh and Theoderic tonsured and confined to monasteries, to prevent other Carolingian off-shoots challenging the main line. He also treated those guilty or suspected of conspiring with Bernard treated harshly: Theodulf of Orleans was gaoled, and died soon afterwards; the lay conspirators were blinded, the clerics deposed and imprisoned; all lost lands and honours. [4][5][6]

Legacy
His Kingdom of Italy was reabsorbed into the Frankish empire, and soon after bestowed upon Louis' eldest son Lothair. In 822, Louis made a display of public penance at Attigny , where he confessed before all the court to having sinfully slain his nephew; he also welcomed his half-brothers back into his favour. These actions possibly stemmed from guilt over his part in Bernard's death. It has been argued by some historians that his behaviour left him open to clerical domination, and reduced his prestige and respect amongst the Frankish nobility.[7] Others, however, point out that Bernard's plot had been a serious threat to the stability of the kingdom, and the reaction no less a threat; Louis' display of penance, then, "was a well-judged gesture to restore harmony and re-establish his authority."[8]

References
^
McKitterick, Rosamond, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians
^ Riche, Pierre, The Carolingians, p. 148
^ McKitterick, Rosamond, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians
^ Riche, Pierre, The Carolingians, p. 148
^ McKitterick, Rosamond, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians
^ McKitterick, Rosamond, The New Cambridge History, 700-900
^ McKitterick, Rosamond, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians
^ McKitterick, Rosamond, The New Cambridge History, 700-900

Sources
McKitterick, Rosamond, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians
Riche, Pierre, The Carolingians
McKitterick, Rosamond, The New Cambridge History, 700-900

Noted events in his life were:

• King of Italy: 813-Dec 817.

Bernard married Cunigunde.35 Cunigunde died about 835. Another name for Cunigunde was Cunigunda.

Research Notes: Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 16 M    i. Pepin, Count of Senlis, Peronne, St. Quentin 36 37 was born between 817 and 818 and died after 0840.

7. Lothair I, Holy Roman Emperor 22 23 24 25 was born in 795 in Altdorf, Bavaria, (Germany), died on 29 Sep 855 in Prüm, Westeifel, Prussia (Germany) at age 60, and was buried in St. Sauveur, France. Another name for Lothair was Lothaire I Holy Roman Emperor.

Research Notes: From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871901 :

King of the Franks, Holy Roman Emperor 840-855. Lothair received most of Burgundy and many German and French port cities upon the breakup of his grandfather's empire by his father, Louis. Upon his father's death, Lothair attepted to sieze the entire empire, but was defeated by his brothers Louis and Charles at the battle of Fontenoy in 841. He remained Emperor until his death in 855.

From Wikipedia - Lothair I :

Lothair I (German : Lothar, French : Lothaire, Italian : Lotario) (795 - 29 September 855 ), king of Italy (818 - 855) and crowned Carolingian King of (Northern) Italy, Emperor of the Romans and (nominally) was Emperor of the Franks (840 - 855).

Lothair was the eldest son of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye , daughter of Ingerman , duke of Hesbaye . He led his full-brothers Pippin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German in revolt against their father on several occasions, in protest against his attempts to make their half-brother Charles the Bald a co-heir to the Frankish domains. Upon the death of the father, Charles and Louis joined forces against Lothair in a three year civil war (840-843), the struggles between the brothers leading directly to the break up of the great Frankish Empire assembled by their grandfather Charlemagne , and would lay the foundation for the development of modern France and Germany.

Little is known of his early life, which was probably passed at the court of his grandfather Charlemagne . Shortly after the accession of his father, he was sent to govern Bavaria. He first comes to historical attention in 817, when Louis the Pious drew up his Ordinatio Imperii. In this, Louis designated Lothair as his principal heir, to whom his younger brothers Pippin of Aquitaine and Louis the German, as well as his cousin Bernard of Italy , would be subject after the death of their father; he would also inherit their lands if they were to die childless. Lothair was then crowned joint emperor by his father at Aix-la-Chapelle . At the same time, Aquitaine and Bavaria were granted to his brothers Pippin and Louis respectively as subsidiary kingdoms. Following the murder of Bernard, King of Italy, by Louis the Pious, Lothair also received the Kingdom of Italy. In 821, he married Ermengarde (d. 851), daughter of Hugh , count of Tours . In 822, he assumed the government of Italy , and at Easter, 5 April 823 , he was crowned emperor again by Pope Paschal I , this time at Rome .

In November 824, he promulgated a statute concerning the relations of pope and emperor which reserved the supreme power to the secular potentate, and he afterwards issued various ordinances for the good government of Italy.

On his return to his father's court his stepmother Judith won his consent to her plan for securing a kingdom for her son Charles , a scheme which was carried out in 829, when the young prince was given Alemannia as king. Lothair, however, soon changed his attitude and spent the succeeding decade in constant strife over the division of the Empire with his father. He was alternately master of the Empire, and banished and confined to Italy, at one time taking up arms in alliance with his brothers and at another fighting against them, whilst the bounds of his appointed kingdom were in turn extended and reduced.

The first rebellion began in 830. All three brothers fought their father, whom they deposed. In 831, he was reinstated and he deprived Lothair of his imperial title and gave Italy to the young Charles. The second rebellion was instigated by Angilbert II, Archbishop of Milan , in 833, and again Louis was deposed and reinstated the next year (834). Lothair, through the loyalty of the Lombards and later reconciliations, retained Italy and the imperial position through all remaining divisions of the Empire by his father.

When Louis the Pious was dying in 840, he sent the imperial insignia to Lothair, who, disregarding the various partitions, claimed the whole of the Empire. Negotiations with his brother Louis the German and his half-brother Charles, both of whom armed to resist this claim, were followed by an alliance of the younger brothers against Lothair. A decisive battle was fought at Fontenay-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841 , when, in spite of his and his allied nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine 's personal gallantry, Lothair was defeated and fled to Aachen. With fresh troops he began a war of plunder, but the forces of his brothers were too strong for him, and taking with him such treasure as he could collect, he abandoned to them his capital. He met with the leaders of the Stellinga in Speyer and promised them his support in return for theirs, but Louis and then the native Saxon nobility put down the Stellinga in the next years.

Peace negotiations began, and in June 842 the brothers met on an island in the Saône , and agreed to an arrangement which developed, after much difficulty and delay, into the Treaty of Verdun signed in August 843. By this, Lothair received the imperial title as well as northern Italy and a long stretch of territory from the North Sea to the Mediterranean , essentially along the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhone . He soon left Italy to his eldest son, Louis , and remained in his new kingdom, engaging in alternate quarrels and reconciliations with his brothers and in futile efforts to defend his lands from the attacks of the Northmen (as Vikings were known in Frankish writings) and the Saracens .

In 855, he became seriously ill and, despairing of recovery, renounced the throne, divided his lands between his three sons, and on September 23 , entered the monastery of Prüm , where he died six days later. He was buried at Prüm, where his remains were found in 1860.

His kingdom was divided among his three sons - the eldest, Louis II , received Italy and the title of Emperor; the second, Lothair II , received Lotharingia ; while the youngest, Charles , received Provence .

Family
He married Ermengarde of Tours , who died in 851. The last of his nine children are illegitimate.
Louis II (825-875)
Hiltrude (826-865)
Bertha (c.830-852)
Irmgard (c.830-849)
Gisela (c.830-856)
Lothair II (835-869)
Rotrude (c.840)
Charles (845-863)
Carloman (853)

Noted events in his life were:

• King of Italy: 817-855.

• Holy Roman Emperor: 840-855.

Lothair married Ermengarde, of Tours,25 38 daughter of Hugues II, Count of Alsace, Count of Tours and Ava, Countess of Alsace, on 15 Oct 821 in Diedenhofen (Thionville, Moselle, France). Ermengarde was born about 805 in Orléans, Orléanais, (Loiret), France, died on 20 Mar 851 about age 46, and was buried in Abbaye d'Erstein, Strasbourg, Alsace, (France). Another name for Ermengarde was Irmingard von Tours.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871902

From Wikipedia - Ermengarde of Tours :

Ermengarde of Tours (German : Irmingard von Tours) (died 20 March 851) was the wife of Emperor Lothair I of the Franks. Her father was Hugh of Tours , a member of the Etichonen family, which claimed descent from the Merovingian Kings. In the middle of October 821 in Diedenhofen (Thionville), she married the Carolingian Emperor Lothair I (795-855).
In 849, two years before her death, she made a donation to the abbey Erstein in the Elsass, in which she lies also buried.
Lothar and Irmingard had nine children:
Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor (c.825-875).
Helletrud (Hiltrud) (c.826-after 865/866) m. Count Berengar (d. before 865/866)
Bertha (c.830-after 7 May 852, probably 877), became before 847 Abbess of Avenay, perhaps Äbtissin of Faremoutiers
Daughter (b. probably 826/830), kidnapped 846, m. Giselbert, Count of Maasgau (Reginare)
Gisla (c.830-860) 851-860 Abbess of San Salvatore in Brescia
Lothair II of Lotharingia (c.835-869) king of Lorraine m. 855 Teutberga, daughter of Count Boso of Arles
Rotrud (baptized 835/840 in Pavia) m. around 850/851 Lambert, Margrave of Brittany, Count of Nantes (Widonen), who died 1 May 852
Charles of Provence (c.845-25 January 863 in the monastery St-Pierre-les-Nonnains, modern Lyon), King in Burgundy
Carloman (b.853)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 17 M    i. Lothair II, King of Lorraine 25 39 was born in 827 in <Lorraine, France> and died on 8 Aug 869 in Plaisance, Italy at age 42.

+ 18 F    ii. Helletrude, of Lorraine 40 was born about 830 in Lorraine, France.

10. Rotrude 27 was born about 800 in <(France)>.

Research Notes: Probably the mother of Ranulf I, Duke of Aquitaine.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871967 :
(Hildegarde) Hidegarde born 802-4 is unlikely mother. Most records state that Rotrude of Hildegarde are the mother. As Rotrude is the earlier issue of Louis, she seems the likelier choice.

Rotrude married Count Gerard, of Auvergne 41 about 814. Gerard died on 25 Jun 841.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 19 M    i. Rorick, Count of Maine .42

12. Louis II, King of Germany was born about 805 and died on 8 Sep 876 in Frankfurt, Germany about age 71.

Research Notes: From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875189 :

King of Germany. Louis received Bavaria and the eastern lands of the empire of his grandfather Charlemange when the empire was divided among Louis' brothers.

Louis married Emma, de Andech, daughter of Guelph I, Count of Altdorf, Duke of Bavaria and Edith von Sachsen,. Emma was born about 805 in Germany.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593877269


Children from this marriage were:

   20 M    i. Carloman, King of Bavaria was born about 821 in Germany and died in 880 in Bavaria, Germany about age 59.

Research Notes: From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875188 :

Carloman was named as successor to the Holy Roman Empire by his cousin Louis II. But his uncle Charles (RIN # 831) convinced him to go to Germany first, then rushed to Rome and was crowned Emperor as Charles II. Carloman became King of Bavaria and reigned until 880.


   21 M    ii. Charles III, Holy Roman Emperor was born about 823.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593879140
Holy Roman Emperor 881-887.



14. Charles II "the Bald", of France and Holy Roman Emperor 33 34 was born on 13 Jun 823 in Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia (Germany), died on 5 Oct 877 in Mont Cenis, Brides-les-Bains, Bourgogne, (France) at age 54, and was buried in Basilica of St. Denis, Saint-Denis, [Île-de-France, France]. Another name for Charles was Charles the Bald King of West Francia and Holy Roman Emperor.

Death Notes: Died near Mont Cenis in the Alps on 5 or 6 October 877.

Research Notes: Name Suffix: Holy Roman Emperor
Also Known As: King of Lorraine
REFN: 831
King of France 843-877, King of Lorraine 869-877, crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome 25 December 875. In 840, Charles joined with his half-brother Louis in opposing their brother Lothair who attempted to secure the empire for himself upon the death of their father Louis.
----------
From Wikipedia - Charles the Bald :

Charles the Bald[1] (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Empire ) (French : Charles le Chauve; 13 June 823 - 6 October 877 ), Holy Roman Emperor (875 -877 ) and King of West Francia (840 -877 ), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious , by his second wife Judith .

Struggle against his brothers
He was born on 13 June 823 in Frankfurt , when his elder brothers were already adults and had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a subkingdom, first Alemannia and then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (in 832, after the rising of Pepin I of Aquitaine ) were unsuccessful. The numerous reconciliations with the rebellious Lothair and Pepin, as well as their brother Louis the German , King of Bavaria , made Charles's share in Aquitaine and Italy only temporary, but his father did not give up and made Charles the heir of the entire land which was once Gaul and would eventually be France. At a diet near Crémieux in 837, Louis the Pious bade the nobles do homage to Charles as his heir. This led to the final rising of his sons against him and Pepin of Aquitaine died in 838, whereupon Charles received that kingdom, finally once and for all. Pepin's son Pepin II would be a perpetual thorn in his side.

The death of the emperor in 840 led to the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the new emperor Lothair I, and the two allies defeated Lothair at the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye on June 25 , 841 . In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated Oaths of Strasbourg . The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Verdun in August 843. The settlement gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the West Franks, which he had been up till then governing and which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse , the Saône , and the Rhône , with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro . Louis received the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire , known as the East Francia and later Germany . Lothair retained the imperial title and the Iron Crown of Lombardy . He also received the central regions from Flanders through the Rhineland and Burgundy as king of Middle Francia .

Reign in the West

The first years of Charles's reign, up to the death of Lothair I in 855 , were comparatively peaceful. During these years the three brothers continued the system of "confraternal government", meeting repeatedly with one another, at Koblenz (848 ), at Meerssen (851 ), and at Attigny (854 ). In 858 , Louis the German, invited by disaffected nobles eager to oust Charles, invaded the West Frankish kingdom. Charles was so unpopular that he was unable to summon an army, and he fled to Burgundy . He was saved only by the support of the bishops, who refused to crown Louis king, and by the fidelity of the Welfs , who were related to his mother, Judith. In 860 , he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence , but was repulsed. On the death of his nephew Lothair II in 869 , Charles tried to seize Lothair's dominions, but by the Treaty of Mersen (870 ) was compelled to share them with Louis the German.

Besides these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against repeated rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons . Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë , who defeated the king at Ballon (845 ) and Juvardeil (851 ), the Bretons were successful in obtaining a de facto independence. Charles also fought against the Vikings , who devastated the country of the north, the valleys of the Seine and Loire , and even up to the borders of Aquitaine. Several times Charles was forced to purchase their retreat at a heavy price. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders and, by the Edict of Pistres of 864 , made the army more mobile by providing for a cavalry element, the predecessor of the French chivalry so famous during the next 600 years. By the same edict, he ordered fortified bridges to be put up at all rivers to block the Viking incursions. Two of these bridges at Paris saved the city during its siege of 885-886 .

Emperor

In 875 , after the death of the Emperor Louis II (son of his half-brother Lothair), Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII , traveled to Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial insignia in Rome on December 29 . Louis the German, also a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself by invading and devastating Charles' dominions, and Charles had to return hastily to Francia . After the death of Louis the German (28 August 876 ), Charles in his turn attempted to seize Louis's kingdom, but was decisively beaten at Andernach on October 8 , 876 . In the meantime, John VIII, menaced by the Saracens , was urging Charles to come to his defence in Italy. Charles again crossed the Alps , but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by his regent in Lombardy , Boso , and they refused to join his army. At the same time Carloman , son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bain , on 6 October 877 .

According to the Annals of St-Bertin, Charles was hastily buried at the abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to withstand the stench of his decaying body. He was to have been buried in the Basilique Saint-Denis and may have been transferred there later. It was recorded that there was a memorial brass there that was melted down at the Revolution.

Legacy
Charles was succeeded by his son, Louis . Charles seems to have been a prince of education and letters, a friend of the church, and conscious of the support he could find in the episcopate against his unruly nobles, for he chose his councillors from among the higher clergy, as in the case of Guenelon of Sens , who betrayed him, and of Hincmar of Reims .
It has been suggested that Charles was not in fact bald, but that his epithet was applied ironically - that, in fact, he was extremely hairy. In support of this idea is the fact that none of his enemies commented on what would be an easy target. However, none of the voluble members of his court comments on his being hairy; and the Genealogy of Frankish Kings, a text from Fontanell dating from possibly as early as 869, and a text without a trace of irony, names him as Karolus Caluus ("Charles the Bald"). Certainly, by the end of the 10th century, Richier of Reims and Adhemar of Chabannes refer to him in all seriousness as "Charles the Bald".[2]

Family
Charles married Ermentrude , daughter of Odo I, Count of Orléans , in 842 . She died in 869 . In 870 , Charles married Richilde of Provence , who was descended from a noble family of Lorraine , but none of the children he had with her played a part of any importance.

With Ermentrude :
Judith (844 -870 ), married firstly with Ethelwulf of Wessex , secondly with Ethelbald of Wessex (her stepson) and thirdly with Baldwin I of Flanders
Louis the Stammerer (846 -879 )
Charles the Child (847 -866 )
Lothar (848 -865 ), monk in 861 , became Abbot of Saint-Germain
Carloman (849 -876 )
Rotrud (852 -912 ), a nun, Abbess of Saint-Radegunde
Ermentrud (854 -877 ), a nun, Abbess of Hasnon
Hildegard (born 856 , died young)
Gisela (857 -874 )
With Richilde:
Rothild (871 -929 ), married firstly with Hugues, Count of Bourges and secondly with Roger, Count of Maine
Drogo (872 -873 )
Pippin (873 -874 )
a son (born and died 875 )
Charles (876 -877 )

Noted events in his life were:

• King of the Franks: 840-877.

• King of Western Francia: 843-877.

• Holy Roman Emperor: 25 Dec 875-5 Oct 877.

Charles married Ermentrude, of Orléans,43 44 45 daughter of Eudes, Count of Orléans and Engeltrude, on 14 Dec 842 in Crécy, France. Ermentrude was born on 27 Sep 830 in Orléans, Orléanais, (Loiret), Neustria (France), died on 6 Oct 869 at age 39, and was buried in St. Denis. Another name for Ermentrude was Irmtrud.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. 830. Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871986 has b. abt 825. FamilySearch has b. 27 Sep 830.

Research Notes: Eldest daughter of Eudes and Engletrude.



Children from this marriage were:

+ 22 F    i. Judith, Princess of France 46 47 48 was born in Oct 844 in France and died after 870.

+ 23 M    ii. Louis II "the Stammerer", King of Western Francia 43 49 50 was born on 1 Nov 846 in Western Francia (France) and died on 10 Apr 879 in Compeigne, Western Francia (France) at age 32.

   24 M    iii. Hersent was born about 862 in France.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871898

Charles next married Richildis.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872372


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15. Godfrey, de Burgh

Godfrey married someone.

His child was:

   25 M    i. Baldwin I, de Burgh

Baldwin married someone.

16. Pepin, Count of Senlis, Peronne, St. Quentin 36 37 was born between 817 and 818 and died after 0840. Another name for Pepin was Pepin of Vermandois.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-16

Also Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford) has b. abt 815.

From Wikipedia - Pepin, Count of Vermandois :

Pepin (born c. 815 ) was the first count of Vermandois , lord of Senlis , Peronne , and Saint Quentin . He was the son of King Bernard of Italy and Cunigunda.
Pepin first appears in 834 as a count to the north of the Seine and then appears as same again in 840. In that year, he supported Lothair I against Louis the Pious .
Pepin's wife is unknown, but his heir inherited much Nibelungid territory and so historian K. F. Werner hypothesised a marriage to a daughter of Theodoric Nibelung . Their children were:
Bernard (c. 844-after 893), count of Laon
Pepin (c. 846-893), count of Senlis and lord of Valois (877-893)
Herbert I of Vermandois (c. 850-907)
Cunigunda
Gunhilde De Vermandois who married first the Margrave Berengar I of Neustria and then Count Guy of Senlis

Pepin married someone.

His children were:

   26 M    i. Bernard, Count of Laon was born about 844 and died after 893.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Pepin, Count of Vermandois

   27 M    ii. Pepin, Count of Senlis and Lord of Valois was born about 846 and died in 893 about age 47.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Pepin, Count of Vermandois

+ 28 M    iii. Herbert I, Count of Vermandois 51 52 53 was born about 850 and died from 6 Nov 900 to 907 about age 50.

   29 F    iv. Cunigunda .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Pepin, Count of Vermandois

   30 F    v. Gunhilde de Vermandois .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Pepin, Count of Vermandois

17. Lothair II, King of Lorraine 25 39 was born in 827 in <Lorraine, France> and died on 8 Aug 869 in Plaisance, Italy at age 42. Another name for Lothair was Lothaire II King of Lorraine.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 835 in Alsace-Lorraine.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 7 Aug 869

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872024
KING OF LORRAINE. WALDRADE WAS HIS SECOND WIFE.

Lothair married Waldrade 25 54 in 862. Waldrade was born about 837 in <Lorraine, France> and died about 868 in Remiremont, Vosges, France about age 31.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872025
DIED AS A NUN IN REMIREMONT CIRCA 868


The child from this marriage was:

+ 31 F    i. Bertha, Princess of Lorraine 25 was born about 871 in <Lorraine, France> and died on 8 Mar 925 about age 54.

18. Helletrude, of Lorraine 40 was born about 830 in Lorraine, France. Another name for Helletrude was Ermengarde of Lorraine.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871900

Helletrude married Giselbert, Count of Darnau,55 56 son of Giselbert, Count in the Maasgau and Unknown, in 846. Giselbert was born about 830 and died about 892 about age 62. Another name for Giselbert was Gilbert Count of Brabant.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Darnau: 846-863.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 32 M    i. Reginar I "Longneck", Duke of Lorraine 57 58 59 was born about 850 in <France> and died before 19 Jan 916.

19. Rorick, Count of Maine .42

Rorick married someone.

His child was:

+ 33 F    i. Blichilde, of Maine .60

22. Judith, Princess of France 46 47 48 was born in Oct 844 in France and died after 870. Another name for Judith was Judith of Flanders.

Research Notes: Baldwin I was her third husband.

From Wikipedia - Judith of Flanders :

Judith of Flanders (844 - 870 ) was a daughter of the Frankish king Charles the Bald . Through her marriage to two kings of Wessex she was first a queen, then later through her third marriage to Baldwin, she became Countess of Flanders .

Judith was born in October of 844, the daughter of Charles the Bald , King of the Franks , and Ermentrude .

Her father gave her in marriage to Ethelwulf , King of Wessex on October 1 , 856 at Verberie sur Oise , France. Soon after, Ethelwulf's son Ethelbald forced his father to abdicate. Following Ethelwulf's death on January 13 , 858 , Ethelbald married his widowed stepmother. However, the marriage was annulled in 860 on the grounds of consanguinity .

Elopement
Judith eloped with Baldwin in January 862 . They were likely married at the monastery of Senlis before they eloped. The couple was in hiding from Judith's father, King Charles the Bald, until October after which they went to her uncle Lothair II for protection. From there they fled to Pope Nicholas I . The pope took diplomatic action and asked Judith's father to accept the union as legally binding and welcome the young couple into his circle - which ultimately he did. The couple then returned to France and were officially married at Auxerre .

Baldwin was accepted as son-in-law and was given the land directly south of the Scheldt to ward off Viking attacks. Although it is disputed among historians as to whether King Charles did this in the hope that Baldwin would be killed in the ensuing battles with the Vikings, Baldwin managed the situation remarkably well. Baldwin succeeded in quelling the Viking threat, expanded both his army and his territory quickly, and became one of the most faithful supporters of King Charles. The March of Baldwin came to be known as the County of Flanders and was for a long time the most powerful principality of France.

Succession
Judith and Baldwin had a son, Baldwin II , Count of Flanders, born in 864 . Judith died in 870.



Judith married Æthelwulf, King of Wessex and King of Kent,61 62 son of Egbert, King of Wessex and Rædburga, on 1 Oct 856 in Verberie-sur-Oise, (Oise), France. Æthelwulf was born between 795 and 800 and died on 13 Jan 858. Other names for Æthelwulf were Aethelwulf King of Wessex and Ethelwulf King of Wessex.

Marriage Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871945

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Æthelwulf of Wessex :

Æthelwulf
, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English : Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 - 858 ) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex . He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839 , whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames .

In 839 , Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Æthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga , had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald , Ethelbert , Ethelred , and Alfred . Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith , was married as a child to the king of Mercia .

... In 853 Æthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855 , about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome . In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald , King of the West Franks .

Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Æthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded Wessex proper to his son, and accepted Surrey, Sussex and Essex for himself. he ruled there until his death on January 13 , 858 . The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Æthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

... He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester . His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral .


Noted events in his life were:

• King of Wessex: 839-855.

Judith next married Æthelbald, King of Wessex,63 son of Æthelwulf, King of Wessex and King of Kent and Osburga, after 13 Jan 858. Æthelbald died in 860. Another name for Æthelbald was Ethelbald King of Wessex.

Noted events in their marriage were:

• Annulment: of marriage to Aethelbald, 860. on grounds of consanguinity

Noted events in his life were:

• King of Wessex: 858-860.

Judith next married Baldwin I, Count of Flanders,64 65 66 67 son of Odoacre, Count of Harlebec and Unknown, in Jan 862 in <Flanders (Belgium)>. Baldwin was born about 836 in <Flanders (Belgium)> and died in 879 in Flanders (Belgium) about age 43. Other names for Baldwin were Baldwin "Iron Arm" Count of Flanders, Baldwin I "Bras de Fer" Count of Flanders, and Baudouin I Count of Flanders.

Noted events in their marriage were:

• Eloped: Jan 862.

• Marriage: with acceptance of Charles, 13 Dec 863, Auxerre, France.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Baldwin I, Count of Flanders :


Baldwin I
(probably born 830s, died 879 ), also known as Baldwin Iron Arm (the epithet is first recorded in the 12th century), was the first count of Flanders .

Baldwin was the son of a certain Audacer , about whom nothing definite is known; his legendary origins are rejected by modern scholarship. At the time Baldwin first appears in the records he was already a count, presumably in the area of Flanders, but this is not known. Count Baldwin rose to prominence when he eloped with princess Judith , daughter of Charles the Bald , king of West Francia . Judith had previously been married to Ethelwulf and his son (from an earlier marriage) Ethelbald , kings of Wessex, but after the latter's death in 860 she had returned to France.

Around Christmas 861, at the instigation of Baldwin and with her brother Louis' consent Judith escaped the custody she had been put under in the city of Senlis after her return from England. She fled north with Count Baldwin. Charles had given no permission for a marriage and tried capture Baldwin, sending letters to Rorik of Dorestad and Bishop Hungar , forbidding them to shelter the fugitive.

After Baldwin and Judith had evaded his attempts to capture them, Charles had his bishops excommunicate the couple. Judith and Baldwin responded by traveling to Rome to plead their case with Pope Nicholas I . Their plea was successful and Charles was forced to accept. The marriage took place on 13 December 863 in Auxerre . By 870 Baldwin had acquired the lay-abbacy of St. Pieter in Ghent and is assumed to have also acquired the counties of Flanders and Waas, or parts thereof by this time. Baldwin developed himself as a very faithful and stout supporter of Charles and played an important role in the continuing wars against the Vikings . He is named in 877 as one of those willing to support the emperor's son, Louis the Stammerer . During his life Baldwin expanded his territory into one of the major principalities of Western Francia , he died in 879 and was buried in the Abbey of Saint-Bertin, near Saint-Omer .

Family

Baldwin was succeeded by his son by Judith, Baldwin II (c. 866 - 918 ). The couple's first son was named Charles after his maternal grandfather, but he died young. His third son Raoul (Rodulf) (c. 869 - murdered 896) became Count of Cambrai around 888 , but he and his brother joined king Zwentibold of Lotharingia in 895. In 896 they attacked Vermandois and captured Arras , Saint-Quentin and Peronne , but later that year Raoul was captured by count Heribert and killed.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 34 M    i. Baldwin II, Count of Flanders and Artois 66 68 69 70 was born about 864 in Flanders, Belgium and died on 10 Sep 918 about age 54.

+ 35 F    ii. Widnille, Countess of Flanders 71 was born about 865 in Flanders (Belgium).

   36 M    iii. Raoul, Count of Cambrai was born about 869 and died in 896 about age 27.

Death Notes: Murdered after capture by Count Heribert.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Baldwin I, Count of Flanders

23. Louis II "the Stammerer", King of Western Francia 43 49 50 was born on 1 Nov 846 in Western Francia (France) and died on 10 Apr 879 in Compeigne, Western Francia (France) at age 32. Another name for Louis was Louis "the Stammerer."

Research Notes: King of the Franks 877-879

From Wikipedia - Louis the Stammerer :

Louis the Stammerer (November 1 , 846 - April 10 , 879 ; French : Louis le Bègue), was the King of Aquitaine and later King of West Francia . He was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans . He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in West Francia in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor .

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy , had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France , and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865-884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes .

With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris , he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875-914) - who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau ; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg -, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple , who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar , archbishop of Rheims , and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona , Gerona , and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy . His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe . He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis.

Noted events in his life were:

• King of Aquitaine: 866-879.

• King of Western Francia: 877-879.

Louis married Adelaide, of Paris,43 72 daughter of Adelhard, of Paris and Unknown, between 868 and 870. Adelaide was born about 855 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France and died after 9 Nov 901. Other names for Adelaide were Adélahide of Paris and Aelis of Paris.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 37 F    i. Ermentrude, of France 73 was born in 870.

+ 38 M    ii. Charles III "the Simple", King of Western Francia 43 74 75 was born on 17 Sep 879 in <Western Francia (France)>, died on 7 Oct 929 in Péronne, Somme, Western Francia (France) at age 50, and was buried in St. Fursi, Péronne, Somme, Western Francia (France).

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28. Herbert I, Count of Vermandois 51 52 53 was born about 850 and died from 6 Nov 900 to 907 about age 50. Other names for Herbert were Hubert I de Vermandois and Herbert I de Vermandois.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-17 has b. abt. 850, d. 6 Nov bet. 900/907. Count of Soissons, Count of Méaux, Count of Vermandois 877/900

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford) has b. abt 840, d. abt 902. Has name as Hubert I.

From Wikipedia - Herbert I, Count of Vermandois :

Herbert I of Vermandois
(c. 848 /850 - 907 ), Count of Vermandois , lord of Senlis , of Peronne and of Saint Quentin , was the son of Pepin of Vermandois .

Marriage and issue
He married Bertha de Morvois . They had the following:
Herbert II of Vermandois (c. 880 -943 )
Béatrice of Vermandois (c. 880-931 ), married King Robert I of France .
Cunigunde of Vermandois (d. 943)
Adele of Vermandois
Berenger of Vermandois, Count of Bayeaux whose grandson was Conan I of Rennes .

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Soissons:

• Count of Méaux:

• Count of Vermandois: 877-900.

Herbert married Bertha, de Morvois,76 daughter of Guerri I, Count of Morvois and Eve, of Roussillon,. Bertha was born about 844 in Namur, Namur, Belgium. Another name for Bertha was Beatrice of Morvois.

Research Notes:
Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 39 M    i. Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, Soissons and Troyes 7 77 78 79 was born between 880 and 890 in Vermand, Picardy, France and died on 23 Feb 943 in St. Quentin, Picardy, France.

+ 40 F    ii. Beatrice de Vermandois 80 81 was born in 880 in <Vermandois, Neustria (France)> and died after Mar 931.

   41 F    iii. Cunigunde de Vermandois died in 943.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Herbert I, Count of Vermandois

   42 F    iv. Adele, of Vermandois .52

   43 M    v. Berenger de Vermandois, Count of Bayeaux .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Herbert I, Count of Vermandois

31. Bertha, Princess of Lorraine 25 was born about 871 in <Lorraine, France> and died on 8 Mar 925 about age 54.

Bertha married Adalbert, Marquis of Tuscany 25 in 898. Adalbert was born about 855 in <Tuscany, Italy> and died about 915 about age 60.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 44 M    i. Boso, Marquis of Tuscany 25 was born about 899 in <Tuscany, Italy> and died about 938 about age 39.

32. Reginar I "Longneck", Duke of Lorraine 57 58 59 was born about 850 in <France> and died before 19 Jan 916. Other names for Reginar were Rainer I of Lorraine and Reginar I Count of Hainaut.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots, Line 140-17 has d. aft. 25 Oct. 915, bef. 19 Jan. 916

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Reginar, Duke of Lorraine :

Reginar I Longneck[1] (c. 850 - 915)[2] was the Duke of Lorraine from 910 until his death. He stands at the head of the clan of Reginarids , an important Lotharingian noble family.

He was the son of Gilbert , Count of the Maas gau , and a daughter of Lothair I of whom the name is not known (Hiltrude, Bertha, Irmgard, and Gisela are good candidates).

He succeeded his father in the Maasgau and was the lay abbot of Echternach between 897 and 915, of Maastricht from before May 898, and of Stablo and Malmedy between 900 and 902.

He was the Count of Mons when in 870 he and Franco , Bishop of Liège , led an army against the Vikings in Walacria . He, as Duke of Hesbaye and Hainault , and Radbold led a Frisian army with against the forces of Rollo a little later, but were forced back to his fortresses.

In an 877 capitulary from Quierzy , he appears alongside his father as one of the regents of the kingdom during Charles the Bald 's absence on campaign in Italy. A Reginar appears at the Siege of Paris in 886, but this may be an uncle or nephew. The name "Reginar" or "Reginhar" (French : Régnier or Rainier) was commonplace in his family.

Reginar was originally a supporter of Zwentibold in 895, but he broke with the king in 898. He and some other magnates who had been key to Zwentibold's election three years earlier then took the opportunity provided by the death of Odo of West Francia to invite Charles the Simple to become king in Lotharingia. His lands were confiscated, but he refused to give them up and entrenched himself at Durfost , downstream from Maastricht. Representatives of Charles, Zwentibold, and the Emperor Arnulf met at Saint Goar and determined that the succession should go to Louis the Child . Zwentibold was killed by the rebels in battle in August 900.
At first, Louis appeared to be opposed to Reginar when he appointed Gebhard as his deputy in Lotharingia, but the two were never at war. In 908, Reginar recuperated the Hainault after the death of Sigard . Then, after the death of Gebhard in 910, in battle with the Magyars , Reginar appears as his successor. He led the magnates in opposing Conrad I of Germany and electing Charles the Simple their king. He was given the title marchio by Charles in 915. He never appears as the Duke of Lorraine, but he was definitely the military commander of the region under Charles. He himself was succeeded by his son Gilbert ; however, the Reginarids did not succeed in establishing their supremacy in Lotharingia like the Liudolfings or Liutpoldings did in the duchies of Saxony and Bavaria .

Family
By his wife Hersinda (or Alberada), who predeceased him, Reginar left the following children:
Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine
Reginar II, Count of Hainaut
Balderic, Bishop of Utrecht
Frederick, Archbishop of Mainz
a daughter, possibly named Symphoria, who married Berengar , Count of Namur

Noted events in his life were:

• Lay Abbot of Echternach: (Luxembourg), 897-915.

• Duke of Lorraine: 910-916.

Reginar married Alberade.82 Alberade died in 916. Other names for Alberade were Hersent and Hersinda.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Reginar I


Children from this marriage were:

+ 45 M    i. Giselbert, Duke of Lorraine 25 83 84 was born about 880 in <Lorraine, France> and died on 2 Oct 939 in Andernach, Rhineland, Prussia about age 59.

+ 46 M    ii. Reginar II, Count of Hainaut 85 was born about 890 in <Lorraine, France> and died in 932 about age 42.

   47 M    iii. Balderic, Bishop of Utrecht .59

   48 M    iv. Frederick, Archbishop of Mainz 86 died in Oct 954.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Frederick (Archbishop of Mainz) :

Frederick (died October 954) was the Archbishop of Mainz from 937, following the late Hildebert , until his death. He was a son of Reginar, Duke of Lorraine .
Immediately, Frederick acted as an opponent of Otto the Great , one of the most consistent opponents he faced. In 939, he joined the rebellion of Eberhard III of Franconia , Gilbert of Lorraine , and Henry I of Bavaria . He was imprisoned in Hammelburg for a while. He plotted with Henry to assassinate Otto in Easter 941 in Quedlinburg , but they were discovered and put in captivity in Ingelheim , being released and pardoned only after doing penance at Christmas of that year.
Frederick refused to accompany Otto to Italy in 951. He participated in another rebellion with Liudolf, Duke of Swabia , and Conrad, Duke of Lorraine , luring the king to Mainz in 953. Abandoned by the Lorrainers and without Henry's support this time, the rebels were easily crushed and punished. Frederick tried to distance himself from the fighting, but died before anything could come to him.

Noted events in his life were:

• Archbishop of Mainz: 937-954.

   49 F    v. Symphoria .59

33. Blichilde, of Maine .60

Blichilde married Ranulf I, Duke of Aquitaine 60 about 845. Ranulf died in 866.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 50 M    i. Ranulf II, Count of Poitou was born about 855 and died on 5 Aug 890 about age 35.

34. Baldwin II, Count of Flanders and Artois 66 68 69 70 was born about 864 in Flanders, Belgium and died on 10 Sep 918 about age 54. Other names for Baldwin were Baldwin Calvus Count of Flanders and Baldwin II "the Bald" Count of Flanders.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Baldwin II, Count of Flanders

Baldwin II (c. 865 - September 10 , 918 ), nicknamed Calvus (the Bald) was the second count of Flanders . He was also hereditary abbot of St. Bertin from 892 till his death. He was the son of Baldwin I of Flanders and Judith , a daughter of Charles the Bald .

The early years of Baldwin's rule were marked by a series of devastating Viking raids. Little north of the Somme was untouched. Baldwin recovered, building new fortresses and improving city walls, and taking over abandoned property, so that in the end he held far more territory, and held it more strongly, than had his father. He also took advantage of the conflicts between Charles the Simple and Odo, Count of Paris to take over the Ternois and the Boulonnias .

In 884 Baldwin married Ælfthryth (Ælfthryth, Elftrude, Elfrida), a daughter of King Alfred the Great of England . The marriage was motivated by the common Flemish-English opposition to the Vikings, and was the start of an alliance that was a mainstay of Flemish policy for centuries to come.
In 900 , he tried to curb the power of Archbishop Fulk of Rheims by assassinating him, but he was excommunicated by Pope Benedict IV .
He died at Blandimberg and was succeeded by his eldest son Arnulf I of Flanders . His younger son Adalulf was (the first) count of Boulogne .

Family
He married Ælfthryth, a daughter of Alfred the Great , King of England. They had the following:
Arnulf I of Flanders (c. 890 -964 ), married Adela of Vermandois
Adalulf (c. 890 -933 ), Count of Boulogne
Ealswid
Ermentrud
His fifth child however, was illegitimate.
Albert (d. 977 )


Baldwin married Ælfthryth, of Wessex,87 88 89 90 daughter of Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, King of England and Ealhswith, of the Gaini, Queen of the Anglo-Saxons, in 884. Ælfthryth was born about 869 in England and died on 9 Jun 929 about age 60. Other names for Ælfthryth were Ælflaeda, Ælfreda, Elfleda, Elfrida Countess of Flanders, and Ethelswith of Wessex.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 7 June 929 and d. 9 June 929

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders

Ælfthryth, also known as Elfrida, (died 929), was the last child of Alfred the Great , the Saxon King of England and his wife Ealhswith . She had four or five siblings, including KingEdward the Elder and Ethelfleda .

Ælfthryth married Baldwin II (d. 918), Count of Flanders . One of their descendants, Matilda of Flanders (d. 1083), would go on to marry William the Conqueror , therefore starting the Anglo-Norman line of Kings of England . Through her descendant, Henry I of England , she is also a direct ancestor of the current monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , Elizabeth II .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 51 M    i. Arnulf I, Count of Flanders and Artois 91 92 93 94 was born about 890 in Flanders (Belgium) and died 27 Mar 964 or 965 in Flanders (Belgium) about age 74.

   52 M    ii. Adalulf, Count of Boulogne 95 was born about 890 and died in 933 about age 43.

   53 F    iii. Ealswid .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Baldwin II, Count of Flanders

   54 F    iv. Ermentrud .

Research Notes: Source: Baldwin II, Count of Flanders

35. Widnille, Countess of Flanders 71 was born about 865 in Flanders (Belgium). Another name for Widnille was Widinile Countess of Flanders.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875288

Widnille married Wilfred I "El Velloso", Count of Urgel,71 son of Sunifred, Count of Urgel and Barcelona and Ermesende, in 877. Wilfred was born about 840 in <Urgel, Lerida>, Spain and died after 21 Aug 897.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 55 M    i. Sunifred, Count of Besalu and Urgel 71 was born about 878 in <Urgel, Lerida>, Spain and died in 948 about age 70.

37. Ermentrude, of France 73 was born in 870.

Research Notes: Husband unknown, according to Ancestral Roots (line 143-17)

Ermentrude married someone.

Her child was:

+ 56 F    i. Cunigonde 43 96 97 was born about 890 in <Aachen, Rheinland, Prussia> and died after 923.

38. Charles III "the Simple", King of Western Francia 43 74 75 was born on 17 Sep 879 in <Western Francia (France)>, died on 7 Oct 929 in Péronne, Somme, Western Francia (France) at age 50, and was buried in St. Fursi, Péronne, Somme, Western Francia (France). Other names for Charles were Charles III "the Straightforward" King of Western Francia, Charles the Simple King of France, and Karolus Simplex King of France.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Charles the Simple :

Charles III (17 September 879 - 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Karolus Simplex), was the undisputed King of France from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919/23. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty , the third and posthumous son of Louis the Stammerer by his second wife, Adelaide of Paris .

As a child, Charles was prevented from succeeding to the throne at the time of the death in 884 of his half-brother Carloman . The nobles of the realm instead asked his uncle, Charles the Fat , to rule them. He was also prevented from succeeded the unpopular Charles, who was deposed in November 887 and died in January 888, although it is unknown if his deposition was accepted or even made known in West Francia before his death. The nobility elected Odo , the hero of the Siege of Paris , king, though there was a faction that supported Guy III of Spoleto . Charles was put under the protection of Ranulf II , the Duke of Aquitaine , who may have tried to claim the throne for him and in the end used the royal title himself until making peace with Odo. Finally, in 893 Charles was crowned by a faction opposed to Odo at Reims Cathedral . He only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898.[1]

In 911 Charles signed the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte with the Viking leader Rollo , thus enfeoffing him with the lower Seine basin, the heart of what would become Normandy , in hopes that Rollo would fend off future Viking raids in the Seine area. He also gave the Viking his daughter Gisela in marriage. In the same year as the treaty with the Vikings, Louis the Child , the King of Germany , died and the nobles of Lotharingia , who had been loyal to him, under the leadership of Regina Longneck , declared Charles their new king, breaking from Germans who had elected Conrad of Franconia king.[1] Charles tried to win their support by marrying a Lotharingian woman named Frederuna , who died in 917.

On 7 October 919 Charles re-married to Eadgifu , the daughter of Edward the Elder , King of England . By this time Charles' excessive favouritism towards a certain Hagano had turned the aristocracy against him. He endowed Hagano with monasteries which were already the benefices of other barons, alienating these barons. In Lotharingia he earned the enmity of the new duke, Gilbert , who declared for the German king Henry the Fowler in 919.[1] Opposition to Charles in Lotharingia was not universal, however, and he retained the support of Wigeric . In 922 some of the West Frankish barons, led by Robert of Neustria and Rudolph of Burgundy , revolted. Robert, who was Odo's brother, was elected by the rebels and crowned in opposition to Charles, who had to flee to Lotharingia. He returned the next year (923) with a Norman army but was defeated on 15 June near Soissons by Robert, who died in the battle.[1] Charles was captured and imprisoned in a castle at Péronne under the guard of Herbert II of Vermandois .[2] Rudolph was elected to succeed him. In 925 the Lotharingians accepted Rudolph as their king. Charles died in prison on 7 October 929 and was buried at the nearby abbey of Saint-Fursy . Though he had had many children by Frederuna, it his son by Eadgifu who would eventually be crowned in 936 as Louis IV of France . In the initial aftermath of Charles defeat, Eadgifu and Louis fled to England.

Charles married Ogiva, of England, daughter of Edward I "the Elder", King of England and Elfreda, on 7 Oct 919. Ogiva was born in 902 in Wessex, England and died after 955. Other names for Ogiva were Edgifu, Edgiva of England, and Ogive.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 148-17 (Charles III) has m. 918.

Research Notes: 3rd wife of Charles II "the Simple"

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 50-20 (Herbert III). Line 148-17 (Charles III) has d. 951

Source: Wikipedia - Edward the Elder and Eadgifu of England

From Wikipedia - Eadgifu of England :

Eadgifu (b. 902 , d. after 955 ) or Edgifu, was a daughter [1] of Edward the Elder , King of Wessex and England , and his second wife Aelffaed . She was born in Wessex .


Marriage to the French King
She was the second wife of King Charles III of France ,[1] whom she married in 919 after the death of his first wife, Frederonne ; she was mother to Louis IV of France .


Flight to England
In 922 Charles III was deposed and the next year taken prisoner by Count Herbert II of Vermandois , an ally of the present King. To protect her son's safety Eadgifu took him to England in 923 to the court of her half-brother, Athelstan of England .[2] Because of this, Louis IV of France became known as Louis d'Outremer of France. He stayed there until 936, when he was called back to France to be crowned King. Eadgifu accompanied him.
She retired to a convent in Laon. Then, in 951, she left the convent and married Herbert III, Count of Vermandois .[2]


Notes
^ a b Lappenberg, Johann ; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray, pp. 88-89.
^ a b Williams, Ann ; Alfred P. Smyth, D. P. Kirby (1991). A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain: England, Scotland, and Wales. Routledge, p. 112. ISBN 1852640472 .

References
Lappenberg, Johann ; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray, pp. 88-89.
Williams, Ann ; Alfred P. Smyth, D. P. Kirby (1991). A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain: England, Scotland, and Wales. Routledge, p. 112. ISBN 1852640472 .


The child from this marriage was:

+ 57 M    i. Louis IV, d'Outre-Mer, King of the West Franks 43 98 was born on 10 Sep 920 in <Laon, Champagne>, France, died on 10 Sep 954 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France at age 34, and was buried in Abbaye de St. Rémy, Reims, Marne, Champagne, (France).

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39. Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, Soissons and Troyes 7 77 78 79 was born between 880 and 890 in Vermand, Picardy, France and died on 23 Feb 943 in St. Quentin, Picardy, France. Another name for Herbert was Herbert II de Vermandois.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Herbert II, Count of Vermandois :


Herbert II
(884 - 23 February 943 ), Count of Vermandois and Count of Troyes , was the son of Herbert I of Vermandois .


Life
He inherited the domain of his father and in 907 , added to it the Saint de Soissons abbey . His marriage with Adela of France (also known as Liégarde) brought him the County of Meaux . In 918 , he was also named Count of Mézerais and of the Véxin . With his cousin Bernard , Count of Beauvais and Senlis , he constituted a powerful group in the west of France, to the north and east of Paris . In 923 , he imprisoned King Charles III in Chateau-Thierry , then in Péronne .

In 922 , the Archbishop of Rheims , Seulf , called on Herbert II to reduce some of his vassals who were in rebellion against him. On the death of Seulf, in 925 , with the help of King Rudolph , he acquired for his second son Hugh (then five years old) the archbishopric of Rheims, which had a large inheritance in France and Germany. In 926 , on the death of Count Roger of Laon , Herbert demanded this County for Eudes , his eldest son. He settled there, initially against the will of King Rudolph and constructed a fortress there. Rudolph yielded to pressure to free king Charles III, whom Herbert still held in prison. In 930 , Herbert took the castle of Vitry in Perthois at the expense of Boso, the brother of King Rudolph. Rudolph united his army with the army of Hugh, marquis of Neustria , and in 931 , they entered Rheims and defeated Hugh, the son of Herbert. Artaud became the new archbishop of Reims. Herbert II then lost, in three years, Vitry, Laon , Chateau-Thierry, and Soissons . The intervention of his ally, Henry the Fowler , allowed him to restore his domains (except Rheims and Laon) in exchange for his submission to King Rudolph.

Later Herbert allied with Hugh the Great and William Longsword , duke of Normandy against King Louis IV , who allocated the County of Laon to Roger II, the son of Roger I, in 941 . Herbert and Hugh the Great took back Rheims and captured Artaud. Hugh, the son of Herbert, was restored as archbishop. Again the mediation of the German King Otto I in Visé , near Liège , in 942 allowed for the normalization of the situation.

Death and legacy
Herbert II died on 23 February 943 without having succeeded in building the principality of which he dreamed. His succession was reconciled by Hugh the Great, maternal uncle of his children. It took place in 946 and led to an equitable distribution between the sons of Herbert II: Herbert III, Robert, Albert, and Hugh (his other son Eudes died before 946). As for his girls, Adela was married to Arnulf I , count of Flanders , Luitgarde (widow of William Longsword) was married to Theobald I , count of Blois , the first lieutenant of Hugh. She brought to Theobald Provins and domains in the Mézerais.

Family
...With Adela [daughter of Robert I of France], he had 7 children:
Adele of Vermandois (910 -960 ), married 934 Count Arnulf I of Flanders , also a descendant of Charlemagne
Eudes of Vermandois, Count of Amiens and of Vienne , (910 -946 )
Herbert "the Elder" , Count of Meaux and of Troyes (-993 )
Robert of Vermandois , Count of Meaux and Chalons (-968 )
Adalbert I, Count of Vermandois (915 -987 ), married Gerberga of Lorraine, also a descendant of Charlemagne
Luitgarde of Vermandois (ca 920 -978 ), married 943 Theobald I of Blois
Hugh of Vermandois (died 962 ), Archbishop of Reims

Herbert married Liegarde, of France,99 100 daughter of Robert I, Duke of France and Aelis, by 907. Liegarde was born about 886 in <Vermandois, Neustria (France)> and died after 931. Other names for Liegarde were Adela of France and Hildebrante of France.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 897 in Vermandois, Neustria.

Research Notes: Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)
and
http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871885

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 49-18 (Herbert II) has "m. bef. 907, LIEGARDE (Hildebrante) (Adela) (48-19), of France, dau. of ROBERT I (48-18), King of the West Franks, by his first wife, Aelis."


Children from this marriage were:

   58 M    i. Eudes, of Vermandois, Count of Amiens and Vienne was born in 910 and died in 946 at age 36.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Herbert II, Count of Vermandois

+ 59 F    ii. Adele, of Vermandois 92 101 102 103 was born between 910 and 915 in Vermand, Picardy, Neustria (France), died on 10 Oct 960 in Bruges, Aquitaine (West Flanders, Belgium), and was buried in Abbaye de St Pierre, Gand, Flandres.

+ 60 M    iii. Robert, of Vermandois, Count of Trois and Meaux 7 104 105 106 was born about 920 in Vermand, Picardy, France and died Aug 967 or 968 in Troyes, Champagne, (Aube), France about age 47.

+ 61 M    iv. Albert I "the Pious", Count of Vermandois 107 108 was born about 920 in <Vermandois, Neustria (France)>, died on 8 Sep 988 in <St. Quentin, Flandres> about age 68, and was buried in St. Quentin, Flanders (Picardy, France).

   62 F    v. Luitgarde, of Vermandois was born about 920 and died after 978.

Research Notes: Second wife of William I "Longsword"

Source: Wikipedia - Herbert II, Count of Vermandois

Luitgarde married William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy,109 110 111 son of Rollo, Duke of Normandy and Poppa, de Bayeux,. William was born about 892 in <Rouen, (France)> and died on 17 Dec 942 in France about age 50. Other names for William were Guillaume I "Longue Épée" Duke of Normandy and William I "Longsword."

Birth Notes: May have been born in Bayeux.

Death Notes: Killed in treacherous ambush by servants of Theobald of Blois and Arnulf of Flanders

Research Notes: When the Bretons rebelled about 930, he subdued them, taking Brittany, the Channel Islands, the Contentin, and the Averanchin.

From Wikipedia - William I, Duke of Normandy :

William I Longsword (French : Guillaume Longue-Épée, Latin : Willermus Longa Spata, Scandinavian : Vilhjálmr Langaspjót; 893 - 17 December 942) was the second Duke of Normandy from his father's death until his own assassination. The title dux (duke) was not in use at the time and has been applied to early Norman rulers retroactively; William actually used the title comes (count).

Little is known about his early years. He was born in Bayeux or Rouen to Rollo and his wife Poppa. All that is known of Poppa is that she was a Christian, and the daughter to Berengar of Rennes , the previous lord of Brittania Nova , which eventually became western Normandy. According to the William's planctus , he was baptised a Christian.

William succeeded Rollo sometime around 927. It appears that he faced a rebellion early in his reign, from Normans who felt he had become too Gallicised . Subsequent years are obscure. In 939 William became involved in a war with Arnulf I of Flanders , which soon became intertwined with the other conflicts troubling the reign of Louis IV . He was killed by followers of Arnulf while at a meeting to settle their conflict. His son Richard the Fearless , child of his first wife, Sprota, succeeded him. William also left a widow, Liègard (Liutgard), who died in 985.

Noted events in his life were:

• Succeeded: to County of Normandy, Abt 927.

• Bretons rebelled: Abt 930.

   63 M    vi. Herbert "the Elder", Count of Meaux and of Troyes died in 993.

Research Notes: Not the same person as Herbert III

Source: Wikipedia - Herbert II, Count of Vermandois

   64 M    vii. Hugh, of Vermandois, Archbishop of Reims died in 962.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Herbert II, Count of Vermandois

Herbert next married someone.

40. Beatrice de Vermandois 80 81 was born in 880 in <Vermandois, Neustria (France)> and died after Mar 931. Another name for Beatrice was Beatrix de Vermandois.

Research Notes: Second wife of Robert I.

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Beatrice married Robert I, Duke of France,112 son of Rutpert IV, Count of Wormgau, Paris, Anjou & Blois and Adelaide, of Tours and Alsace, after 893. Robert was born in 866 in <Bourgogne, Champagne, France> and died on 15 Jun 923 in Soissons, Picardie, France at age 57. Another name for Robert was Robert I King of the West Franks.

Research Notes: Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris, Marquis of Neustria and Orleans, King of the West Franks (France)

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford) has title King of France.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871957 :

Duke of France, Marquis of Neustria, Count of Paris and Poitiers. Robert was killed at the battle of Soissons. He had been named King of the West Franks in 922 to succeed his brother.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Paris: 888.

• King of the Franks: 922-923.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 65 M    i. Hugh Magnus, Count of Paris 113 was born about 895 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France, died on 16 Jun 956 in Deurdan, France about age 61, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France.

44. Boso, Marquis of Tuscany 25 was born about 899 in <Tuscany, Italy> and died about 938 about age 39.

Boso married Willa, Princess of Burgundy.25 Willa was born about 906 in <Bourgogne, Champagne, France>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 66 F    i. Willa, Princess of Tuscany 25 was born about 924 in <Tuscany, Italy>.

45. Giselbert, Duke of Lorraine 25 83 84 was born about 880 in <Lorraine, France> and died on 2 Oct 939 in Andernach, Rhineland, Prussia about age 59. Another name for Giselbert was Gilbert Duke of Lorraine.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. abt 880 or b. abt 890. The most recent research give abt 880.

Research Notes: First husband of Gerberga of Saxony.

From Ancestral Roots, Line 240-18, p. 217, "From these two brothers [Reginar II and Giselbert] are descended the later kings of England, Scotland, France, Spain, Portugal, many of the German emperors, the Dukes of Brabant, Burgundy, Warwick, Northumberland, and Lorraine, the Earls of Chester, Clare, and Pembroke, the Counts of Roucy, Vermandois, Barcelona, Provence, Nevers, Poitou, Burgundy, and Savoy, and the families of Cantelou, Courtenay, Zouche, and many others."

Noted events in his life were:

• Lay Abbot of Echternach: 915-939.

Giselbert married Gerberga, of Saxony,43 114 115 daughter of Henry I "the Fowler", Duke of Saxony, King of the Saxons and Mechtilde, of Ringelheim, in 929. Gerberga was born about 914 in <Nordhausen, Saxony, Prussia>, died on 5 May 984 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France about age 70, and was buried in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France. Another name for Gerberga was Gerberge.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 142-18 and 148-18 (Louis IV)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 67 F    i. Alberade, of Lorraine 116 117 was born about 930 in <Lorraine, France> and died on 15 Mar 973 about age 43.

+ 68 F    ii. Gerberga, of Lorraine 118 was born about 935 and died in 978 about age 43.

46. Reginar II, Count of Hainaut 85 was born about 890 in <Lorraine, France> and died in 932 about age 42. Another name for Reginar was Rainer II Count of Hainaut.

Research Notes: From Ancestral Roots, Line 240-18, p. 217, "From these two brothers [Reginar II and Giselbert] are descended the later kings of England, Scotland, France, Spain, Portugal, many of the German emperors, the Dukes of Brabant, Burgundy, Warwick, Northumberland, and Lorraine, the Earls of Chester, Clare, and Pembroke, the Counts of Roucy, Vermandois, Barcelona, Provence, Nevers, Poitou, Burgundy, and Savoy, and the families of Cantelou, Courtenay, Zouche, and many others."

Reginar married < >.119

Research Notes: Possibly a daughter of Count Boso.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 69 M    i. Reginar III, Count of Hainaut 43 120 was born in 920 in <Hainaut, Belgium> and died in 973 at age 53.

50. Ranulf II, Count of Poitou was born about 855 and died on 5 Aug 890 about age 35.

Research Notes: According to Ancestral Roots, Line 144A-17, Ada was not the mother of Ebles Mancer.

Ranulf married someone.

His child was:

+ 70 M    i. Ebles Mancer, Count of Poitou was born in 868 and died in 932 at age 64.

51. Arnulf I, Count of Flanders and Artois 91 92 93 94 was born about 890 in Flanders (Belgium) and died 27 Mar 964 or 965 in Flanders (Belgium) about age 74. Other names for Arnulf were Arnold I "the Old" Count of Flanders and Artois, Arnoul I Count of Flanders, and Arnulf the Great Count of Flanders and Artois.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Arnulf I, Count of Flanders

Arnulf I of Flanders (c. 890 - March 28 , 965 ), called the Great, was the third count of Flanders .

Arnulf was the son of count Baldwin II of Flanders and Ælfthryth , daughter of Alfred the Great . He was named after his distant ancestor, Saint Arnulf of Metz ; this was intended to emphasize his family's descent from the Carolingian dynasty.

History
Arnulf greatly expanded Flemish rule to the south, taking all or part of Artois , Ponthieu , Amiens , and Ostravent . He exploited the conflicts between Charles the Simple and Robert I of France , and later those between Louis IV and his barons .

In his southern expansion Arnulf inevitably had conflict with the Normans , who were trying to secure their northern frontier. This led to the 943 murder of the Duke of Normandy , William Longsword , at the hands of Arnulf's men.

The Viking threat was receding during the later years of Arnulf's life, and he turned his attentions to the reform of the Flemish government.

Family
In 934 he married Adele of Vermandois , daughter of Herbert II of Vermandois . Their children were:
Luitgard, married Wichmann, Count of Hamaland
Egbert, died 953
Baldwin III of Flanders
Elftrude, married Siegfried, Count of Guînes
He also had a previous daughter, Hildegard.
Arnulf made his eldest son and heir Baldwin III of Flanders co-ruler in 958, but Baldwin died untimely in 962, so Arnulf was succeeded by Baldwin's infant son, Arnulf II of Flanders .

Arnulf married Adele, of Vermandois,92 101 102 103 daughter of Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, Soissons and Troyes and Liegarde, of France, in 934. Adele was born between 910 and 915 in Vermand, Picardy, Neustria (France), died on 10 Oct 960 in Bruges, Aquitaine (West Flanders, Belgium), and was buried in Abbaye de St Pierre, Gand, Flandres. Other names for Adele were Alix de Vermandois, Adaele de Vermandois, and Alice de Vermandois.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 71 F    i. Elftrude 93 121 122 was born about 912 in Flanders, Belgium.

   72 F    ii. Hildegarde was born about 914 in Flanders, Belgium.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871977

   73 M    iii. Egbert died in 953.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Arnulf I, Count of Flanders

+ 74 M    iv. Baldwin III, Count of Flanders 93 123 124 125 was born about 915 in Flanders (Belgium) and died on 1 Nov 962 in Flanders (Belgium) about age 47.

+ 75 F    v. Luitgarde, of Flanders 92 93 was born about 941 in Flanders and died on 29 Sep 964 about age 23.

55. Sunifred, Count of Besalu and Urgel 71 was born about 878 in <Urgel, Lerida>, Spain and died in 948 about age 70.

Sunifred married Richilde, de Rouergue,71 daughter of Armengol, Count of Toulouse and Adelaide, Countess of Toulouse, Betw 920 and 925. Richilde was born about 882 in <Rouergue, Aveyron>, France, died after 12 Nov 954, and was buried before 26 Dec 954.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 76 M    i. Borrell II, Count of Barcelona 71 was born about 946 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 30 Sep 992 about age 46.

56. Cunigonde 43 96 97 was born about 890 in <Aachen, Rheinland, Prussia> and died after 923. Other names for Cunigonde were Cunegonde, Cunigunda, and Kunigunde.

Research Notes: Granddaughter of Louis II "the Stammerer" of France.

Cunigonde married Wigeric, Count of Bidgau 43 126 127 Betw 907 and 909. Wigeric was born about 882 in <Aachen, Rheinland, Prussia> and died before 923. Other names for Wigeric were Wigeric of Lotharingia and Wigerich Count of Trier and Ardennes.

Death Notes: May have died by 919.

Research Notes: First husband of Cunigonde. Founder of the house of Ardennes.

From Wikipedia - Wigeric of Lotharingia :

Wigeric or Wideric (French : Wigéric or Wéderic) (died before 923 ) was the count of the Bidgau (pagus Bedensis) and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier . He received also the advocacy of the abbey of Saint Rumbold's at Mechelen from Charles III of France . From 915 or 916 he was the count palatine of Lotharingia . He was the founder of the House of Ardennes .

At the death of Louis the Child , the Lotharingians rejected the suzerainty of Conrad I and elected Charles of France as their king. At the time, the military authority in Lotharingia was assigned to Count Reginar I of Hainaut (d. 915), but at his death it fell to Wigeric, who became count palatine, exercising as such the military authority in Lotharingia.

Wigeric founded the monastery of Hastière , of which he also assumed the advocacy. He married Cunigunda, daughter of Ermentrude and granddaughter of Louis II of France . Their children were:
Frederick (d.978 ), count of Bar , the duke of Upper Lorraine from 959
Adalberon (d.962 ), bishop of Metz
Gilbert (d.964 ), count in the Ardennes
Sigebert (fl.c.942 )
Gozlin (d.942 ), count of Bidgau, married Uda of Metz, father of:
Godfrey the Prisoner
Adalberon, Archbishop of Reims
Siegfried , count of Luxembourg

Some genealogies record two other children, Henry and Liutgard, who were in fact son and daughter of another Wigeric, son of Roric, a contemporary living in the shire of Bidgau-Trier.

Noted events in his life were:

• Living: 899-916.

• Count Palatine: of Lotharingia, 916-923.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 77 M    i. Gozlin, Count of Bidgau and Methingau 43 128 was born about 911 in <Aachen, Rheinland, Prussia> and died on 18 Dec 943 about age 32.

+ 78 M    ii. Siegfried, of Luxembourg 129 was born about 922 and died on 28 Oct 988 about age 66.

57. Louis IV, d'Outre-Mer, King of the West Franks 43 98 was born on 10 Sep 920 in <Laon, Champagne>, France, died on 10 Sep 954 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France at age 34, and was buried in Abbaye de St. Rémy, Reims, Marne, Champagne, (France). Another name for Louis was Louis IV "Transmarinus" King of Western Francia.

Research Notes: King of the West Franks 936-954

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 148-18

Louis married Gerberga, of Saxony,43 114 115 daughter of Henry I "the Fowler", Duke of Saxony, King of the Saxons and Mechtilde, of Ringelheim, 939 or 940. Gerberga was born about 914 in <Nordhausen, Saxony, Prussia>, died on 5 May 984 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France about age 70, and was buried in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France. Another name for Gerberga was Gerberge.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 142-18 and 148-18 (Louis IV)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 79 M    i. Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine 43 was born about 953 in <Laon, Champagne>, France, died on 21 May 992 in Kerker, Orléans, France about age 39, and was buried in St. Servatius, Maastricht.

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59. Adele, of Vermandois 92 101 102 103 was born between 910 and 915 in Vermand, Picardy, Neustria (France), died on 10 Oct 960 in Bruges, Aquitaine (West Flanders, Belgium), and was buried in Abbaye de St Pierre, Gand, Flandres. Other names for Adele were Alix de Vermandois, Adaele de Vermandois, and Alice de Vermandois.

Adele married Arnulf I, Count of Flanders and Artois,91 92 93 94 son of Baldwin II, Count of Flanders and Artois and Ælfthryth, of Wessex, in 934. Arnulf was born about 890 in Flanders (Belgium) and died 27 Mar 964 or 965 in Flanders (Belgium) about age 74. Other names for Arnulf were Arnold I "the Old" Count of Flanders and Artois, Arnoul I Count of Flanders, and Arnulf the Great Count of Flanders and Artois.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Arnulf I, Count of Flanders

Arnulf I of Flanders (c. 890 - March 28 , 965 ), called the Great, was the third count of Flanders .

Arnulf was the son of count Baldwin II of Flanders and Ælfthryth , daughter of Alfred the Great . He was named after his distant ancestor, Saint Arnulf of Metz ; this was intended to emphasize his family's descent from the Carolingian dynasty.

History
Arnulf greatly expanded Flemish rule to the south, taking all or part of Artois , Ponthieu , Amiens , and Ostravent . He exploited the conflicts between Charles the Simple and Robert I of France , and later those between Louis IV and his barons .

In his southern expansion Arnulf inevitably had conflict with the Normans , who were trying to secure their northern frontier. This led to the 943 murder of the Duke of Normandy , William Longsword , at the hands of Arnulf's men.

The Viking threat was receding during the later years of Arnulf's life, and he turned his attentions to the reform of the Flemish government.

Family
In 934 he married Adele of Vermandois , daughter of Herbert II of Vermandois . Their children were:
Luitgard, married Wichmann, Count of Hamaland
Egbert, died 953
Baldwin III of Flanders
Elftrude, married Siegfried, Count of Guînes
He also had a previous daughter, Hildegard.
Arnulf made his eldest son and heir Baldwin III of Flanders co-ruler in 958, but Baldwin died untimely in 962, so Arnulf was succeeded by Baldwin's infant son, Arnulf II of Flanders .

(Duplicate Line. See Person 51)

60. Robert, of Vermandois, Count of Trois and Meaux 7 104 105 106 was born about 920 in Vermand, Picardy, France and died Aug 967 or 968 in Troyes, Champagne, (Aube), France about age 47. Another name for Robert was Robert de Vermandois.

Birth Notes: Another source has b. abt 916

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Robert of Vermandois :

Robert of Vermandois (died 968 ) was Count of Meaux after his father Herbert II of Vermandois .

He was married to Adelaide of Burgundy, daughter of Giselbert, Duke of Burgundy . They had three children:
Herbert III, Count of Meaux (c. 950 -995 )
Adele of Meaux , (c. 950 -c. 980 )
Adelaise of Troyes (c. 955 -c. 991 )

Robert married Adelaide, of Burgundy,7 130 daughter of Giselbert, Count of Burgundy and Chalons and Ermengarde, of Burgundy, by 950. Adelaide was born about 918 in Burgundy, France and died on 19 Aug 967 about age 49.

Research Notes:


The child from this marriage was:

+ 80 F    i. Adelaide, of Vermandois 131 was born in 950 in Vermand, Picardy, France and died 12 Mar 975 or 978 in Châlons-sur-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, France at age 25.

61. Albert I "the Pious", Count of Vermandois 107 108 was born about 920 in <Vermandois, Neustria (France)>, died on 8 Sep 988 in <St. Quentin, Flandres> about age 68, and was buried in St. Quentin, Flanders (Picardy, France). Other names for Albert were Adalbert I Count of Vermandois, Adelbert I Count of Vermandois, and Albert I le Pieux Count of Vermandois.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 7 Sep 978 in St. Quentin, Flanders. May have reversed digits in 978, and it should be 987.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Adalbert I, Count of Vermandois :

Adalbert I of Vermandois (French : Albert I le Pieux, the Pious) (c. 915 /917 - 9 September 988 ), Count of Vermandois , was the son of Herbert II of Vermandois and Adela.

Family
In 954 he married Gerberge of Lorraine (c. 935 -978 ), daughter of Giselbert , Duke of Lorraine , and Gerberga of Saxony .
Their children were:
Herbert III of Vermandois
Eudes of Vermandois (c. 956 -983 )
Liudolfe de Noyon (c. 957 -986 )
Guy I of Vermandois , count of Soissons

Albert married Gerberga, of Lorraine,118 daughter of Giselbert, Duke of Lorraine and Gerberga, of Saxony, before 954. Gerberga was born about 935 and died in 978 about age 43. Another name for Gerberga was Gerberge of Lorraine.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-20 (Herbert III)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 81 M    i. Herbert III, Count of Vermandois 81 132 was born between 942 and 953 and died in 993.

   82 M    ii. Eudes, of Vermandois was born about 956 and died in 983 about age 27.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Adalbert I, Count of Vermandois

   83 M    iii. Liudolfe, de Noyon was born about 957 and died in 986 about age 29.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Adalbert I, Count of Vermandois

   84 M    iv. Guy I, of Vermandois, Count of Soissons .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Adalbert I, Count of Vermandois

65. Hugh Magnus, Count of Paris 113 was born about 895 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France, died on 16 Jun 956 in Deurdan, France about age 61, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France.

Research Notes: Count of Paris, Orléans, Vexin and Le Mans, Duke of France.

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Hugh married Edhilda in 926. Edhilda died about 26 Jan 945.

Research Notes: Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Hugh next married Hedwig, of Saxony,133 daughter of Henry I "the Fowler", Duke of Saxony, King of the Saxons and Mechtilde, of Ringelheim, in 938 in Mainz oder Ingelheim. Hedwig died 10 May aft 965.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots gives various death dates - aft. 958 or 10 May aft. 965

Research Notes: 2nd or 3rd wife of Hugh Magnus.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 141-19


The child from this marriage was:

+ 85 M    i. Hugh Capet, King of France 134 135 was born Winter 941 in France, died on 24 Oct 996 in Les Juifs, Chartres, France at age 55, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France.

66. Willa, Princess of Tuscany 25 was born about 924 in <Tuscany, Italy>.

Willa married Berenger II, King of Italy.25 Berenger was born about 919 in <Italy>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 86 M    i. Adalbert, Marquis of Ivrea 25 was born about 947 in <Italy> and died in 968 about age 21.

67. Alberade, of Lorraine 116 117 was born about 930 in <Lorraine, France> and died on 15 Mar 973 about age 43.

Alberade married Reinald, Comes de Roucy 136 on 5 Nov 945 in <France>. Reinald was born about 920 in <Bourgogne, France> and died on 10 May 967 about age 47. Other names for Reinald were Ragenold and Renaud de Roucy.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 10 May 967; http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f90/a0019042.htm has d. 15 Mar 973.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 87 M    i. Giselbert, Count of Roucy 137 138 was born before 956 in <Reims, Marne, France>, died from 19 Apr 991 to 1000, and was buried in Rheims, Marne, France.

Alberade next married Renaud de Roucy 25 about 945 in France. Renaud was born about 931 in <Reims, Marne, Champagne, France> and died on 15 Mar 973 about age 42.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 88 F    i. Ermentrude, Countess of Rheims 25 was born about 963 in <Rheims, Marne>, France and died before 5 Mar 1005.

68. Gerberga, of Lorraine 118 was born about 935 and died in 978 about age 43. Another name for Gerberga was Gerberge of Lorraine.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-20 (Herbert III)

Gerberga married Albert I "the Pious", Count of Vermandois,107 108 son of Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, Soissons and Troyes and Liegarde, of France, before 954. Albert was born about 920 in <Vermandois, Neustria (France)>, died on 8 Sep 988 in <St. Quentin, Flandres> about age 68, and was buried in St. Quentin, Flanders (Picardy, France). Other names for Albert were Adalbert I Count of Vermandois, Adelbert I Count of Vermandois, and Albert I le Pieux Count of Vermandois.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 7 Sep 978 in St. Quentin, Flanders. May have reversed digits in 978, and it should be 987.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Adalbert I, Count of Vermandois :

Adalbert I of Vermandois (French : Albert I le Pieux, the Pious) (c. 915 /917 - 9 September 988 ), Count of Vermandois , was the son of Herbert II of Vermandois and Adela.

Family
In 954 he married Gerberge of Lorraine (c. 935 -978 ), daughter of Giselbert , Duke of Lorraine , and Gerberga of Saxony .
Their children were:
Herbert III of Vermandois
Eudes of Vermandois (c. 956 -983 )
Liudolfe de Noyon (c. 957 -986 )
Guy I of Vermandois , count of Soissons

(Duplicate Line. See Person 61)

69. Reginar III, Count of Hainaut 43 120 was born in 920 in <Hainaut, Belgium> and died in 973 at age 53. Another name for Reginar was Rainier III Count of Hainault.

Reginar married Adela,43 139 daughter of Hugh, Count of Equisheim and Unknown,. Adela was born about 929 in <Hainaut, Belgium> and died in 961 about age 32. Other names for Adela were Alice Countess of Equisheim and Alix.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 89 M    i. Lambert I "the Bearded", Count of Louvain 43 140 was born about 950 in <Louvain, Brabant>, Belgium and died on 12 Sep 1015 about age 65.

70. Ebles Mancer, Count of Poitou was born in 868 and died in 932 at age 64.

Research Notes: Per Ancestral Roots, line 144A-18, "bastard of Ranulf II by Ermengarde, prob. a concubine"

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Poitou: 890-892, 903.

Ebles married Aremburge 141 in 892.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 90 M    i. William I, Count of Poitou 142 was born in 900 in <Poitiers, France> and died on 3 Apr 963 in <Saint-Cyrien de Poitiers, France> at age 63.

Ebles next married Emiliane 141 in 911.

Research Notes: Second wife of Ebles Mancer.

71. Elftrude 93 121 122 was born about 912 in Flanders, Belgium. Another name for Elftrude was Elstrude.

Elftrude married Sigfred "The Dane", First Count of Guînes.143 144 Sigfred was born about 910 in Denmark and died in 965 about age 55. Another name for Sigfred was Siegfried Count of Guînes.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Guînes

In 928 , when the Danes invaded and seized the place, it was probably a defenceless village. A fenced mound and a double ditch would soon have been created by the Danes. This is the origin of the castle of Guînes. Arnulf I , Count of Flanders , realizing a counter-attack would be costly, arranged the marriage of his daughter Elstrude, to Sigfrid, the Danish leader, bestowing upon him the title of Count of Guînes but as vassal to him, the Count of Flanders. Under Sigfrid's successors, the county of Guînes acquired considerable importance.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 91 M    i. Adolfus, Count of Guînes 145 was born about 937 in Guînes, Pas-de-Calais, France and died in 996 about age 59.

   92 F    ii. Haloise, de Guines was born about 940 in Guînes, Pas-de-Calais, France.

Research Notes: Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872019

74. Baldwin III, Count of Flanders 93 123 124 125 was born about 915 in Flanders (Belgium) and died on 1 Nov 962 in Flanders (Belgium) about age 47. Another name for Baldwin was Baudouin III Count of Flanders.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt. 933

Research Notes: Co-regent with his father 958-962

Noted events in his life were:

• Co-regent with his father: 958-962.

Baldwin married Mathilde, of Saxony,66 daughter of Hermann Billung, Duke of Saxony and Hildegarde, of Westerbourg, about 960. Mathilde was born about 921 in Saxony, (Germany) and died on 28 May 1008 about age 87. Other names for Mathilde were Matilda Billung and Mathilde von Sachsen.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 958. This would make her incredibly young when she was married to Baldwin III.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 93 M    i. Jean de Conteville 146 147 was born about 960 in <Conteville>, Normandy, France.

+ 94 M    ii. Arnulf II, Count of Flanders was born from about 961 to 962 in Flanders, died on 30 Mar 987 about age 26, and was buried in Ghent, (East Flanders, Belgium).

+ 95 F    iii. Bertha, Countess of Flanders 66 was born about 987 in <Flanders (Belgium)>.

75. Luitgarde, of Flanders 92 93 was born about 941 in Flanders and died on 29 Sep 964 about age 23. Another name for Luitgarde was Ledgarde de Flanders.

Luitgarde married Wieman I, Count of Gand 92 about 955 in Flanders. Wieman was born about 920 in Gand, Flanders (Belgium). Another name for Wieman was Wickmann I Count of Gand.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 96 M    i. Theodoric de Gand 92 was born about 956 in Gand, Flanders (Belgium).

76. Borrell II, Count of Barcelona 71 was born about 946 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 30 Sep 992 about age 46.

Borrell married Luitgarde, de Toulouse.71 Luitgarde was born about 952 in Toulouse, France and died after 977.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 97 M    i. Raimund Borrel I, Count of Barcelona 71 was born about 972 in <Barcelona, Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 25 Feb 1018 about age 46.

77. Gozlin, Count of Bidgau and Methingau 43 128 was born about 911 in <Aachen, Rheinland, Prussia> and died on 18 Dec 943 about age 32. Another name for Gozlin was Gozelo von Ardennes.

Gozlin married Oda, of Metz.43 128 Oda was born about 915 and died on 7 Apr 963 about age 48. Another name for Oda was Uda of Metz.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 98 M    i. Godfrey I "the Captive", Count of Verdun 43 128 148 was born about 927 in <Ardenne>, France and died in 1002 about age 75.

   99 M    ii. Adalberon, Archbishop of Reims 149 died in 989.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Adalberon (Archbishop of Reims) :

Adalberon (died 989) was the archbishop of Reims , chancellor of Kings Lothair and Louis V of France .

Upon the death of Louis V, in 987, Adalberon and Gerbert of Aurillac addressed the electoral assembly at Senlis in favour of Hugh Capet , to replace the Carolingian monarch. Adalberon pleaded:
"Crown the Duke. He is most illustrious by his exploits, his nobility, his forces. The throne is not acquired by hereditary right; no one should be raised to it unless distinguished not only for nobility of birth, but for the goodness of his soul."

Capet was elected and crowned at Noyon , 3 July in that year by Adalberon. The part played by Adalberon in bringing down the Carolingians would not be continued by their successors, Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine or the bastard son, Arnulf .

78. Siegfried, of Luxembourg 129 was born about 922 and died on 28 Oct 988 about age 66. Another name for Siegfried was Sigefroy of Luxembourg.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Siegfried of Luxembourg :

Siegfried or Sigefroy (c.922-28 Oct 998 ) is considered the first count of Luxembourg . He was actually count in the Moselgau and the Ardennes . He was also the advocate of the abbeys of Saint-Maximin de Trêves and Saint-Willibrod d'Echternach . He was a son of the Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia and Cunigunda. He is the founder of the House of Luxembourg , a cadet branch of the House of Ardennes .

He had possessions from his father in Upper Lorraine . At the centre of his dominions he constructed the fortress of Luxembourg in 963. A town soon grew up around the castle. Though he used the title of count, the title "count of Luxembourg" was only applied to William some 150 years later.

Around 950, he married Hedwig of Nordgau (937-992), daughter of Eberhard IV of Nordgau . They had the following issue:
Henry I of Luxembourg
Siegfried, cited in 985
Frederick I, Count of Salm and Luxembourg , married Ermentrude of Gleiberg, daughter of Heribert I, Count of Gleiberg and Ermentrud (Imizi).
Thierry II, Bishop of Metz
Adalberon, canon of Trier
Poloaner, count in the Moselgau , married Lolital
Gislebert (d.1004), count in the Moselgau
Cunigunda , married Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor
Eve, married Gerard, Count of Metz
Ermentrude, abbess
Luitgarde , married Arnulf, Count of Holland
a daughter, married Thietmar
a son, married Mietzer

Noted events in his life were:

• Count in the Moselgau:

• Count in the Ardennes:

Siegfried married Hedwig, of Nordgau,150 daughter of Eberhard IV, Count in Nordgau and Liutgard, about 950. Hedwig was born between 922 and 937 and died in 993.

Research Notes: Her husband, Siegfried of Luxembourg, was her maternal uncle.

From Wikipedia - Hedwig of Nordgau :

Hedwig of Nordgau (922 - 993 ) was the daughter of count Eberhard IV of Nordgau and Luitgard of Lotharingia . Around 950 she married her maternal uncle Siegfried of Luxembourg , first count of Luxembourg and founder of the county.

Siegfried and Hedwig had 11 children, including:
Henry , count of Luxemburg
Adalbert , archbishop of Trier
Luitgard , married Aarnout
Eva , married count Gerard of Elzass
Cunigunde , married Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor
Dietrich , bishop of Metz
Frederik , father of the later counts Henry II and Giselbert


The child from this marriage was:

+ 100 M    i. Frederick I, Count of Luxembourg 151 152 was born about 965 and died on 6 Oct 1019 about age 54.

79. Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine 43 was born about 953 in <Laon, Champagne>, France, died on 21 May 992 in Kerker, Orléans, France about age 39, and was buried in St. Servatius, Maastricht. Another name for Charles was Charles of Lorraine.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 148-19

Charles married Adelheid 43 153 about 972. Adelheid was born about 953 in <Ardenne>, France. Another name for Adelheid was Bonne Adelaide.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 101 F    i. Ermengarde, of Lorraine 154 155 was born about 975 in <Lower Lorraine>, France and died after 1012.

+ 102 F    ii. Gerberga, of Lorraine 156 was born about 975 and died 27 jan aft 1018 about age 43.

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80. Adelaide, of Vermandois 131 was born in 950 in Vermand, Picardy, France and died 12 Mar 975 or 978 in Châlons-sur-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, France at age 25.

Birth Notes: Kevin Bradford has b. 950, as does Ancestral Roots Line 118-20.

Adelaide married Geoffrey I "Grisgonelle", Count of Anjou,157 son of Fulk II "the Good", Count of Anjou and Gerberga, of Maine, on 2 Mar 951 in Anjou, France. Geoffrey died on 21 Jul 987.

Marriage Notes: Kevin Bradford has m. 979. Seems too late.

Research Notes: Second husband of Adelaide of Vermandois,

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 103 F    i. Ermengarde, of Anjou 158 159 was born about 952 in <Anjou, France> and died on 27 Jun 992 about age 40.

+ 104 M    ii. Fulk III "the Black", of Maine, Count of Anjou 160 died on 21 Jun 1040.

81. Herbert III, Count of Vermandois 81 132 was born between 942 and 953 and died in 993.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. abt 955, but if he married Ogiva in 951, something is in error.
FamilySearch has b. between 942 and 953

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 29 Aug 0997/1015.
Ancestral Roots has d. 993

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-20. This source has b. abt 955, but if he married Ogiva in 951, something is in error.

Herbert married Ermengarde,100 161 daughter of Reinald, Count of Bar and Unknown, by 987. Ermengarde was born about 946 in <Bourgogne, Champagne, France> and died after 1042.

Marriage Notes: FamilySearch has m. bef. 974.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-20 (Herbert III). "[Possibly] wid. of Milon II, of Tonnerre, dau. of Reinald, Count of Bar-sur-Seine. (ES III.1/49, III.4/730; West Winter, VIII.4 doubts that Ermengarde was of Bar, or was wid. of Milon; ES III.4.681 shows Ingeltrudis, m. Milon, Count of Tonnerre, as a questionable dau. of Englebert I of Brienne)."

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1021-1043.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 105 M    i. Otto, of Vermandois 100 162 was born about 1000 in <Vermandois, France> and died on 25 May 1045 in France about age 45.

Herbert next married Ogiva, of England, daughter of Edward I "the Elder", King of England and Elfreda, in 951. Ogiva was born in 902 in Wessex, England and died after 955. Other names for Ogiva were Edgifu, Edgiva of England, and Ogive.

Research Notes: 3rd wife of Charles II "the Simple"

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 50-20 (Herbert III). Line 148-17 (Charles III) has d. 951

Source: Wikipedia - Edward the Elder and Eadgifu of England

From Wikipedia - Eadgifu of England :

Eadgifu (b. 902 , d. after 955 ) or Edgifu, was a daughter [1] of Edward the Elder , King of Wessex and England , and his second wife Aelffaed . She was born in Wessex .


Marriage to the French King
She was the second wife of King Charles III of France ,[1] whom she married in 919 after the death of his first wife, Frederonne ; she was mother to Louis IV of France .


Flight to England
In 922 Charles III was deposed and the next year taken prisoner by Count Herbert II of Vermandois , an ally of the present King. To protect her son's safety Eadgifu took him to England in 923 to the court of her half-brother, Athelstan of England .[2] Because of this, Louis IV of France became known as Louis d'Outremer of France. He stayed there until 936, when he was called back to France to be crowned King. Eadgifu accompanied him.
She retired to a convent in Laon. Then, in 951, she left the convent and married Herbert III, Count of Vermandois .[2]


Notes
^ a b Lappenberg, Johann ; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray, pp. 88-89.
^ a b Williams, Ann ; Alfred P. Smyth, D. P. Kirby (1991). A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain: England, Scotland, and Wales. Routledge, p. 112. ISBN 1852640472 .

References
Lappenberg, Johann ; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray, pp. 88-89.
Williams, Ann ; Alfred P. Smyth, D. P. Kirby (1991). A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain: England, Scotland, and Wales. Routledge, p. 112. ISBN 1852640472 .



85. Hugh Capet, King of France 134 135 was born Winter 941 in France, died on 24 Oct 996 in Les Juifs, Chartres, France at age 55, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Another name for Hugh was Hugues Capet Duke of the Franks, King of France.

Birth Notes: Birth date variously given as Aft. 939, winter 941

Death Notes: Another source says d. in Paris.

Research Notes: King of France 987-996. First of the Capetian kings of France. Count of Poitou, Count of Orleans.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 141-20.

Also Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

From Wikipedia - Hugh Capet :

Hugh Capet[1] (c. 940 - 24 October 996 ) was the first King of France of the eponymous Capetian dynasty from his election to succeed the Carolingian Louis V in 987 until his death.

Descent and inheritance
The son of Hugh the Great , Duke of France , and Hedwige of Saxony , daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler , Hugh was born about 940. His paternal family, the Robertians , were powerful landowners in the Île-de-France . His grandfather had been King Robert I and his grandmother Beatrice was a Carolingian, a daughter of Herbert I of Vermandois . King Odo was his great uncle and King Rudolph Odo's son-in-law. Hugh was born into a well-connected and powerful family with many ties to the reigning nobility of Europe.[2] But for all this, Hugh's father was never king. When Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great organized the return of Louis d'Outremer , son of Charles the Simple , from his exile at the court of Athelstan of England . Hugh's motives are unknown, but it is presumed that he acted to forestall Rudolph's brother and successor as Duke of Burgundy, Hugh the Black from taking the French throne, or to prevent it from falling into the grasping hands of Herbert II of Vermandois or William Longsword , Count of Rouen .[3]
In 956, Hugh inherited his father's estates and became one of the most powerful nobles in the much-reduced West Frankish kingdom . However, as he was not yet an adult, his uncle Bruno , Archbishop of Cologne , acted as regent . Young Hugh's neighbours made the most of the opportunity. Theobald I of Blois , a former vassal of Hugh the Great, took the counties of Chartres and Châteaudun . Further south, on the border of the kingdom, Fulk II of Anjou , another former client of Hugh the Great, carved out a principality at Hugh's expense and that of the Bretons .[4]...

Election and extent of power
From 978 to 986, Hugh Capet allied himself with the German emperors Otto II and Otto III and with Archbishop Adalberon of Reims to dominate the Carolingian king, Lothair . By 986, he was king in all but name. After Lothair and his son died in early 987, the archbishop of Reims and Gerbert of Aurillac convened an assembly of nobles to elect Hugh Capet as their king....

Dispute with the papacy
Hugh made Arnulf Archbishop of Reims in 988, even though Arnulf was the nephew of the his bitter rival, Charles of Lorraine . Charles thereupon succeeded in capturing Reims and took the archbishop prisoner. Hugh, however, considered Arnulf a turncoat and demanded his deposition by Pope John XV . The turn of events outran the messages, when Hugh captured both Charles and Arnulf and convoked a synod at Reims in June 991, which obediently deposed Arnulf and chose as his successor Gerbert of Aurillac. These proceedings were repudiated by Rome, although a second synod had ratified the decrees issued at Reims. John XV summoned the French bishops to hold an independent synod outside the King's realm, at Aachen , to reconsider the case. When they refused, he called them to Rome, but they protested that the unsettled conditions en route and in Rome made that impossible. The Pope then sent a legate with instructions to call a council of French and German bishops at Mousson , where only the German bishops appeared, the French being stopped on the way by Hugh and Robert.
Through the exertions of the legate, the deposition of Arnulf was finally pronounced illegal. After Hugh's death, Arnulf was released from his imprisonment and soon restored to all his dignities.

Legacy
Hugh Capet died on 24 October 996 in Paris and was interred in the Saint Denis Basilica . His son Robert continued to reign.
Most historians regard the beginnings of modern France with the coronation of Hugh Capet. This is because, as Count of Paris , he made the city his power center. The monarch began a long process of exerting control of the rest of the country from there.
He is regarded as the founder of the Capetian dynasty . The direct Capetians, or the House of Capet , ruled France from 987 to 1328; thereafter, the Kingdom was ruled by collateral branches of the dynasty. All French Kings down to Louis Philippe , and royal pretenders since then, have been members of the dynasty (the Bonapartes styled themselves emperors rather than kings). As of 2007 , the Capetian dynasty is still the head of state in the kingdom of Spain (in the person of the Bourbon Juan Carlos ) and the duchy of Luxembourg , being the oldest continuously reigning dynasty in Europe. Queen Elizabeth II is a direct descendent of Hugh Capet.
Marriage and issue
Hugh Capet married Adelaide , daughter of William Towhead , Count of Poitou . Their children are as follows:
Robert , who became king after the death of his father
Hedwig, or Hathui, who married Reginar IV , Count of Hainaut
Gisela, or Gisele
A number of other daughters are less reliably attested.[10]

References
Bordenove, Georges. Les Rois qui ont fait la France: Hugues Capet, le Fondateur. Paris: Marabout, 1986. ISBN 2-501-01099-X
Gauvard, Claude. La France au Moyen Âge du Ve au XVe siècle. Paris: PUF, 1996. 2-13-054205-0
James, Edward. The Origins of France: From Clovis to the Capetians 500-1000. London: Macmillan, 1982. ISBN 0312588623
Riché, Pierre. Les Carolingiens: Une famille qui fit l'Europe. Paris: Hachette, 1983. 2-012-78551-0
Theis, Laurent. Histoire du Moyen Âge français: Chronologie commentée 486-1453. Paris: Perrin, 1992. 2-87027-587-0
Lewis, Anthony W. "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France. " The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 4. (Oct., 1978), pp 906-927.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Paris: 956-996.

• King of France: 987-996.

Hugh married Adelaide, de Poitou,7 163 daughter of William I, Count of Poitou and Adele, de Normandie, Summer 968. Adelaide was born about 945 and died on 15 Jun 1006 about age 61. Another name for Adelaide was Alix of Poitou.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 144A-20

Children from this marriage were:

+ 106 F    i. Hedwig, of France 164 was born about 969 and died after 1013.

+ 107 M    ii. Robert II "the Pious", King of France 165 166 was born on 27 Mar 972 in Orléans, Orléanais, (Loiret), France and died on 20 Jul 1031 in Meulan, Normandy, France at age 59.

Hugh next married someone.

His child was:

   108 F    i. Emma, of Paris died about 968.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 121E-20 (Richard I)

Emma married Richard I, Duke of Normandy,109 167 168 169 170 son of William I "Longsword", Duke of Normandy and Sprote, de Bretagne, in 960. Richard was born on 28 Aug 933 in <Fécamp>, Normandy, (France), died on 20 Nov 996 in Fécamp, Seine-Inferieure, France at age 63, and was buried in Fécamp, Seine-Inferieure, France. Other names for Richard were Richard I "Sans Peur" Duke of Normandy and Richard I "the Fearless" Duke of Normandy.

Marriage Notes: Betrothed about 945 and married 960

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. abt 933 in Fecamp, France.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Richard I, Duke of Normandy :

Richard I of Normandy (born 28 August 933 , in Fécamp Normandy , France died November 20 , 996 , in Fécamp) was the Duke of Normandy from 942 to 996; he is considered the first to actually have held that title. He was called Richard the Fearless (French, Sans Peur).

Birth
He was born to William I of Normandy , ruler of Normandy, and his wife, Sprota . He was still a boy when his father died in 942. His mother was a Breton concubine captured in war and bound to William by a Danish marriage. After William died, Sprota became the wife of Esperleng, a wealthy miller; Rodulf of Ivry was their son and Richard's half-brother.

Life
Richard was still a boy when his father died, and so he was powerless to stop Louis IV of France when he seized Normandy. Louis kept him in confinement in his youth at Lâon, but he escaped with the assistance of Osmond de Centville , Bernard de Senlis (who had been a companion of Rollo of Normandy ), Ivo de Bellèsme , and Bernard the Dane (ancestor of families of Harcourt and Beaumont ). In 968, Richard agreed to "commend" himself to Hugh, Count of Paris. He then allied himself with the Norman and Viking leaders, drove Louis out of Rouen, and took back Normandy by 947. He later quarrelled with Ethelred II of England regarding Viking invasions of England because Normandy had been buying up much of the stolen booty.

Richard was bilingual, having been well educated at Bayeux. He was more partial to his Danish subjects than to the French. During his reign, Normandy became completely Gallicized and Christianized. He introduced the feudal system and Normandy became one of the most thoroughly feudalized states on the continent. He carried out a major reorganization of the Norman military system, based on heavy cavalry. He also became guardian of the young Hugh, Count of Paris, on the elder Hugh's death in 956.

Marriages
He married 1st (960) Emma (not to be confused with Emma of France ), daughter of Hugh "The Great" of France , and Hedwiga de Sachsen . They were betrothed when both were very young. She died 19 Mar 968, with no issue.
According to Robert of Torigni , not long after Emma's death, Duke Richard went out hunting and stopped at the house of a local forester. He became enamoured of the forester's wife, Seinfreda, but she being a virtuous woman, suggested he court her unmarried sister, Gunnor , instead. Gunnor became his mistress, and her family rose to prominence. Her brother, Herefast de Crepon , may have been involved in a controversial heresy trial. Gunnor was, like Richard, of Norse descent, being a Dane by blood. Richard finally married her to legitimize their children:
Richard II "the Good", Duke of Normandy (966)
Robert , Archbishop of Rouen , Count of Evreux , died 1037.
Geoffrey, Count of Eu, b. abt 962 died abt 1015. (Parentage [mother] not certain)
Mauger, Earl of Corbeil , died after 1033; his alleged grandson (or perhaps great-grandson) was Robert Fitzhamon , an important Anglo-Norman baron.
Robert Danus, died between 985 and 989
Emma of Normandy (c.985-1052) wife of two kings of England.
Maud of Normandy, wife of Odo II of Blois , Count of Blois, Champagne and Chartres
Hawise of Normandy (b. ca. 978), d. 21 February 1034 . m. Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany
Beatrice of Normandy , Abbess of Montvilliers d.1034 m. Ebles of Turenne (d.1030 (divorced)
Papia m. Gilbert de St Valery.
Fressenda (ca. 995-ca. 1057), m. Tancred of Hauteville .
Muriella m. Tancred of Hauteville .

Mistresses
Richard was known to have had several other mistresses and produced children with many of them. Known children are:
Geoffrey, Count of Brionne , (b. ca. 970)
William, Count of Eu (ca. 972 -26 January 1057/58) m. Leseline de Turqueville (d. 26 January 1057/58).

Death
He died in Fecamp , France on November 20 , 996 of natural causes.

Noted events in his life were:

• Named: his father's heir, 29 May 942.

86. Adalbert, Marquis of Ivrea 25 was born about 947 in <Italy> and died in 968 about age 21.

Adalbert married Gerberge, Countess of Burgundy.25 Gerberge was born about 948 in <Macon>, France and died 11 Dec 986 or 991 in Château de Pouilly, Pouilly-sur-Saone, Bourgogne, France about age 38.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 109 M    i. Otto Guillaume, Count of Burgundy 25 was born about 958 in <Lombardy, Italy> and died on 21 Sep 1027 about age 69.

87. Giselbert, Count of Roucy 137 138 was born before 956 in <Reims, Marne, France>, died from 19 Apr 991 to 1000, and was buried in Rheims, Marne, France.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots, line 151-20 says "Seversmith, 2, 548 says he was liv. 994, but d. by 997)."

Giselbert married someone.

His child was:

+ 110 M    i. Ebles I, Count of Rheims & Roucy, Archbishop of Rheims 171 172 was born about 980 in <Roucy, Marne, France> and died on 11 May 1033 about age 53.

88. Ermentrude, Countess of Rheims 25 was born about 963 in <Rheims, Marne>, France and died before 5 Mar 1005. Another name for Ermentrude was Irmtrude Countess of Rheims.

Ermentrude married Otto Guillaume, Count of Burgundy,25 son of Adalbert, Marquis of Ivrea and Gerberge, Countess of Burgundy, about 983. Otto was born about 958 in <Lombardy, Italy> and died on 21 Sep 1027 about age 69. Other names for Otto were Guillaume Count of Burgundy and Otto Count of Burgundy.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 111 M    i. Renaud I, Count Palantine of Burgundy 25 was born about 986 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 4 Sep 1057 in France about age 71.

89. Lambert I "the Bearded", Count of Louvain 43 140 was born about 950 in <Louvain, Brabant>, Belgium and died on 12 Sep 1015 about age 65.

Lambert married Gerberga, of Lorraine,156 daughter of Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine and Adelheid, Betw 985 and 990. Gerberga was born about 975 and died 27 jan aft 1018 about age 43. Another name for Gerberga was Gerberge de Lorraine.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 112 F    i. Maud, of Louvain .173

+ 113 M    ii. Lambert II, Count of Louvain 43 174 was born about 991 in <Lorraine, France>, died after 21 Sep 1062, and was buried in Cloister of St. Gertrud, Nivelles, France.

90. William I, Count of Poitou 142 was born in 900 in <Poitiers, France> and died on 3 Apr 963 in <Saint-Cyrien de Poitiers, France> at age 63. Other names for William were Guillaume III Count of Poitou and William III of Aquitaine.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008).line 144A-19. Also line 45-22 (Henry III) and 110-23 (Hildegarde).

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford) has b. 910 in Poitier, d. bet 963 & 966 in Saint-Cyrien de Poitiers

William married Adele, de Normandie,175 daughter of Rollo, Duke of Normandy and Poppa, de Bayeux, in 935. Adele died after 969. Other names for Adele were Adele Gerloc de Normandie and Gerloc de Normandie.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 144A-19

The child from this marriage was:

+ 114 F    i. Adelaide, de Poitou 7 163 was born about 945 and died on 15 Jun 1006 about age 61.

William next married someone.

His child was:

+ 115 M    i. William II, Count of Poitou .176

91. Adolfus, Count of Guînes 145 was born about 937 in Guînes, Pas-de-Calais, France and died in 996 about age 59.

Adolfus married Maud, de Bologne.177 Maud was born about 944.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 116 M    i. Raoul, Count of Guînes 178 was born about 978 in Guînes, Pas-de-Calais, France and died in 1036 about age 58.

93. Jean de Conteville 146 147 was born about 960 in <Conteville>, Normandy, France.

Jean married someone.

His children were:

+ 117 F    i. Oda de Conteville 179 180 was born about 998 in Conteville, Seine Maritime, France.

+ 118 M    ii. Herluin de Conteville, Viscount of Conteville, Count of Crespon 181 182 183 was born about 1001 in Conteville, <Eure>, Normandy, France and died about 1066 about age 65.

94. Arnulf II, Count of Flanders was born from about 961 to 962 in Flanders, died on 30 Mar 987 about age 26, and was buried in Ghent, (East Flanders, Belgium). Another name for Arnulf was Arnold II the Young Count of Flanders.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 162-20, has b. abt. 961/2, d. 30 Mar. 987, m. 968 Rosela (or Susanna) of Ivrea, d. 26 Jan. 1003.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871971 :

1 NAME Arnulf II "the Young" of /Flanders/ 2 SOUR S033320 3 DATA 4TEXT Date of Import: Jan 17, 2001 1 BIRT 2 PLAC ,Flanders, Belgium 2SOUR S033320 3 DATA 4 TEXT Date of Import: Jan 17, 2001

[De La Pole.FTW]

Sources: RC 141, 184, 332; K and Q of Britain, Coe, A. Roots, AF,Smallwood, Kraentzler 1157, 1218, 1244, 1258; Pfafman.
Count of Flanders. Arnulf/Arnold.
K: Arnoul II, le Jeune, Count de Flandre et de Boulogne.
Another early arranged marriage?

This source has b. abt 941 in Flanders, d. 30 Mar 987, buried in Ghent.

Arnulf married Rosala, of Ivrea in 968. Rosala was born about 943 in Ivrea, (Turin, Piedmont, Italy) and died on 26 Jan 1003 about age 60. Other names for Rosala were Rozala of Lombardy and Susanna of Ivrea.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 162-20 (Arnold II, the Young).

Source also: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871971


The child from this marriage was:

+ 119 M    i. Baldwin IV "the Bearded", Count of Valenciennes & Count of Flanders 7 184 185 was born in 980 in Flanders and died 30 May 1035 or 1036 at age 55.

95. Bertha, Countess of Flanders 66 was born about 987 in <Flanders (Belgium)>.

Bertha married Aimon I, Count of Vienne.66 Aimon was born about 985 in <Geneva, Switzerland> and died in 1016 about age 31.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 120 M    i. Gérold, of Geneva 66 186 was born about 1012 in <Geneva, Switzerland> and died by 1080 about age 68.

96. Theodoric de Gand 92 was born about 956 in Gand, Flanders (Belgium).

Theodoric married Hildegarde de Holland,92 daughter of Dirk I, Count of Holland and Gerberge Vermandois, about 983 in Gand, East Vlaanderen, (Belgium). Hildegarde was born about 961 in Zuid Holland, (Netherlands). Another name for Hildegarde was Hildegard of Holland.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 121 M    i. Arnoul, Count of Gand 92 was born about 984 in Gand, Flanders (Belgium).

97. Raimund Borrel I, Count of Barcelona 71 was born about 972 in <Barcelona, Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 25 Feb 1018 about age 46. Another name for Raimund was Raimund Borrel I, Count of Barcelona.

Raimund married Ermensinde, de Carcassonne,71 daughter of Roger I, Count of Carcassonne and Adelaide, on 20 Jan 992. Ermensinde was born about 975 in Carcassonne, Aude, France.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 122 M    i. Raimund Berenger, I, Count of Barcelona 71 was born in 1005 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain, died on 26 May 1035 at age 30, and was buried in Santa Maria, Ripoll, Gerona, Spain.

98. Godfrey I "the Captive", Count of Verdun 43 128 148 was born about 927 in <Ardenne>, France and died in 1002 about age 75. Other names for Godfrey were Godefroy Count of Ardenne, Godefroy I "le Vieux" Count of Verdun, Godfrey "the Prisoner, and" Gottfried Count of Verdun.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Godfrey I, Count of Verdun :

Godfrey I (died 1002), called the Prisoner or the Captive (le Captif), sometimes the Old (le Vieux), was the count of Bidgau and Methingau from 959 and the count of Verdun from 963 to his death. In 969, he obtained the margravate of Antwerp and Ename . Between 974 and 998, he was also the count of Hainault and Mons .

History
He was the son of Gozlin , Count of Bidgau and Methingau, and Oda of Metz. He was the brother of Adalberon, Archbishop of Reims , who crowned Hugh Capet the king of France .

He was the founder of the House of Limburg or House of Ardennes-Verdun , a cadet branch of the House of Ardennes . He was always loyal to the Ottonians , whom he was related through his maternal grandmother.
He appears as the new count of Verdun in 963, though already count of Bidgau and Methingau through inheritance since 959. In 974, he became count of Mons, and Hainault jointly with Arnold, Count of Valenciennes , after the fall of Reginar IV . Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine , was a supporter of Reginar and defeated Godfrey and Arnold at Mons in 976, where the former was captured.

After his release, he was at the side of the Emperor Otto II fighting Lothair of France at Verdun in 985, but he was again taken captive and held several years. He was released in 987 by Hugh Capet, whose political ally Godfrey's family was: Adalberon, Godfrey's brother, having crowned Hugh and Godfrey being an enemy of Charles of Lower Lorraine, Hugh's Carolingian rival.

In 989, he was made prisoner a third time by Herbert III of Vermandois . He was liberated before 995, when he appears at the synod of Mousson . In 998, he lost his Hainault portion (the county of Mons) to Reginar.

Family
In 963, he married Matilda, daughter of Herman, Duke of Saxony , of the Billung family, a widow of Baldwin III of Flanders . He had the following issue:
Frederick (d. 1022), count of Verdun
Godfrey (d. 1023), count of Verdun and duke of Lower Lorraine (1012-1023)
Adalberon (d. 988) , bishop of Verdun (984-988)
Herman of Ename (d. 1024), count of Brabant (retired as a monk in the abbey of Verdun abt. 1020)
Gothelo (d. 1044), margrave of Antwerp, duke of Lower (1023-1044) and later also Upper (1033-1044) Lorraine
Bertram de Verdun, went to England where he held the manor of Farnham Royal in Buckinghamshire .
Ermengarde (d. 1042), married Otto of Hammerstein, count in the Wettergau
Ermentrude, married Arnold de Rumigny (d. 1010), lord of Florennes
probably also an unnamed daughter, married Count Godizo of Aspelt

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Bidgau and Methingau: 959-1002.

• Count of Verdun: 963-1002.

• Margrave of Antwerp and Ename: 969-1002.

• Count of Hainault and Mons: 974-998.

Godfrey married Mathilde, of Saxony,66 daughter of Hermann Billung, Duke of Saxony and Hildegarde, of Westerbourg, about 963. Mathilde was born about 921 in Saxony, (Germany) and died on 28 May 1008 about age 87. Other names for Mathilde were Matilda Billung and Mathilde von Sachsen.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 958. This would make her incredibly young when she was married to Baldwin III.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 123 M    i. Herman von Enham, Count in Eifelgau, Count in Westphalia 148 died in 1029.

+ 124 M    ii. Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine 43 187 188 was born about 967 in Verdun, Meuse, France, died on 19 Apr 1044 about age 77, and was buried in Abbey Church of Bilsen.

100. Frederick I, Count of Luxembourg 151 152 was born about 965 and died on 6 Oct 1019 about age 54. Another name for Frederick was Frederick of Luxembourg.

Research Notes: From Ancestral Roots, line 143-20. "FREDERICK I OF LUXEMBOURG, b. abt. 965, d. 1019, Count of Salm and Luxembourg; m. bef. 995, NN heiress (Ermentrude?) of Gleiberg, dau. of Heribert I, d. 992, Count of Gleiberg, Count in the Kinziggau, by his wife, by Ermentrud (Imizi), dau. of Megingoz, count in Avalgau, by Gerberga of Alsace (Herbert I was son of Udo, Count in the Wetterau, by his wife, a dau. of HERBERT I (50-17), Count of Vermandois)."
-------
From Wikipedia - Frederick of Luxembourg :

Frederick of Luxembourg (965 - 6 October 1019 ), count of Moezelgouw , was a son of count Siegfried of Luxembourg and Hedwig of Nordgau .

By a wife whose name is unknown (certain historians give her as Ermentrude, countess of Gleiberg), he had :
Henry II († 1047), count of Luxembourg and duke of Bavaria
Frederick (1003 † 1065), Duke of Lower Lorraine
Giselbert (1007 † 1059), count of Longwy, of Salm and of Luxembourg
Adalbéron III († 1072), bishop of Metz
Thierry, father of :
Thierry († 1075)
Henry († 1095), count palatine of Lorraine
Poppon († 1103), bishop of Metz
Ogive (v. 990 † 1036), married in 1012 to Baldwin IV (980 † 1035), count of Flanders
Ermengarde (1000 † 1057), married Welf II of Altdorf, count in Lechrain († 1030)
Oda, canoness at Remiremont, then abbess of Saint-Rémy at Lunéville
Gisèle (1019 † after 1058), married to Radulfe, lord of Aalst († after 1038)

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Moezelgouw:

• Count of Salm:

Frederick married <Ermentrude>, of Gleiberg 151 before 995.

Research Notes: From Ancestral Roots, line 143-20 (Frederick I of Luxembourg):
The name of Frederick's wife is not known; she was the heiress of Heribert I, Count of Gleiberg, Count in the Kinziggau, by his wife Ermentrude (Imizi).


The child from this marriage was:

+ 125 F    i. Ogive, de Luxembourg 7 189 was born about 995 and died 21 Feb 1030 or 1036 about age 35.

101. Ermengarde, of Lorraine 154 155 was born about 975 in <Lower Lorraine>, France and died after 1012. Another name for Ermengarde was Adelaide of Lorraine.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-20

Ermengarde married Albert I, Count of Namur,154 190 son of Robert I, Count of Lomme and Unknown, in 990. Albert was born about 975 in <Lorraine, France> and died between 998 and 1011.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. bet. 998 and 1011, and d. 1012. FamilySearch has d. 1011


Children from this marriage were:

+ 126 F    i. Hedwig, of Namur 154 191 was born about 995 in Namur, Namur, Belgium and died about 1080 about age 85.

+ 127 M    ii. Albert II, Count of Namur 192 was born about 1000 and died in 1064 about age 64.

102. Gerberga, of Lorraine 156 was born about 975 and died 27 jan aft 1018 about age 43. Another name for Gerberga was Gerberge de Lorraine.

Gerberga married Lambert I "the Bearded", Count of Louvain,43 140 son of Reginar III, Count of Hainaut and Adela, Betw 985 and 990. Lambert was born about 950 in <Louvain, Brabant>, Belgium and died on 12 Sep 1015 about age 65.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 89)

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103. Ermengarde, of Anjou 158 159 was born about 952 in <Anjou, France> and died on 27 Jun 992 about age 40. Other names for Ermengarde were Ermangarde d'Anjou and Ermengarde d'Anjou.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Robert the Old.

Ermengarde married Conan I, Count of Rennes, Duke of Brittany,25 193 194 son of Jubel Berenger and Gerberge, in 980 in France. Conan was born about 927 in <Bretagne, France> and died on 29 Jun 992 in Conquereuil, Bretagne, France about age 65. Other names for Conan were Conan de Bretagne and Conan I Duke of Bretagne.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 128 M    i. Geoffrey, de Bretagne 195 was born about 971 in Bretagne, France and died on 20 Nov 1008 about age 37.

+ 129 F    ii. Judith, of Brittany 25 196 197 was born about 982 in <Bretagne, (France)> and died on 16 Jun 1017 in Normandy, France about age 35.

Ermengarde next married Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy,198 199 son of Robert II "the Pious", King of France and Constance, of Provence, about 1048. Robert was born about 1011 and died on 21 Mar 1076 about age 65. Other names for Robert were Robert I Duke of Burgundy and Robert Capet Duke of Burgundy.

Research Notes: Duke of Burgundy from 1032 to his death in 1076.

From Wikipedia - Robert I, Duke of Burgundy :

Robert I Capet (1011 - March 21 , 1076 ) was duke of Burgundy between 1032 to his death. Robert was son of King Robert II of France and brother of Henry I .
In 1025 , with the death of his eldest brother Hugh Magnus, he and Henry rebelled against their father and defeated him, forcing him back to Paris . In 1031 , after the death of his father the king, Robert participated in a rebellion against his brother, in which he was supported by his mother, Queen Constance d'Arles . Peace was only achieved when Robert was given Burgundy (1032 ).

Throughout his reign, he was little more than a robber baron who had no control over his own vassals, whose estates he often plundered, especially those of the Church. He seized the income of the diocese of Autun and the wine of the canons of Dijon . He burgled the abbey of St-Germain at Auxerre . In 1055 , he repudiated his wife, Helie of Semur, and assassinated her brother Joceran and murdered her father, his father-in-law, Lord Dalmace I of Semur , with his own hands. In that same year, the bishop of Langres , Harduoin, refused to dedicate the church of Sennecy so as not "to be exposed to the violence of the duke."
His first son, Hugh, died in battle at a young age and his second son, Henry , also predeceased him. He was succeeded by Henry's eldest son, his grandson, Hugh I .

Family
He married his first wife, Helie of Semur , about 1033 , and repudiated her in 1055. Robert and Helie had five children:
Hugh (1034-1059), killed in battle
Henry (1035-ca.1074)
Robert (1040-1113), poisoned; married Violante of Sicily, daughter of Roger I of Sicily
Simon (1045-1087)
Constance (1046-1093), married Alfonso VI of Castile
From his second wife, Ermengarde of Anjou, daughter of Fulk III of Anjou , he had one daughter:
Hildegard (c.1056-1104), married Duke William VIII of Aquitaine

Sources
Gwatking, H. M. , Whitney, J. P. , et al. Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III-Germany and the Western Empire. Cambridge University Press : London , 1930 .

104. Fulk III "the Black", of Maine, Count of Anjou 160 died on 21 Jun 1040.

Fulk married Hildegarde 200 after 1000. Hildegarde died on 1 Apr 1040 in Jerusalem, Palestine.

Research Notes: Second wife of Fulk III


The child from this marriage was:

+ 130 F    i. Ermengarde, of Anjou 201 was born about 1018 and died on 21 Mar 1076 about age 58.

105. Otto, of Vermandois 100 162 was born about 1000 in <Vermandois, France> and died on 25 May 1045 in France about age 45. Other names for Otto were Eudes Count of Vermandois and Otho Count of Vermandois.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-21

Also Wikipedia - Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois

Otto married Parvie.202 Other names for Parvie were Patia and Pavia.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois


The child from this marriage was:

+ 131 M    i. Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois and Valois 100 203 was born about 1032 in <Vermandois> and died about 1080 in France about age 48.

106. Hedwig, of France 164 was born about 969 and died after 1013.

Hedwig married Régnier IV, Count of Hainaut,204 son of Régnier III, Count of Hainaut and Unknown, in 996. Régnier was born about 950 and died in 1013 about age 63.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Hainaut: 1013.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 132 M    i. Régnier V, Count of Hainaut 205 died after 1039.


107. Robert II "the Pious", King of France 165 166 was born on 27 Mar 972 in Orléans, Orléanais, (Loiret), France and died on 20 Jul 1031 in Meulan, Normandy, France at age 59. Other names for Robert were Robert Sanctus King of France, Robert Capet Sanctus and King of France.

Death Notes: Melun, France?

Research Notes: Count of Paris, King of France

From Wikipedia - Robert II of France:

Robert II (27 March 972 - 20 July 1031 ), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet , he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine .

Co-rule with father
Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy.[1] Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona , an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition.[2] Ralph Glaber , however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[3] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[4] Robert was eventually crowned on 30 December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.
Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV , with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.

Marital problems

As early as 989, having been rebuffed in his search for a Byzantine princess,[5]Hugh Capet arranged for Robert to marry the recently-widowed daughter of Berengar II of Italy , Rozala , who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen.[6] She was many years his senior. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders , with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha , daughter of Conrad of Burgundy , around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois , but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity , Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II , the marriage was annulled.
Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage: to Constance of Arles , the daughter of William I of Provence . She was an ambitious and scheming woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

Piety
Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety", resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

Children
Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:[7]
Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin
Adele of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.
Hugh Magnus , co-king (1017-1025)
Henry I , successor
Robert , became Duke of Burgundy
Odo (1013-c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy
Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders .
Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges

Sources
Lewis, Andrew W. "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France. " The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 4. (Oct., 1978), pp 906-927.
* Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 53-21, 101-21, 107-20, 107-21, 108-21, 128-21, 141-21, 141A-21, 146-19, 162-20, 185-2.
Jessee, W. Scott. A missing Capetian princess: Advisa, daughter of King Robert II of France (Medieval Prosopography), 1990

Noted events in his life were:

• King of France: 1 Jan 996-1031.

Robert married Rosela, of Ivrea 206 before Apr 988. Another name for Rosela was Susanna of Ivrea.

Research Notes: 1st wife of Robert II. Her second husband. Robert II repudiated her in 992.

Noted events in her life were:

• Repudiated: 922.

Robert next married Bertha, of Burgundy,207 daughter of Conrad I, King of Burgundy, King of West Franks and Mathilda, of France, in 995. Bertha was born about 964 and died after 1010.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Robert II. Widow of Eudes I.

Noted events in her life were:

• Repudiated: 998.

Robert next married Constance, of Provence,208 209 daughter of William II, Count of Arles and Provence and Adelaide "la Blanche", of Anjou, in 998. Constance was born about 986, died on 25 Jul 1032 in Melun, France about age 46, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Other names for Constance were Constance of Arles and Gisant of Arles.

Research Notes: Third wife of Robert II of France.

From Wikipedia - Constance of Arles :

Constance of Arles (also known as Constance of Provence) (986 - July 25 , 1034 ) was the third wife and queen of King Robert II of France . She was the daughter of William I , count of Provence and great-grandson of Charles-Constantine ; and Adelais of Anjou , daughter of Fulk II of Anjou . She was the sister of Count William II of Provence .

In 1003 , she was married to King Robert, after his divorce from his second wife, Bertha of Burgundy . The marriage was stormy; Bertha's family opposed her, and Constance was despised for importing her Provençal kinfolk. Robert's friend, Hugh of Beauvais, tried to convince the king to repudiate her in 1007 . Constance's response was to have Beauvais murdered by the knights of her kinsman, Fulk Nerra . In 1010 Robert even went to Rome, accompanied by his former wife Bertha, to seek permission to divorce Constance and remarry Bertha. Constance encouraged her sons to revolt against their father, and then favored her younger son, Robert, over her elder son, Henri.

During the famous trial of Herefast de Crepon (who was alleged to be involved with a heretical sect of canons, nuns, and clergy in 1022 [1]), the crowd outside the church in Orleans became so unruly that, according to Moore:
At the king's command, Queen Constance stood before the doors of the Church, to prevent the common people from killing them inside the Church, and they were expelled from the bosom of the Church. As they were being driven out, the queen struck out the eye of Stephen, who had once been her confessor, with the staff which she carried in her hand.

The symbolism, or reality, of putting an eye out is used often in medieval accounts to show the ultimate sin of breaking of one's oath, whether it be heresy, or treason to ones lordship, or in this case both. Stephen's eye was put out by the hand of a Queen wielding a staff (royal scepters were usually tipped with a cross) thus symbolically providing justice for the treasoned lord on earth and in heaven.

Constance and Robert had seven children:
Advisa, Countess of Auxerre, (c.1003-after 1063), married Count Renaud I of Nevers
Hugh Magnus, co-king (1007 -September 17 , 1025 )
Henri (May 4 , 1008 -August 4 , 1060 )
Adela, Countess of Contenance (1009 -June 5 , 1063 ), married (1) Duke Richard III of Normandy (2) Count Baldwin V of Flanders
Robert I, Duke of Burgundy (1011 -March 21 , 1076 )
Eudes (1013 -1056 )
Constance (1014 -unknown), married Manasses de Dammartin

At Constance's urging, her eldest son Hugh Magnus was crowned co-king alongside his father in 1017 . Hugh Magnus demanded his parents share power with him, and rebelled against his father in 1025 . He died suddenly later that year, an exile and a fugitive. Robert and Constance quarrelled over which of their surviving sons should inherit the throne; Robert favored their second son Henri , while Constance favored their third son, Robert . Despite his mother's protests, Henry was crowned in 1027 . Fulbert, bishop of Chartres wrote a letter claiming that he was "frightened away" from the consecration of Henry "by the savagery of his mother, who is quite trustworthy when she promises evil."

Constance encouraged her sons to rebel, and Henri and Robert began attacking and pillaging the towns and castles belonging to their father. Robert attacked Burgundy , the duchy he had been promised but had never received, and Henry seized Dreux . At last King Robert agreed to their demands and peace was made which lasted until the king's death.

King Robert died in 1031 , and soon Constance was at odds with both her elder son, Henri , and her younger son Robert . Constance seized her dower lands and refused to surrender them. Henri fled to Normandy, where he received aid, weapons, and soldiers from his brother Robert. He returned to besiege his mother at Poissy , but Constance escaped to Pontoise . She only surrendered when Henri began the siege of Le Puiset and swore to slaughter all the inhabitants.

Constance died in 1034 , and was buried beside her husband Robert at Saint-Denis Basilica .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 133 F    i. Adèle, of France, Countess of Auxerre 210 was born about 1003 and died about 1063 about age 60.

   134 M    ii. Hugh Magnus, of France was born in 1007 and died on 17 Sep 1025 at age 18.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Hugh Magnus of France :

Hugh (II) Magnus of France (French : Hugues le Grand) (1007 - 17 September 1025 ) was co-King of France under his father, Robert II , from 1017 until his death in 1025 . He was a member of the House of Capet , a son of Robert II by his third wife, Constance of Arles .
The first Capetian King of France, Hugh Capet , had ensured his family's succession to the throne by having his son, Robert II, crowned and accepted as King during his own lifetime; father and son had ruled together as King thenceforth until Hugh Capet's death. Robert II, when his son was old enough, determined to do the same. Hugh Magnus was thus crowned King of France on /19 June 1017 ,[1] and thenceforth ruled beside his father. However, when older, he rebelled against Robert.
Hugh is said to have been married (or betrothed) before his death to Halwisa (Hawisa?) or Elisabeth d'Avoye (the daughter of Henri l'Oiseteur), who later married Hamon Dapifer Crevecouer, Count of Corbeil.
Hugh died, perhaps of a fall from his horse,[2] at Compiègne in 1025/1026 while preparing a rebellion against his father, aged around 18 years old.[1]
Rodulfus Glaber was fulsome in his praise of the young king, writing: "My pen cannot express all of the great and good qualities that he showed...in all things he was better than the best. No elegy can ever equal his merits."
As a King of France, he would technically be Hugh II of France; however, he is rarely referred to as such.

References
^ a b Thys, Laurent, Histoire du Moyen Âge français, p. 88.
^ New Cambridge Medieval History, IV:124.
The Origins of Some Angelo-Norman Families by Lewis C. Loyd, Page 50.
The Doomesday Monachorum of Christ Church Canterbury, Page 55-6.

Sources
Heraldica

+ 135 M    iii. Henry I, of France 211 212 was born on 4 May 1008 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France, died on 4 Aug 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France at age 52, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France.

+ 136 F    iv. Adele Capet, Princess of France 213 214 was born about 1009 and died about 8 Jan 1079 in Messines Monastery, Messines (Mesen), West Flanders, (Belgium) about age 70.

+ 137 M    v. Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy 198 199 was born about 1011 and died on 21 Mar 1076 about age 65.

   138 M    vi. Odo was born in 1013 and died about 1056 about age 43.

Research Notes: May have been mentally retarded.

Source: Wikipedia - Robert II of France

+ 139 F    vii. Constance Capet 154 215 was born about 1014 in France.

109. Otto Guillaume, Count of Burgundy 25 was born about 958 in <Lombardy, Italy> and died on 21 Sep 1027 about age 69. Other names for Otto were Guillaume Count of Burgundy and Otto Count of Burgundy.

Otto married Ermentrude, Countess of Rheims,25 daughter of Renaud de Roucy and Alberade, of Lorraine, about 983. Ermentrude was born about 963 in <Rheims, Marne>, France and died before 5 Mar 1005. Another name for Ermentrude was Irmtrude Countess of Rheims.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 88)

110. Ebles I, Count of Rheims & Roucy, Archbishop of Rheims 171 172 was born about 980 in <Roucy, Marne, France> and died on 11 May 1033 about age 53.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f93/a0019300.htm has b. 994.

Ebles married Beatrix, of Hainaut,216 daughter of Régnier V, Count of Hainaut and Mathilde, of Verdun,. Beatrix was born about 998 in <Hainaut, Belgium>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 140 F    i. Adele de Roucy 217 218 was born about 1014 in <Roucy, Aisne, France> and died about 1062 about age 48.

111. Renaud I, Count Palantine of Burgundy 25 was born about 986 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 4 Sep 1057 in France about age 71. Another name for Renaud was Renaud I de Bourgogne.

Renaud married Adelais, de Normandie,25 daughter of Richard II, Duke of Normandy and Judith, of Brittany, before 1023 in France. Adelais was born about 1007 in <Normandy, France> and died about 1037 in France about age 30. Another name for Adelais was Judith of Normandy.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 141 M    i. Guillaume I de Bourgogne 25 219 was born about 1040 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 12 Nov 1087 in France about age 47.

112. Maud, of Louvain .173

Maud married Eustace I, Count of Boulogne.220 Eustace died in 1049.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 142 M    i. Eustace II, Count of Boulogne 71 221 222 was born between 1015 and 1020 in <Buckinghamshire>, England and died about 1087.

113. Lambert II, Count of Louvain 43 174 was born about 991 in <Lorraine, France>, died after 21 Sep 1062, and was buried in Cloister of St. Gertrud, Nivelles, France. Another name for Lambert was Lambert II "Baudry" Count of Louvain.

Lambert married Oda,43 223 daughter of Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine and < >, [Not Barbe de Lebarten]. Oda was born about 995 in Lorraine, France and died in 1044 about age 49.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 143 M    i. Henry II, Count of Leuven and Brussels 43 224 225 was born about 1021 in <Brabant, France>, died in 1079 about age 58, and was buried in Cloister of St. Gertrud, Nivelles, France.

114. Adelaide, de Poitou 7 163 was born about 945 and died on 15 Jun 1006 about age 61. Another name for Adelaide was Alix of Poitou.


Adelaide married Hugh Capet, King of France,134 135 son of Hugh Magnus, Count of Paris and Hedwig, of Saxony, Summer 968. Hugh was born Winter 941 in France, died on 24 Oct 996 in Les Juifs, Chartres, France at age 55, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Another name for Hugh was Hugues Capet Duke of the Franks, King of France.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 144A-20

Birth Notes: Birth date variously given as Aft. 939, winter 941

Death Notes: Another source says d. in Paris.

Research Notes: King of France 987-996. First of the Capetian kings of France. Count of Poitou, Count of Orleans.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 141-20.

Also Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

From Wikipedia - Hugh Capet :

Hugh Capet[1] (c. 940 - 24 October 996 ) was the first King of France of the eponymous Capetian dynasty from his election to succeed the Carolingian Louis V in 987 until his death.

Descent and inheritance
The son of Hugh the Great , Duke of France , and Hedwige of Saxony , daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler , Hugh was born about 940. His paternal family, the Robertians , were powerful landowners in the Île-de-France . His grandfather had been King Robert I and his grandmother Beatrice was a Carolingian, a daughter of Herbert I of Vermandois . King Odo was his great uncle and King Rudolph Odo's son-in-law. Hugh was born into a well-connected and powerful family with many ties to the reigning nobility of Europe.[2] But for all this, Hugh's father was never king. When Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great organized the return of Louis d'Outremer , son of Charles the Simple , from his exile at the court of Athelstan of England . Hugh's motives are unknown, but it is presumed that he acted to forestall Rudolph's brother and successor as Duke of Burgundy, Hugh the Black from taking the French throne, or to prevent it from falling into the grasping hands of Herbert II of Vermandois or William Longsword , Count of Rouen .[3]
In 956, Hugh inherited his father's estates and became one of the most powerful nobles in the much-reduced West Frankish kingdom . However, as he was not yet an adult, his uncle Bruno , Archbishop of Cologne , acted as regent . Young Hugh's neighbours made the most of the opportunity. Theobald I of Blois , a former vassal of Hugh the Great, took the counties of Chartres and Châteaudun . Further south, on the border of the kingdom, Fulk II of Anjou , another former client of Hugh the Great, carved out a principality at Hugh's expense and that of the Bretons .[4]...

Election and extent of power
From 978 to 986, Hugh Capet allied himself with the German emperors Otto II and Otto III and with Archbishop Adalberon of Reims to dominate the Carolingian king, Lothair . By 986, he was king in all but name. After Lothair and his son died in early 987, the archbishop of Reims and Gerbert of Aurillac convened an assembly of nobles to elect Hugh Capet as their king....

Dispute with the papacy
Hugh made Arnulf Archbishop of Reims in 988, even though Arnulf was the nephew of the his bitter rival, Charles of Lorraine . Charles thereupon succeeded in capturing Reims and took the archbishop prisoner. Hugh, however, considered Arnulf a turncoat and demanded his deposition by Pope John XV . The turn of events outran the messages, when Hugh captured both Charles and Arnulf and convoked a synod at Reims in June 991, which obediently deposed Arnulf and chose as his successor Gerbert of Aurillac. These proceedings were repudiated by Rome, although a second synod had ratified the decrees issued at Reims. John XV summoned the French bishops to hold an independent synod outside the King's realm, at Aachen , to reconsider the case. When they refused, he called them to Rome, but they protested that the unsettled conditions en route and in Rome made that impossible. The Pope then sent a legate with instructions to call a council of French and German bishops at Mousson , where only the German bishops appeared, the French being stopped on the way by Hugh and Robert.
Through the exertions of the legate, the deposition of Arnulf was finally pronounced illegal. After Hugh's death, Arnulf was released from his imprisonment and soon restored to all his dignities.

Legacy
Hugh Capet died on 24 October 996 in Paris and was interred in the Saint Denis Basilica . His son Robert continued to reign.
Most historians regard the beginnings of modern France with the coronation of Hugh Capet. This is because, as Count of Paris , he made the city his power center. The monarch began a long process of exerting control of the rest of the country from there.
He is regarded as the founder of the Capetian dynasty . The direct Capetians, or the House of Capet , ruled France from 987 to 1328; thereafter, the Kingdom was ruled by collateral branches of the dynasty. All French Kings down to Louis Philippe , and royal pretenders since then, have been members of the dynasty (the Bonapartes styled themselves emperors rather than kings). As of 2007 , the Capetian dynasty is still the head of state in the kingdom of Spain (in the person of the Bourbon Juan Carlos ) and the duchy of Luxembourg , being the oldest continuously reigning dynasty in Europe. Queen Elizabeth II is a direct descendent of Hugh Capet.
Marriage and issue
Hugh Capet married Adelaide , daughter of William Towhead , Count of Poitou . Their children are as follows:
Robert , who became king after the death of his father
Hedwig, or Hathui, who married Reginar IV , Count of Hainaut
Gisela, or Gisele
A number of other daughters are less reliably attested.[10]

References
Bordenove, Georges. Les Rois qui ont fait la France: Hugues Capet, le Fondateur. Paris: Marabout, 1986. ISBN 2-501-01099-X
Gauvard, Claude. La France au Moyen Âge du Ve au XVe siècle. Paris: PUF, 1996. 2-13-054205-0
James, Edward. The Origins of France: From Clovis to the Capetians 500-1000. London: Macmillan, 1982. ISBN 0312588623
Riché, Pierre. Les Carolingiens: Une famille qui fit l'Europe. Paris: Hachette, 1983. 2-012-78551-0
Theis, Laurent. Histoire du Moyen Âge français: Chronologie commentée 486-1453. Paris: Perrin, 1992. 2-87027-587-0
Lewis, Anthony W. "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France. " The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 4. (Oct., 1978), pp 906-927.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Paris: 956-996.

• King of France: 987-996.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 85)

115. William II, Count of Poitou .176

William married someone.

His child was:

+ 144 M    i. William III, Count of Poitou, Duke of Aquitaine .176

116. Raoul, Count of Guînes 178 was born about 978 in Guînes, Pas-de-Calais, France and died in 1036 about age 58.

Raoul married someone.

His child was:

+ 145 M    i. Manasses, Count of Guînes 226 227 was born about 1012 in Guînes, Pas-de-Calais, France.

117. Oda de Conteville 179 180 was born about 998 in Conteville, Seine Maritime, France.

Oda married Waleran I, Count of Meulan, son of Robert, Count of Meulan and Alix de Vexin, about 1017 in France. Waleran was born about 990 and died about 1069 about age 79.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Roger de Beaumont (Waleran III) and Counts of Meulan (Waleran I)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 146 F    i. Adeline, of Meulan 180 228 was born about 1014 in <Pont-Audemer>, Normandy, France and died in 1081 about age 67.

   147 M    ii. Hugh, Count of Meulan .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Counts of Meulan

118. Herluin de Conteville, Viscount of Conteville, Count of Crespon 181 182 183 was born about 1001 in Conteville, <Eure>, Normandy, France and died about 1066 about age 65. Other names for Herluin were Herlevin de Conteville, Harlevin de Conteville, and Herluin de Conteville.

Death Notes: His death may have been as late as 1087.

Research Notes: Stepfather of William the Conqueror. Historiams are apparently not certain which of his daughters was William's mother.

Source http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874598 has b. abt 1001 in Conteville, Seine Maritime, France. Same place? Sets death date as 1066. Count of Crespon

Herluin had a relationship with Harlette de Falaise,229 230 231 daughter of Fulbert de Falaise and Doda, de Falaise, about 1031 in Conteville, Eure, Normandy, France. This couple did not marry. Harlette was born about 1003 in Falaise, Calvados, Normandy, France, died before 1050, and was buried in Abbey of St. Grestain, France. Other names for Harlette were Arlotte de Falaise, Arletta de Falaise, Arlette de Falaise, Herleva de Falaise, and Herleve de Falaise.

Marriage Notes: Wikipedia (Herluin de Conteville) has married in 1031. ThePeerage.com has between 1029 and 1035.

Birth Notes: Citing the Royal Genealogies Website, thepeerage.com has b. abt 1012. Wikipedia (Herleva) has abt 1003.

Burial Notes: From Wikipedia (Herleva):
According to Robert of Torigni , Herleva was buried at the abbey of Grestain, which was founded by Herluin and their son Robert around 1050. This would put Herleva in her forties around the time of her death. However, David C. Douglas suggests that Herleva probably died before Herluin founded the abbey because her name does not appear on the list of benefactors, whereas the name of Herluin's second wife, Fredesendis, does.

Research Notes: Mother of William I of England (William the Conqueror).

Source http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593882938 has b. 1003 in Falaise, Cavados, France. From that source:
Her son William I, King of England was illegitimate. aka (Herleve)

1 NAME Harlette /De Falaise/ 1 NAME Herleve (Arlette) /de Falaise/ 2SOUR S033320 3 DATA 4 TEXT Date of Import: Jan 17, 2001 1 BIRT 2 DATEABT. 1003 2 PLAC Falaise, Normandie 1 BIRT 2 DATE ABT. 1003 2 PLAC ofFalais, Calvados, France 2 SOUR S033320 3 DATA 4 TEXT Date of Import:Jan 17, 2001

[De La Pole.FTW]

Sources: A. Roots 121E, 130; RC 89, 160; Coe; Kraentzler 1156, 1163,1179, 1241, 1264, 1265, 1309, 1342, 1350, 1383; AIS; Davis; Ayers, p648.
Roots: Arlette (or Herleve/Herleva).
Coe: Arlette. AIS: Narlette of Falaise.
K: Harlette de Falaise.
Davis: Herleve, daughter of Fulbert, a tanner of Falaise.


Father: Fulbert THORGILSSON b: Abt 0986 in Falaise,Calvados,France
Mother: Doda UNKNOWN b: Abt 0988 in ,France

Marriage 1 Herluin DE CONTEVILLE b: Abt 1001 in Conteville,Seine Maritime,France
Note:
_UIDE180A329BD15BA45BDEC96201555521E3798
2 _PREF Y
Children
Odo UNKNOWN b: Abt 1030 in Conteville,Seine Maritime,France
Emma DE CONTEVILLE b: Abt 1033 in ,France
Robert DE CONTEVILLE b: 1037 in of Conteville, Seine Maritime, France
Muriel DE CONTEVILLE b: 1042 in Of Conteville,Normandy,France

Marriage 2 Robert I UNKNOWN b: Abt 1003 in ,Normandy,France
Married: Abt 1023 in not married 3
Note:
_UID2FB1974BB9DEBD4BBFE274FEEECDAECEABB8
2 _PREF Y
Children
William I UNKNOWN b: 14 Oct 1027 in Falaise Castle,Normandy,France
Adelaide UNKNOWN b: 1030 in Falais,Calvados,France
Ralph UNKNOWN b: Abt 1033 in ,, France

Sources:

Title: GEDCOM File : 2134392.ged
Date: 12 Jul 2002
Author: Mark Willis Ballard
Title: GEDCOM File : mwballard.ged
Note:
6928 N. Lakewood Avenue
773-743-6663
mwballard52@yahoo.com
Date: 4 Nov 2003
Title: De La Pole.FTW
Note:
Source Media Type: Other
Repository:
Name: Not Given


Their children were:

   148 M    i. Robert de Burgo, Count of Mortain 232 was born between 1030 and 1031 and was buried in Abbey of St. Grestain, France. Other names for Robert were Robert de Conteville Count of Mortain and Robert de Montaigne.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Robert de Burgo, Count of Mortain was born between 1030 and 1031.2 He was the son of Herluin de Conteville, Vicomte de Conteville and Herleva de Falaise . He married Matilda de Montgomery , daughter of Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury and Mabel de Bellême , before 1066.2 He married Almodis (?) .2 He died on 8 December 1090.2 He was buried at Abbey of St. Grestain, France .2
Robert de Burgo, Count of Mortain gained the title of Count of Mortain between 1049 and 1056.2 He gained the title of Earl of Cornwall between 1066 and 1067

   149 M    ii. Odo de Conteville, Bishop of Bayeux 232 was born between 1031 and 1035, died in Feb 1097 in Palermo, Sicily, Italy, and was buried in Palermo Cathedral, Palermo, Sicily, Italy. Other names for Odo were Odo de Bayeaux Earl of Kent and Eudes de Bayeux Earl of Kent.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Odo de Bayeaux, Earl of Kent was born between 1031 and 1035.1 He was the son of Herluin de Conteville, Vicomte de Conteville and Herleva de Falaise . He died in February 1097 at Palermo, Sicily, Italy .1 He was buried at Palermo Cathedral, Palermo, Sicily, Italy .1
Odo de Bayeaux, Earl of Kent was also known as Eudes de.1 He held the office of Bishop of Bayeux in 1049.1 He gained the title of Earl of Kent between 1066 and 1067.1

+ 150 F    iii. Miss < > de Conteville, [stepmother of Hamon] 233 was born from about 1037 to 1041 in Conteville, Normandy, France.

+ 151 F    iv. Emma de Conteville 234 235 was born about 1043.

   152 F    v. Isabella de Conteville .236 Another name for Isabella was Isabella de Burgo.

Research Notes: Per Wikipedia (Herluin de Conteville) could have been married to William, lord of La Ferte -Mace instead of Muriel.

Isabella married Henry, Count of Séez.237

   153 F    vi. Muriel de Burgo 236 was buried in Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, England. Other names for Muriel were Muriel de Conteville and Muriel de Montaigne.

Research Notes: Per Wikipedia (Herluin de Conteville) Muriel or one of her sisters could have been married to William, lord of La Ferte -Mace.

Muriel married Eudo de Capello, Vicomte de la Côtentin.238

119. Baldwin IV "the Bearded", Count of Valenciennes & Count of Flanders 7 184 185 was born in 980 in Flanders and died 30 May 1035 or 1036 at age 55. Another name for Baldwin was Baudoin IV "le Barbu" Count of Flanders.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders :

Baldwin IV of Flanders (980-May 30 , 1035 [1]), known as the Bearded, was Count of Flanders from 988 until his death. He was the son of Arnulf II, Count of Flanders . His mother was Rozala of Lombardy .

History
In contrast to his predecessors Baldwin turned his attention to the east and north, leaving the southern part of his territory in the hands of his vassals the counts of Guînes , Hesdin , and St. Pol .

To the north of the county Baldwin was given Zeeland as a fief by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II , while on the right bank of the Scheldt river he received Valenciennes (1013) and parts of the Cambresis and Hainaut .

In the French territories of the count of Flanders, the supremacy of the Baldwini remained unchallenged. They organized a great deal of colonization of marshland along the coastline of Flanders and enlarged the harbour and city of Brugge.

Family
Baldwin first married Ogive of Luxembourg , daughter of Frederick of Luxembourg , by whom he had a son and heir Baldwin V .

He later married Eleanor of Normandy daughter of Richard II of Normandy , by whom he had at least one daughter Judith who married Tostig Godwinson and Welf I, Duke of Bavaria .

His granddaughter, Matilda of Flanders , would go on to marry William the Conqueror , therefore starting the line of Anglo-Norman Kings of England .

Baldwin married Ogive, de Luxembourg,7 189 daughter of Frederick I, Count of Luxembourg and <Ermentrude>, of Gleiberg, about 1012. Ogive was born about 995 and died 21 Feb 1030 or 1036 about age 35. Other names for Ogive were Otgiva of Luxembourg, Otgive of Luxembourg, and Ogive de Luxembourg.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 154 F    i. Ermengarde, of Flanders 92 was born about 1005 in <Flanders (Belgium)>.

+ 155 M    ii. Baldwin V, de Lille, Count of Flanders 7 239 240 was born in 1012 and died on 1 Sep 1067 in Lille, France at age 55.

120. Gérold, of Geneva 66 186 was born about 1012 in <Geneva, Switzerland> and died by 1080 about age 68. Another name for Gérold was Gerold Count of Geneva.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 274A-23 (Amadeus II)

Gérold married Gisele.71 186 Gisele was born about 1020 in <Switzerland>. Another name for Gisele was Gisela.

Research Notes: First wife of Gérold de Genève

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 274A-23 (Amadeus II)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 156 F    i. Jeanne, of Geneva 25 241 was born about 1040 in <Geneva, Switzerland>.

121. Arnoul, Count of Gand 92 was born about 984 in Gand, Flanders (Belgium). Another name for Arnoul was Arnoul de Gand Count of Gand.

Arnoul married Lietgarde de Cleves 92 about 1003 in Gand, East Vlaanderen, (Belgium). Lietgarde was born about 987 in <Cleves, (Germany)>. Another name for Lietgarde was Lietgarde de Cleves.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 157 M    i. Adalbert de Gand 92 was born about 1004 in Gand, Flanders (Belgium).

122. Raimund Berenger, I, Count of Barcelona 71 was born in 1005 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain, died on 26 May 1035 at age 30, and was buried in Santa Maria, Ripoll, Gerona, Spain. Another name for Raimund was Ramon Berenger I Count of Barcelona.

Raimund married Sancha Sanchez, de Castile 71 in 1021 in Spain. Sancha was born about 1006 in Castile, Spain, died on 26 Jun 1026 about age 20, and was buried in Santa Maria, Ripoll, Gerona, Spain.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 158 M    i. Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona 71 242 was born in 1023 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 26 May 1076 in Barcelona, Barcelona, Aragón, Spain at age 53.

123. Herman von Enham, Count in Eifelgau, Count in Westphalia 148 died in 1029. Another name for Herman was Herman of Ename.

Herman married someone.

His child was:

+ 159 F    i. Mathilde, of Verdun 148 died about 1039.

124. Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine 43 187 188 was born about 967 in Verdun, Meuse, France, died on 19 Apr 1044 about age 77, and was buried in Abbey Church of Bilsen. Other names for Gothelo were Gonzelon I Duke of Lorraine, Gozelo "the Great" Duke of Lorraine, and Gozelon I Duke of Lower Lorraine.

Research Notes: Great-grandson of Cunegonde. Youngest son of Godfrey I and Matilda Billung.

From Wikipedia - Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine :

Gothelo or Gozelo (c. 967 - 19 April 1044 ), called the Great, was the duke of Lower Lorraine from 1023 and of Upper Lorraine from 1033. He was also the margrave of Antwerp from 1005 (or 1008) and count of Verdun . Gothelo was the youngest son of Godfrey I, Count of Verdun , and Matilda Billung, daughter of Herman, Duke of Saxony . On his father's death, he received the march of Antwerp and became a vassal of his brother, Godfrey II , who became duke of Lower Lorraine in 1012. He succeeded his brother in 1023 with the support of the Emperor Henry II , but was opposed until Conrad II forced the rebels to submit in 1025. When the House of Bar , which ruled in Upper Lorraine, became extinct in 1033, with the death of his cousin Frederick III , Conrad made him duke of both duchies, so that he could assist in the defence of the territory against Odo II , count of Blois , Meaux , Chartres , and Troyes (the later Champagne ).

In the Battle of Bar on 15 November 1037 , Gothelo dealt a decisive blow to Odo, who was trying to creating an independent state between France and Germany. Odo died in the battle.

Gothelo died on 19 April 1044 and is buried in the Abbey Church of Bilsen . His son Godfrey succeeded in Upper Lorraine, but the Emperor Henry III refused to give him the duchy of Lower Lorraine as well. When Godfrey showed disagreement with the imperial decision, Henry III threatened to pass the duchy to Godfrey's incompetent brother Gothelo . This caused a long rebellion in Lotharingia between the allies of Godfrey (the counts of Flanders and Leuven ) and imperial forces (1044-1056).

Family
The name of Gothelo's wife is not known, the name Barbe de Lebarten (and in fact her entire ancestry), being a spurious concoction of later genealogists.[1][2] He had the following children:
Godfrey the Bearded , duke of Upper Lorraine
Gothelo , duke of Lower Lorraine
Frederick , later Pope Stephen IX
Regilinda, married Albert II, Count of Namur
Oda, married Lambert II, Count of Leuven
Matilda, married Henry I, Count Palatine of Lotharingia

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Lower Lorraine: 1023-1044.

• Duke of Upper Lorraine: 1033-1044.

• Margrave of Antwerp: Abt 1005-1044.

Gothelo married < >, [Not Barbe de Lebarten].

Children from this marriage were:

+ 160 F    i. Regilinde, of Lorraine died in 1064.

+ 161 F    ii. Oda 43 223 was born about 995 in Lorraine, France and died in 1044 about age 49.

+ 162 M    iii. Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine 243 244 was born about 997 and died in 1069 about age 72.

125. Ogive, de Luxembourg 7 189 was born about 995 and died 21 Feb 1030 or 1036 about age 35. Other names for Ogive were Otgiva of Luxembourg, Otgive of Luxembourg, and Ogive de Luxembourg.

Ogive married Baldwin IV "the Bearded", Count of Valenciennes & Count of Flanders,7 184 185 son of Arnulf II, Count of Flanders and Rosala, of Ivrea, about 1012. Baldwin was born in 980 in Flanders and died 30 May 1035 or 1036 at age 55. Another name for Baldwin was Baudoin IV "le Barbu" Count of Flanders.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders :

Baldwin IV of Flanders (980-May 30 , 1035 [1]), known as the Bearded, was Count of Flanders from 988 until his death. He was the son of Arnulf II, Count of Flanders . His mother was Rozala of Lombardy .

History
In contrast to his predecessors Baldwin turned his attention to the east and north, leaving the southern part of his territory in the hands of his vassals the counts of Guînes , Hesdin , and St. Pol .

To the north of the county Baldwin was given Zeeland as a fief by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II , while on the right bank of the Scheldt river he received Valenciennes (1013) and parts of the Cambresis and Hainaut .

In the French territories of the count of Flanders, the supremacy of the Baldwini remained unchallenged. They organized a great deal of colonization of marshland along the coastline of Flanders and enlarged the harbour and city of Brugge.

Family
Baldwin first married Ogive of Luxembourg , daughter of Frederick of Luxembourg , by whom he had a son and heir Baldwin V .

He later married Eleanor of Normandy daughter of Richard II of Normandy , by whom he had at least one daughter Judith who married Tostig Godwinson and Welf I, Duke of Bavaria .

His granddaughter, Matilda of Flanders , would go on to marry William the Conqueror , therefore starting the line of Anglo-Norman Kings of England .

(Duplicate Line. See Person 119)

126. Hedwig, of Namur 154 191 was born about 995 in Namur, Namur, Belgium and died about 1080 about age 85. Other names for Hedwig were Hadwide, Hedwige of Namur, and Hedwig de Namur.

Hedwig married Gerard IV, Count of Alsace, Duke of Upper Lorraine,154 191 245 son of Gerhard II, Count of Metz and Gisela, Countess of Alsace,. Gerard was born before 1050 in <Lorraine, France> and died on 4 Apr 1070 in Remiremont, Vosges, France. Another name for Gerard was Gerard Duke of Lorraine.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia has b. abt. 1030.

Death Notes: May have died on 14 April 1070.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Gerard, Duke of Lorraine :

Gerard IV, Duke of Alsace (ca. 1030 - April 14 , 1070 ) was the count of Metz and Chatenois from 1047/1048, when his brother Duke Adalbert resigned them to him on becoming the Duke of Upper Lorraine . On Adalbert's death the next year, Gerard became duke and was so until his death. In contemporary documents, he is called Gerard of Alsace (after his familial homeland), Gerard of Chatenoy (after an ancestral castle near Neufchâteau ), or Gerard of Flanders (after his wife's homeland). His name is spelled Gérard in French and Gerhard in German .[1]

He was the second son of Gerard de Bouzonville , count of Metz , and Gisela, possible a daughter of Thierry I, Duke of Upper Lorraine . Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor , invested Adalbert with Lorraine in 1047 after confiscating it from Godfrey III . Godfrey did not back down, however, and killed Adalbert in battle. Henry subsequently bestowed it on Gerard, but the deposed duke continued to stir. Godfrey had the support of a faction of the noblesse who did not want a strong hand at the ducal helm and Gerard was imprisoned. Gerard, however, had the support of the chiefest of his bishops , that of Toul , Bruno of Eguisheim-Dagsburg (later the sainted Pope Leo IX ), who procured his liberation in 1049. The emperor gave him troops to assist him in his fight, for the rebels had the support of some elements in the church. Gerard himself remained, as his brother had, faithful to the end to the imperial dynasty and his descendants would remain so as well even into the Hohenstaufen years.

His alliance with the church was regular but inconstant and he founded Moyenmoutier Abbey , Saint-Mihiel Abbey , and Remiremont Abbey . The former was the abbey of Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida , who excommunicated the patriarch of Constantinople , Michael I Cerularius , in 1054, thus precipitating the Great Schism , and the latter was his own final resting place.

On 18 June 1053 , Gerard and Prince Rudolf of Benevento led papal and Swabian troops into battle on behalf of Pope Leo. This was the Battle of Civitate and it was a disastrous loss for the pope. His enemy, the Normans , under Humphrey of Hauteville and Richard of Aversa , defeated his allies and captured his person, taking him prisoner in Benevento. Gerard, however, returned to Lorraine.

Among his other construction projects, was that of the castle of Prény , in the centre of the duchy, the beginnings of the capital city, Nancy . He died at Remiremont while trying to kill a revolt. Poisoning was suspected. The date of his death is either 14 April or 11 August .

He was married to Hedwige of Namur (or of Flanders), daughter of Albert I, Count of Namur , and Ermengarde, daughter of Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine . This marriage helped patch up relations with the baronage. They had the following issue:
Thierry II (c.1055-1115), successor in Lorraine
Gerard (1057-1108), count of Vaudémont
Beatrice, married Stephen I, Count of Burgundy , Mâcon , and Vienne
Gisela, abbess of Remiremont

He was the progenitor the line of duke which ruled Lorraine until 1755.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Metz and Chatenois: 1048-1070.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 163 M    i. Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine 191 246 died in 1115.

+ 164 M    ii. Gerard, of Lorraine, Count of Vaudemont 154 247 was born about 1057 in <Lorraine, France>, died about 1120 about age 63, and was buried in Belval, Ardennes, France.

127. Albert II, Count of Namur 192 was born about 1000 and died in 1064 about age 64.

Albert married Regilinde, of Lorraine, daughter of Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine and < >, [Not Barbe de Lebarten]. Regilinde died in 1064.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-21 (Albert II)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 165 M    i. Albert III, Count of Namur 43 248 was born about 1048 in <Namur>, Belgium and died on 22 Jun 1102 about age 54.

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128. Geoffrey, de Bretagne 195 was born about 971 in Bretagne, France and died on 20 Nov 1008 about age 37.

Geoffrey married Havlive, de Normandie,249 daughter of Richard, de Normandie and Gonnor, de Crepon, in 996 in Bretagne, France. Havlive was born about 976 in Normandy, France and died on 21 Feb 1034 in Évreux, Rouen, Seine-et-Maritime, France about age 58.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 166 M    i. Geoffrey, de Bretagne 250 was born about 1001 in Bretagne, France.

129. Judith, of Brittany 25 196 197 was born about 982 in <Bretagne, (France)> and died on 16 Jun 1017 in Normandy, France about age 35. Another name for Judith was Judith de Bretagne.

Research Notes: First wife of Richard II. Founded abbey of Bernay, Normandy, abt 1026.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132A-22

From Wikipedia - Judith of Brittany :

Judith of Brittany (982 - 1017) was the daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany and the mother of Robert the Magnificent .

She was the first wife of Richard the Good, Duke of Normandy , whom she married in 996. They had six children:
Richard (c. 1002/4), duke of Normandy
Adelaide (c. 1003/5), married Renaud I, Count of Burgundy
Robert (c. 1005/7), duke of Normandy
William (c. 1007/9), monk at Fécamp , d. 1025
Eleanor (c. 1011/3), married to Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders
Matilda (c. 1013/5), nun at Fecamp, d. 1033

The duchess Judith died in 1017 and was buried in the abbey of Bernay, which she had founded.

Judith married Richard II, Duke of Normandy,25 251 252 253 son of Richard I, Duke of Normandy and Gunnora, de Crepon, about 996 in Normandy, France. Richard was born about 985 in Normandy, (France), died on 28 Aug 1027 in Fécamp, Normandy, France about age 42, and was buried in Fécamp, Normandy, France. Other names for Richard were Richard II 4th Duc de Normandie and Richard II "the Good" Duke of Normandy.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch and thepeerage.com have b. abt. 963.

Research Notes: Duke of Normandy 20 Nov. 996-1026.

From Wikipedia - Richard II, Duke of Normandy :

Richard II (born 23 August 963, in Normandy , France - 28 August 1027, in Normandy), called the Good, was the son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora . He succeeded his father as Duke of Normandy in 996. Richard held his own against a peasant insurrection, and helped Robert II of France against the duchy of Burgundy . He also repelled an English attack on the Cotentin Peninsula that was led by Ethelred II of England. He pursued a reform of the Norman monasteries.

Richard attempted to improve relations with England through his sister's marriage to King Ethelred, but she was strongly disliked by the English. However, this connection later gave his grandson, William the Conqueror , part of his claim to the throne of England.

He married firstly (996) Judith (982-1017), daughter of Conan I of Brittany , by whom he had the following issue:
Richard (c. 1002/4), duke of Normandy
Adelaide (c. 1003/5), married Renaud I, Count of Burgundy
Robert (c. 1005/7), duke of Normandy
William (c. 1007/9), monk at Fécamp , d. 1025
Eleanor (c. 1011/3), married to Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders
Matilda (c. 1013/5), nun at Fecamp, d. 1033

Secondly he married Poppa of Envermeu, by whom he had the following issue:
Mauger (c. 1019), Archbishop of Rouen
William (c. 1020/5), count of Arques


Traditionally, Richard had a third wife named Astrid (Estritha), daughter of Sweyn Forkbeard , King of England , Denmark , and Norway , and Sigrid the Haughty . This is extremely unlikely, however, given the political situation.

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Normandy: 20 Nov 996.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 167 M    i. Richard III, Duke of Normandy 254 was born about 997 and died on 6 Aug 1028 about age 31.

+ 168 F    ii. Adelais, de Normandie 25 was born about 1007 in <Normandy, France> and died about 1037 in France about age 30.

+ 169 M    iii. Robert I, Duke of Normandy 237 255 256 257 was born about 1008 in Normandy, France and died on 22 Jul 1035 in Nicaea, Bythnia, (Turkey) about age 27.

130. Ermengarde, of Anjou 201 was born about 1018 and died on 21 Mar 1076 about age 58.

Ermengarde married Aubri-Geoffrey, Count of the Gâtinais,258 259 son of Geoffrey III, Count of the Gâtinais and Beatrix, of Mâcon, about 1035. Aubri-Geoffrey was born about 1013 in Orléanais, France and died on 11 Apr 1046 about age 33. Another name for Aubri-Geoffrey was Geoffroy Ferréol Count of the Gâtinais.

Death Notes: Death date may be 1 Apr. 1046

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of the Gâtinais: 1034-1043.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 170 M    i. Fulk IV "le Réchin", Count of Anjou 260 261 262 was born in 1043 in Anjou, France and died on 14 Apr 1109 at age 66.

131. Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois and Valois 100 203 was born about 1032 in <Vermandois> and died about 1080 in France about age 48.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-22

Also Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois

Herbert married Adela, of Valois and Vexin,263 264 daughter of Raoul III "the Great", Count of Valois and Vexin and Adele, de Bar-sur-Aube, before 1068. Other names for Adela were Adele of Valois, Adele of Vexin, and Adelle of Vermandois.

Research Notes: Ancestral Roots, Line 50-22 (Herbert IV) - has Adela of Vexin, a dau. of Raoul III "the Great," Count of Valois and Vexin.

Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois - Has Adele of Vexin
Wikipedia - Hugh of Vermandois - Has Adele of Valois
Wikipedia - Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois - Has Adele of Valois


Children from this marriage were:

+ 171 F    i. Adelaide de Vermandois, Countess of Vermandois and Valois 100 266 267 was born about 1065 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France> and died on 28 Sep 1120 in <Vermandois> about age 55.

   172 M    ii. Eudes "l'Insensé" " Another name for Eudes was Odo "l'Insensé."

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois

132. Régnier V, Count of Hainaut 205 died after 1039.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Hainaut: 1013.

Régnier married Mathilde, of Verdun,148 daughter of Herman von Enham, Count in Eifelgau, Count in Westphalia and Unknown, about 1015. Mathilde died about 1039.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 173 F    i. Beatrix, of Hainaut 216 was born about 998 in <Hainaut, Belgium>.

133. Adèle, of France, Countess of Auxerre 210 was born about 1003 and died about 1063 about age 60.

Adèle married Renaud I, Count of Nevers 268 about 1015. Renaud died on 29 May 1040.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Nevers: 1000-1040.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 174 M    i. William I, Count of Nevers 269 was born about 1030 and died on 20 Jun 1100 about age 70.


135. Henry I, of France 211 212 was born on 4 May 1008 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France, died on 4 Aug 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France at age 52, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry I of France :

Henry I (4 May 1008 - 4 August 1060 ) was King of France from 1031 to his death. The royal demesne of France reached its lowest point in terms of size during his reign and for this reason he is often seen as emblematic of the weakness of the early Capetians . This is not entirely agreed upon, however, as other historians regard him as a strong but realistic king, who was forced to conduct a policy mindful of the limitations of the French monarchy.

A member of the House of Capet , Henry was born in Reims , the son of King Robert II (972-1031) and Constance of Arles (986-1034). He was crowned King of France at the Cathedral in Reims on May 14 , 1027 , in the Capetian tradition, while his father still lived. He had little influence and power until he became sole ruler on his father's death.

The reign of Henry I, like those of his predecessors, was marked by territorial struggles. Initially, he joined his brother Robert , with the support of their mother, in a revolt against his father (1025 ). His mother, however, supported Robert as heir to the old king, on whose death Henry was left to deal with his rebel sibling. In 1032 , he placated his brother by giving him the duchy of Burgundy which his father had given him in 1016 .

In an early strategic move, Henry came to the rescue of his very young nephew-in-law, the newly appointed Duke William of Normandy (who would go on to become William the Conqueror ), to suppress a revolt by William's vassals. In 1047 , Henry secured the dukedom for William in their decisive victory over the vassals at the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes near Caen .

A few years later, when William, who was cousin to King Edward the Confessor of England (1042-66), married Matilda , the daughter of the count of Flanders , Henry feared William's potential power. In 1054 , and again in 1057 , Henry went to war to try to conquer Normandy from William, but on both occasions he was defeated. Despite his efforts, Henry I's twenty-nine-year reign saw feudal power in France reach its pinnacle.

Henry had three meetings with Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor -all at Ivois . In early 1043 , he met him to discuss the marriage of the emperor with Agnes of Poitou , the daughter of Henry's vassal. In October 1048 , the two Henries met again, but the subject of this meeting eludes us. The final meeting took place in May 1056 . It concerned disputes over Lorraine. The debate over the duchy became so heated that the king of France challenged his German counterpart to single combat. The emperor, however, was not so much a warrior and he fled in the night. But Henry did not get Lorraine.

King Henry I died on August 4 , 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie , France, and was interred in Saint Denis Basilica . He was succeeded by his son, Philip I of France , who was 7 at the time of his death; for six years Henry I's Queen, Anne of Kiev , ruled as regent.

He was also Duke of Burgundy from 1016 to 1032 , when he abdicated the duchy to his brother Robert Capet .

Marriages and family
Henry I was betrothed to Matilda, the daughter of the Emperor Conrad II (1024-39), but she died prematurely in 1034 . Henry I then married Matilda , daughter of Liudolf, Margrave of Frisia, but she died in 1044 , following a Caesarean section. Casting further afield in search of a third wife, Henry I married Anne of Kiev on May 19 , 1051 . They had four children:
Philip I (May 23, 1052 - July 30, 1108)
Emma (1054-?)
Robert (c. 1055-c. 1060)
Hugh the Great (1057-1102)

Noted events in his life were:

• King of France: 1031-1060.

• Count of Paris:

Henry married Anne, of Kiev,270 271 daughter of Yaroslav I, of Kiev and Ingegerd Olofsdotter, of Sweden, on 19 May 1051 in Cathedral de Rheims, Rheims, France. Anne was born between 1024 and 1032, died in 1075, and was buried in Villiers Abbey, La-Ferte-Alais, Essonne, (Île-de-France), France. Other names for Anne were Agnes of Kiev, Anna of Kiev, and Anna Yaroslavna.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 241-6 has m. 20 Jan 1044 or 1045. Wikipedia has 19 May 1051. Was 1044/45 the betrothal?

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots line 241-6 has d. aft. 1075

Research Notes: 3rd wife of Henry I of France.

From Wikipedia - Anne of Kiev :

Anne of Kiev or Anna Yaroslavna (between 1024 and 1032 - 1075 ), daughter of Yaroslav I of Kiev and his wife Ingegerd Olofsdotter , was the queen consort of France as the wife of Henry I , and regent for her son Philip I .

After the death of his first wife, Matilda, King Henry searched the courts of Europe for a suitable bride, but could not locate a princess who was not related to him within illegal degrees of kinship. At last he sent an embassy to distant Kiev , which returned with Anne (also called Agnes or Anna). Anne and Henry were married at the cathedral of Reims on May 19 , 1051 .

They had three sons:

Philip (May 23 , 1052 - July 30 , 1108 ) - Anne is credited with bringing the name Philip to Western Europe . She imported this Greek name (Philippos, from philos (love) and hippos (horse), meaning "the one that love horses") from her Eastern Orthodox culture.
Hugh (1057 - October 18 , 1102 ) - called the Great or Magnus, later Count of Crépi, who married the heiress of Vermandois and died on crusade in Tarsus , Cilicia .
Robert (c. 1055 -c. 1060 )

For six years after Henry's death in 1060 , she served as regent for Philip, who was only seven at the time. She was the first queen of France to serve as regent. Her co-regent was Count Baldwin V of Flanders . Anne was a literate woman, rare for the time, but there was some opposition to her as regent on the grounds that her mastery of French was less than fluent.
A year after the king's death, Anne, acting as regent, took a passionate fancy for Count Ralph III of Valois , a man whose political ambition encouraged him to repudiate his wife to marry Anne in 1062 . Accused of adultery, Ralph's wife appealed to Pope Alexander II , who excommunicated the couple. The young king Philip forgave his mother, which was just as well, since he was to find himself in a very similar predicament in the 1090s . Ralph died in September 1074 , at which time Anne returned to the French court. She died in 1075 , was buried at Villiers Abbey , La-Ferte-Alais , Essonne and her obits were celebrated on September 5 .

Sources
Bauthier, Robert-Henri. Anne de Kiev reine de France et la politique royale au Xe siècle, revue des Etudes Slaves, Vol. 57, 1985
Retrieved from ""


Children from this marriage were:

   175 M    i. Philip I, of France was born on 23 May 1052 and died on 30 Jul 1108 at age 56.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Anne of Kiev:

Philip (May 23 , 1052 - July 30 , 1108 ) - Anne is credited with bringing the name Philip to Western Europe . She imported this Greek name (Philippos, from philos (love) and hippos (horse), meaning "the one that love horses") from her Eastern Orthodox culture.

   176 F    ii. Emma 272 was born in 1054.

   177 M    iii. Robert was born about 1055 and died about 1060 about age 5.

Research Notes: Source: Anne of Kiev. Died in childhood

+ 178 M    iv. Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France 273 274 was born in 1057 and died on 18 Oct 1102 in Tarsus, Cilicia, (Turkey) at age 45.

136. Adele Capet, Princess of France 213 214 was born about 1009 and died about 8 Jan 1079 in Messines Monastery, Messines (Mesen), West Flanders, (Belgium) about age 70. Other names for Adele were Adèle of France, Countess of Contentin, Adele "the Holy" of Messines, Aelis of France, and Countess of Contentin.

Research Notes: Second daughter of Robert the Pious and Constance of Arles.

From Wikipedia - Adela of France, Countess of Flanders :

Adela Capet, Adèle of France or Adela of Flanders[1], known also as Adela the Holy or Adela of Messines; (1009 - 8 January 1079 , Messines ) was the second daughter of Robert II (the Pious), and Constance of Arles . As dowry to her future husband, she received from her father the title of Countess of Corbie.

Her family
She was a member of the House of Capet , the rulers of France. As the wife of Baldwin V , she was Countess of Flanders from 1036 to 1067.

She married first 1027 Richard III Duke of Normandy (997 † 1027). They never had children.

As a widow, she remarried in 1028 in Paris to Baldwin V of Flanders (1012 † 1067). Their children were:
Baldwin VI of Flanders , (1030 † 1070)
Matilda of Flanders (1032 † 1083). In 1053 she married William Duke of Normandy , the future king of England
Robert I of Flanders , (1033-1093)
Henry of Flanders (c. 1035)
Sir Richard of Flanders (c. 1050-1105)

Political influence
Adèle's influence lay mainly in her family connections. On the death of her brother, Henry I of France, the guardianship of his seven-year-old son Philip I fell jointly on his widow, Ann of Kiev , and on his brother-in-law, Adela's husband, so that from 1060 to 1067, they were Regents of France.

Church influence
Adèle had an especially great interest in Baldwin V's church-reform politics and was behind her husband's founding of several collegiate churches . Directly or indirectly, she was responsible for establishing the Colleges of Aire (1049), Lille (1050) and Harelbeke (1064) as well as the abbeys of Messines (1057) and Ename (1063). After Baldwin's death in 1067, she went to Rome, took the nun's veil from the hands of Pope Alexander II and retreated to the Benedictine convent of Messines, near Ypres . There she died, being buried at the same monastery. Her commemoration day is 8 September.

Adele married Baldwin V, de Lille, Count of Flanders,7 239 240 son of Baldwin IV "the Bearded", Count of Valenciennes & Count of Flanders and Ogive, de Luxembourg, in 1028 in Amiens. Baldwin was born in 1012 and died on 1 Sep 1067 in Lille, France at age 55. Another name for Baldwin was Baldwin V of Flanders.

Marriage Notes: May have been married in Paris.

Research Notes: Second husband of Adele de France

From Wikipedia - Baldwin V, Count of Flanders :

Baldwin V of Flanders (died 1 September 1067) was Count of Flanders from 1035 until his death.

He was the son of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders , who died in 1035.

History
In 1028 Baldwin married Adèle of France in Amiens, daughter of King Robert II of France ; at her instigation he rebelled against his father but in 1030 peace was sworn and the old count continued to rule until his death.

During a long war (1046-1056) as an ally of Godfrey the Bearded , Duke of Lorraine , against the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III , he initially lost Valenciennes to Hermann of Hainaut . However, when the latter died in 1051 Baldwin married his son Baldwin VI to Herman's widow Richildis and arranged that the sons of her first marriage were disinherited, thus de facto uniting the County of Hainaut with Flanders. Upon the death of Henry III this marriage was acknowledged by treaty by Agnes de Poitou , mother and regent of Henry IV .

From 1060 to 1067 Baldwin was the co-Regent with Anne of Kiev for his nephew-by-marriage Philip I of France , indicating the importance he had acquired in international politics.

Family
Baldwin and Adèle had five children:
Baldwin VI , 1030-1070
Matilda , c.1031-1083 who married William the Conqueror
Robert I of Flanders , c.1033-1093
Henry of Flanders c.1035
Sir Richard of Flanders c. 1050-1105

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Flanders: 1035-1067.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 179 M    i. Robert I, Count of Flanders 275 276 was born between 1029 and 1035 and died on 13 Oct 1093 in Kassel.

+ 180 F    ii. Matilda, of Flanders 277 278 was born about 1032 in Flanders, died on 2 Nov 1083 in Caen, Normandy, France about age 51, and was buried in Abbaye aux Dames, Caen, Normandy, France.

Adele next married Richard III, Duke of Normandy,254 son of Richard II, Duke of Normandy and Judith, of Brittany, on 10 Jan 1027. Richard was born about 997 and died on 6 Aug 1028 about age 31.

Death Notes: Died in 1027 or 1028.

Research Notes: Eldest son. First husband of Adele of France.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132A-23

From Wikipedia - Richard III, Duke of Normandy :

Richard III (997 - 1027) was the eldest son of Richard II , who died in 1027. Before succeeding his father, perhaps about 1020, he had been sent by his father in command of a large army, to attack bishop/count Hugh of Chalon in order to rescue his brother-in-law, Reginald , later Count of Burgundy , who the count/bishop had captured and imprisoned. He was betrothed to Adela, countess of Corbie (1009-June 5, 1063), second daughter of Robert II of France and Constance of Arles , but they never married.

After his father's death, he ruled the Duchy of Normandy only briefly, dying mysteriously, perhaps by poison, soon after his father. The duchy passed to his younger brother Robert I . Adela later married Baldwin V, Count of Flanders .

By unknown women, he had two known children:
Alice/Alix of Normandy who married Ranulf, Viscount of Bayeux.
Nicolas, the Lay Abbot of Rouen (b? - d. 27 Feb 1092). He helped his cousin, Duke William II the Conqueror with the contribution of 15 ships and 100 soldiers for the invasion of England in 1066.

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Normandy: 1026-1028.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 181 F    i. Judith, of Normandy 279 was born in 1028 and died on 4 Mar 1094 at age 66.

137. Robert "the Old", Duke of Burgundy 198 199 was born about 1011 and died on 21 Mar 1076 about age 65. Other names for Robert were Robert I Duke of Burgundy and Robert Capet Duke of Burgundy.

Research Notes: Duke of Burgundy from 1032 to his death in 1076.

From Wikipedia - Robert I, Duke of Burgundy :

Robert I Capet (1011 - March 21 , 1076 ) was duke of Burgundy between 1032 to his death. Robert was son of King Robert II of France and brother of Henry I .
In 1025 , with the death of his eldest brother Hugh Magnus, he and Henry rebelled against their father and defeated him, forcing him back to Paris . In 1031 , after the death of his father the king, Robert participated in a rebellion against his brother, in which he was supported by his mother, Queen Constance d'Arles . Peace was only achieved when Robert was given Burgundy (1032 ).

Throughout his reign, he was little more than a robber baron who had no control over his own vassals, whose estates he often plundered, especially those of the Church. He seized the income of the diocese of Autun and the wine of the canons of Dijon . He burgled the abbey of St-Germain at Auxerre . In 1055 , he repudiated his wife, Helie of Semur, and assassinated her brother Joceran and murdered her father, his father-in-law, Lord Dalmace I of Semur , with his own hands. In that same year, the bishop of Langres , Harduoin, refused to dedicate the church of Sennecy so as not "to be exposed to the violence of the duke."
His first son, Hugh, died in battle at a young age and his second son, Henry , also predeceased him. He was succeeded by Henry's eldest son, his grandson, Hugh I .

Family
He married his first wife, Helie of Semur , about 1033 , and repudiated her in 1055. Robert and Helie had five children:
Hugh (1034-1059), killed in battle
Henry (1035-ca.1074)
Robert (1040-1113), poisoned; married Violante of Sicily, daughter of Roger I of Sicily
Simon (1045-1087)
Constance (1046-1093), married Alfonso VI of Castile
From his second wife, Ermengarde of Anjou, daughter of Fulk III of Anjou , he had one daughter:
Hildegard (c.1056-1104), married Duke William VIII of Aquitaine

Sources
Gwatking, H. M. , Whitney, J. P. , et al. Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III-Germany and the Western Empire. Cambridge University Press : London , 1930 .

Robert married Hélie,280 daughter of Dalmas I, Sire of Semur-en-Brionnais and Aremburge, about 1033. Hélie was born in 1016 and died 22 April after 1055 at age 39. Another name for Hélie was Eleanor.

Death Notes: Died a nun

Noted events in her life were:

• Repudiated: 1046.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 182 M    i. Henry, of Burgundy 71 281 282 was born about 1035 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died about 1071 about age 36.

+ 183 F    ii. Constance, of Burgundy 283 284 was born in 1046 and died in 1092 at age 46.

Robert next married Ermengarde, of Anjou,158 159 daughter of Geoffrey I "Grisgonelle", Count of Anjou and Adelaide, of Vermandois, about 1048. Ermengarde was born about 952 in <Anjou, France> and died on 27 Jun 992 about age 40. Other names for Ermengarde were Ermangarde d'Anjou and Ermengarde d'Anjou.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Robert the Old.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 103)

Robert next married Hildegarde, of Metz.285

Research Notes: Third wife of Robert the Old.

139. Constance Capet 154 215 was born about 1014 in France. Another name for Constance was Constance Princess of France.

Research Notes: Married Manasses de Dammartin per Wikipedia.

Source: Wikipedia - Robert II of France and Constance of Arles

Constance married Manasses Calva Asina de Rameru,154 son of Hilduin II de Rameru and Unknown, about 1032 in Orléans, Orléanais, (Loiret), France. Manasses was born about 1010 in <Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died on 15 Nov 1057 in Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, Lorraine, France about age 47. Another name for Manasses was Manasses de Dammartin Count of Dammartin.

Death Notes: Was killed during the Siege of Bar-le-Duc.

Research Notes: Second husband of Beatrix of Hainaut


The child from this marriage was:

+ 184 M    i. Hugues de Dammartin, Count of Dammartin 154 286 was born about 1042 in <Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died in 1103 about age 61.

140. Adele de Roucy 217 218 was born about 1014 in <Roucy, Aisne, France> and died about 1062 about age 48. Other names for Adele were Adela de Roucy, Alice de Roucy, and Alix de Roucy.

Adele married Hilduin III de Rameru, Count of Montdidier,287 288 son of Hilduin II de Rameru and Unknown, about 1031. Hilduin was born between 1010 and 1021 in <Montdidier, Somme, France> and died about 1063. Other names for Hilduin were Hildiun Comte de Montdidier et Roucy, Hilduin IV de Rameru Count of Montdidier and Count of Roucy.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. abt 1010; http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f92/a0019295.htm has b. 1021.

Research Notes: Hilduin III or IV, Count of Montdidier, Count of Roucy, Seigneur of Rameru

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Roucy: 1032.

• Lord of Rameru: 1061.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 185 F    i. Adela, de Rameru .289

+ 186 F    ii. Beatrix de Mondidier 290 died 2 Sep aft 1129.

+ 187 F    iii. Marguerite de Rameru 291 292 293 was born between 1045 and 1050 in <Montdidier, Somme, France> and died about 1110.

+ 188 M    iv. Andre I de Rameru, and d'Arcis-sur-Aube 294 died in 1118.

141. Guillaume I de Bourgogne 25 219 was born about 1040 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 12 Nov 1087 in France about age 47. Another name for Guillaume was William I "the Great" Count Palantine of Burgundy, Count of Mâcon.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 11 Nov 1087

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132-24

Guillaume married Stephanie, de Longwy 154 295 between 1049 and 1057. Stephanie was born about 1035 in <Longwy, Meurthe-et-Moselle>, France and died after 1088. Other names for Stephanie were Etiennette of Barcelona and Stephanie of Barcelona.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132-24 (William I).

From Line 144-22 (William I): "Stephanie, parentage NN. (Note: Prof. David H. Kelley believes her parentage unproven (2003). De Vajay, in Annales de Bourgogne vol. 32 (1960) 258-261, identifies Stephanie (Etiennette) as dau. of Clemence de Foix & Albert de Longwy, Duke of Lorraine, d. 1048. Clemence is identified as dau. of Bernard I Roger, Comte de Foix, d. 1035, & Garside de Bigorre; & Bernard as son of Roger I de Carcassonne & wife Adelaide. Moriarty, cit., supplies pedigree charts for these families, but does not agree with de Vajay as to her identity. Garnier (table XXVIII) shows her as dau. of Raymond II, Count of Barcelona)."
----
FamilySearch gives her name as Stephanie (Etiennette) of Barcelona, daughter of Raimund Berenger II (III), Count of Barcelona and Mathilda (Maud) d'Apulia.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 189 M    i. Raymond, of Burgundy, Count of Amous 296 297 was born about 1060 in <Dijon>, France and died on 26 Mar 1107 in Grajal do Campos, Léon, Spain about age 47.

+ 190 F    ii. Ermentrude, of Burgundy 154 298 was born about 1060 in Burgundy, France and died after 8 Mar 1105.

+ 191 F    iii. Gisele, of Burgundy 71 299 was born about 1070 in <Bourgogne, Champagne, France> and died after 1133.

+ 192 F    iv. Sibylle, of Burgundy-Ivrea 300 died after 1103.

142. Eustace II, Count of Boulogne 71 221 222 was born between 1015 and 1020 in <Buckinghamshire>, England and died about 1087. Another name for Eustace was Bustace.

Death Notes: May have died around 1080.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eustace II, Count of Boulogne :
Eustace II, (c. 1015-1020 - c. 1087) [1][2] was count of Boulogne from 1049-1087, fought on the Norman side at the Battle of Hastings , and afterwards received a large honour in England.

He was the son of Eustace I . His first wife was Goda , daughter of the English king Æthelred the Unready , and sister of Edward the Confessor .[3] Goda died in 1055, before the Norman Conquest of her homeland, in which her husband participated. From his second marriage with Ida of Lorraine (daughter of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine ), Eustace had three sons, Eustace III , the next count of Boulogne, and Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin , both later monarchs of Jerusalem .

In 1048 Eustace joined his father-in-law's rebellion against the Emperor Henry III . The next year Eustace was excommunicated by Pope Leo IX for marrying within the prohibited degree of kinship [4]. It's likely the pope's action was at the behest of Henry III. The rebellion failed, and in 1049 Eustance and Godfrey submitted to Henry III.

Eustace paid a visit to England in 1051, and was honourably received at the Confessor's court. Edward and Eustace were former brothers-in-law and remained allied politically. On the other hand the dominant figure in England, Earl Godwin , had recently married his son Tostig to the daughter of Eustace's rival the count of Flanders. Furthermore Godwin's son Sweyn had been feuding with Eustace's stepson Ralph the Timid .

A brawl in which Eustace and his servants became involved with the citizens of Dover led to a serious quarrel between the king and Godwin. The latter, to whose jurisdiction the men of Dover were subject, refused to punish them. His lack of respect to those in authority was made the excuse for outlawing himself and his family. They left England, but returned the next year (1052) with a large army, aided by the Flemish.

In 1052 William of Talou rebelled against his nephew William of Normandy. Eustace may well have been involved in this rebellion, although there is no specific evidence, for after William of Talou's surrender he fled to the Boulonnais court.

The following years saw still further advances by Eustace's rivals and enemies. Count Baldwin of Flanders consolidated his hold over territories he had annexed to the east. In 1060 he became regent of France during the minority of his nephew Philip I of France . In contrast Eustace's stepson Walter of Mantes failed in his attempt to claim the County of Maine . He was captured by the Normans and died soon afterwards in mysterious circumstances.

These events evidently caused a shift in Eustace political allegiances, for he then became an important participant in the Norman conquest of England in 1066. He fought at Hastings, although sources vary regarding the details of his conduct during the battle. Sources suggest that Eustace was present, with William thr Bastard at the Malfosse incident in the immediate aftermath of the battle, where a Saxon, feigning death leaps up and attacks him, and is presumably cut down before h can reach William.

Eustace received large land grants afterwards, which suggests he contributed in other ways as well, perhaps by providing ships.

In the following year, probably because he was dissatisfied with his share of the spoil, he assisted the Kentishmen in an attempt to seize Dover Castle . The conspiracy failed, and Eustace was sentenced to forfeit his English fiefs .

Subsequently he was reconciled to the Conqueror, who restored a portion of the confiscated lands.

Eustace died circus 1087, and was succeeded by his son, Eustace III .

Noted events in his life were:

• Comanion of William the Conqueror: at Battle of Hastings, 1066.

• Count of Boulogne: 1049-1087.

Eustace married Ida, of Lorraine,243 301 daughter of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine and Doda, in 1057. Ida was born about 1040 in Bouillon, Ardenne, South Belgium and died on 13 Aug 1113 about age 73.

Research Notes: Second wife of Eustace II.

From Wikipedia - Ida of Lorraine
Ida of Lorraine (also referred to as Blessed Ida of Boulogne)[1] (c. 1040 - 13 Apr 1113 )[2] was a saint and noblewoman.

She was born in Bouillon, Ardenne, South Belgium, the daughter of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine and his wife, Doda.[3].

Family
In 1057, she married Eustace II of Boulogne .[2] They had three sons:
Eustace III , the next Count of Boulogne
Godfrey of Bouillon , first ruler of Kingdom of Jerusalem
Baldwin , second ruler of Kingdom of Jerusalem

Ida shunned the use of a wet-nurse in raising her sons. Instead, she breast-fed them to ensure that they were not contaminated by the wet-nurse's morals.[4] When her sons went on the First Crusade , Ida contributed heavily to their expenses.[5]

Life
Ida was always religiously and charitably active, but the death of her husband provided her wealth and the freedom to use it for her projects. She founded several monasteries:
Saint-Wulmer in Boulogne[6][1]
Our Lady of the Chapel, Calais[1]
Saint-Bertin[1]
Abbey of Cappelle [7]
Abbey of Le Wast [7]

She maintained a correspondence with Anselm of Canterbury . Some of Anselm's letters to Ida have survived.[8] [9]

She became increasingly involved in church life. However, current scholarship feels that she did not actually become a Benedictine Nun, but that she was a "Secular Oblate of the Benedictine Order".[6][1]

Death and burial
Ida died on 13 April 1113, which is the date she is honoured. Traditionally, her burial place has been ascribed to the Monastery of Saint Vaast [6]. However, one author believes that the original burial place was the Monastery of Vast. Her remains were moved in 1669 to Paris and again in 1808 to Bayeux . [1]

Her life story was written by contemporary monk of Saint Vaast Abbey.[6]

She is venerated in Bayeux.[1]


Children from this marriage were:

+ 193 M    i. Geoffrey, Count of Boulogne, Duke of Lower Lorraine 302 was born prob. bef. 1061 in <Baisy, > Brabant and died on 18 Jul 1100 in Jerusalem, Palestine at age 39.

+ 194 M    ii. Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and Lens 303 304 died after 1125.

143. Henry II, Count of Leuven and Brussels 43 224 225 was born about 1021 in <Brabant, France>, died in 1079 about age 58, and was buried in Cloister of St. Gertrud, Nivelles, France.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Leuven: 1054-1071.

• Count of Lorraine:

Henry married Adelheid, Countess of Betuwe,43 305 daughter of Eberhard, Count in the Betuwe and Unknown,. Adelheid was born about 1023 in France and died after 1086. Other names for Adelheid were Adela, Adele, and Alix Countess of Beteau.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 195 M    i. Godefroi de Louvain, Duc de Basse-Lorraine 306 307 was born about 1060 in <Lorraine, France>, died on 25 Jan 1139 in Affligem Abbey, Affligem, Belgium about age 79, and was buried in Church of Affligem Abbey, Affligem, Belgium.

   196 M    ii. Henry III, Count of Leuven died in 1095 in Tournai, (Hainaut), France (Belgium).

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry III of Leuven :

Henry III of Leuven (died Tournai in 1095 ) was count of Leuven from 1078 to 1095.
He was allied by marriage to most of the nearby lords: he was brother in law of Baldwin II of Hainaut , and son-in-law of Robert I of Flanders . The bishop of Liège , Henri I of Verdun , was peace-loving. Henry was able to concentrate on the internal affairs of his lands, without external threats. He supported religious foundations in the western parts, and legislated to reduce lawlessness.
After the death on 20 September 1085 of Hermann II, count palatine of Lotharingia , he became landgrave of Brabant , which was an imperial fief between the Dender and the Zenne .
In July 1095, he took part in a tournament in Tournai. Fighting in a joust against Gosuin de Forest, he was mortally wounded.

Family
He was the son of Henry II of Leuven , count of Leuven and Brussels, and Adèle.
He married Gertrude of Flanders (1080-1117), daughter of Robert I of Flanders and Gertrude of Saxe .
A genealogy of the time attributes to him four daughters (not named). Since he was succeeded by his brother Godfrey I of Leuven , it is inferred that he did not leave a son as heir. It has been suggested that the daughters included
Adelaide , wife of duke Simon I of Lorraine
Gertrude, wife to Lambert, count of Montaigu and Clermont .
Gertrude of Flanders, widowed, married in 1096 Thierry II of Lorraine (died 1115) and was mother of Thierry of Alsace .

144. William III, Count of Poitou, Duke of Aquitaine .176

William married someone.

His child was:

+ 197 F    i. Agnes, of Poitou 308 was born about 1025 and died on 14 Dec 1077 about age 52.

145. Manasses, Count of Guînes 226 227 was born about 1012 in Guînes, Pas-de-Calais, France.

Research Notes:

Manasses married someone.

His child was:

+ 198 F    i. Sibilla Manasses, de Guînes 309 310 311 was born about 1038 in Guînes, Pas-de-Calais, France.

146. Adeline, of Meulan 180 228 was born about 1014 in <Pont-Audemer>, Normandy, France and died in 1081 about age 67. Another name for Adeline was Adeliza Meulent.

Adeline married Roger de Beaumont, Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemer,180 228 son of Humphrey, de Vielles, Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Albreda de la Haye Auberie, about 1048. Roger was born about 1015 in <Pont Audemer>, Normandy, France, died on 29 Nov 1094 about age 79, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France. Other names for Roger were Roger "le Barbu" de Beaumont Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger, Roger Barbatus de Beaumont Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemer, and Roger de Beaumont-le-Roger.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Roger de Beaumont :

Roger de Beaumont-le-Roger (c. 1015 - 29 November 1094 ) was son of Humphrey de Vielles (himself a great-nephew of the Duchess Gunnora of Normandy ) and his wife Albreda de la Haye Auberie. Roger de Beaumont, Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemer, Viscount of Hiesmes, was thus a second cousin once removed of the Conqueror .

Life
Roger was nicknamed Barbatus or La Barbe because he wore a moustache and beard while the Normans usually were clean shaven. This peculiarity is recognized in the thirty-second panel of the Bayeux Tapestry where he is depicted sitting at a feast with Duke William on his left hand, Odo , brother of William and Bishop of Bayeux , in the centre.

Planché tells us that "he was the noblest, the wealthiest, and the most valiant seigneur of Normandy, and the greatest and most trusted friend of the Danish family." There is an explanation for this - as an older cousin who had never rebelled against the young Duke, he was part of the kinship group of noblemen that William relied upon in governing Normandy and fighting off frequent rebellion and invasions. The historian Frank McLynn notes that William relied on relatives descended via his mother (namely his half-brothers and brothers-in-law) and on relatives descended from the Duchess Gunnora's sisters, since his own paternal kin had proved unreliable.

Wace , the 12th century historian, says that "at the time of the invasion of England, Roger was summoned to the great council at Lillebonne , on account of his wisdom; but that he did not join in the expedition as he was too far advanced in years." Although Roger could not fight, he did not hesitate in contributing his share of the cost, for he provided at his own expense sixty vessels for the conveyance of the troops across the channel. Furthermore, his eldest son and heir fought bravely at Hastings as noted in several contemporary records. As a result, Roger's elder sons were awarded rich lands in England, and both eventually were made English earls by the sons of the Conqueror.

Family and children
He married circa 1048 or earlier Adeline of Meulan (ca. 1014-1020 - 1081), daughter of Waleran III, Count de Meulan and Oda de Conteville, and sister and heiress of a childless Count of Meulan. Meulan eventually passed to their elder son who became Count of Meulan in 1081 . Their surviving children were:
Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester , Count of Meulan (b ca 1049 - 1118) who succeeded his father in the major part of his lands, and who fought in his first battle at Hastings .
Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick , overshadowed by his elder brother, but who established a more enduring line of Beaumont earls at Warwick Castle.
William de Beaumont (not mentioned in most sources).
Alberee de Beaumont, Abbess of Eton


Children from this marriage were:

+ 199 M    i. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan 228 312 313 was born about 1049 in Pont-Audemer, Beaumont, Normandy, France, died on 5 Jun 1118 in Leicestershire, England about age 69, and was buried in Preaux, Normandy, France.

+ 200 M    ii. Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick 314 315 was born about 1046, died on 20 Jun 1123 about age 77, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France.

   201 M    iii. William de Beaumont .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Roger de Beaumont

   202 F    iv. Alberee de Beaumont, Abess of Eton .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Roger de Beaumont

150. Miss < > de Conteville, [stepmother of Hamon] 233 was born from about 1037 to 1041 in Conteville, Normandy, France. Other names for < were Miss (Muriel?) de Conteville Burgh and Muriel de Montaigne.

Research Notes: The "Miss de Conteville" in several sources may have been Muriel de Conteville.

Per Wikipedia (Herluin de Conteville) one of Muriel's sisters could have been married to William, lord of La Ferte -Mace instead of Muriel. If Muriel, aka Muriel de Montaigne, Muriel de Conteville. More ancestry on Muriel may be available.

< married Viscount William de la Ferté-Macé,316 317 318 319 son of William I Talvas, Lord of Bellême and Alençon and Hildegarde de Beaumont, in 1058 in Normandy, France. William was born in 1034 in Massey, <Cheshire, > England and died <1066> at age 32. Other names for William were William Lord of La Ferté-Macé, William Count de la Ferté-Macé, Viscount William de la Ferté Macé, William Ferte Massey, and William de la Ferté-Macé.

Birth Notes: May have been born in Normandy.

Death Notes: May have died at the Battle of Hastings.

Research Notes: Fought in Battle of Hastings with wife's half brother, William the conqueror, his brothers-in-law, and his sons. Some sources list his sons as Hamon de Massey I, Robert de Massey and William de la Ferte Massey. Others list two legitimate sons, Baron Mathieu de la Ferte Mace and Hugue de Macey, plus Hamon as an illegitimate son."

---------
From a Post by Scott Denison 28 July 2008 in the Massey Family Genealogy Forum (Genealogy.com):
William de La Ferté Macé was the only French noble family holding land within Normandy (A Norse-occupied territory of France, of which William the Conqueror was Duke). The Barons of Massey were fair and well respected in England, but their ancestors in France were a brutal family respected more for their violent disposition than their titles.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 203 M    i. Hamon de Massey, 1st Baron de Dunham 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 was born before 1056 in Dunham Massey, Bucklow, Cheshire, England and died in 1101 in Dunham, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. (Relationship to Father: Biological, Relationship to Mother: Step)

   204 M    ii. Baron Mathieu de la Ferté Macé 327 was born after 1058 and died about 1075 in Normandy, France.

Death Notes: Died in Battle

Research Notes: Legit son 1 of 2

FamilyTreeMaker.genealogy.com (Snell)
Fought in battle of Hastings, plus Hamon (illegitimate) possibly as his squire. Mathieu killed in battle in Normandy.

   205 M    iii. William de la Ferté-Macé, Baron of La Ferté-Macé 328 was born about 1059. Another name for William was Guillaume de la Ferté-Macé Baron of Ferté Macé. (Relationship to Father: Biological, Relationship to Mother: Step)

   206 M    iv. Sir Hugue de Macey 328 died about 1100 in <Normandy, (France)>.

Research Notes: Legitimate son 2 of 2

Familytreemaker.genealogy.com (Snell)

Fought in Battle of Hastings. After Mathieu was killed in battle in Normandy, Hugue became the heir and head of the household. He founded the Marcy family.

   207 F    v. Margaret de la Ferté-Macé .328

Margaret married Ranulphus de Praers.326

151. Emma de Conteville 234 235 was born about 1043.

Research Notes: Per Wikipedia (Herluin de Conteville) Emma, not Muriel, could have been married to William, lord of La Ferte-Macé.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132A-25 (Ranulph II). This source says "alleged to be a half-sister of William the Conqueror; Prof Douglas says 'fictitious.'

Emma married Richard le Goz, Viscomte d'Avranches,329 330 331 son of Toustien le Goz, Viscomte d'Hiemes and Judith de Montanolier,. Richard was born about 1020 in Avranches, Manche (Normandy), France and died after 1084. Another name for Richard was Richard d'Avranches.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 208 M    i. Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester 332 333 was born about 1047 in Avranches, Normandy, France, died on 27 Jul 1101 about age 54, and was buried in Chapter House of Chester Cathedral.

+ 209 F    ii. Maud d'Avranches 331 334 335 was born about 1054 in <Avranches, Normandy, France>.

   210 F    iii. Judith d'Avranches .333

   211 F    iv. Hélisende d'Avranches .333

154. Ermengarde, of Flanders 92 was born about 1005 in <Flanders (Belgium)>.

Ermengarde married Adalbert de Gand,92 son of Arnoul, Count of Gand and Lietgarde de Cleves, about 1021 in Gand, East Vlaanderen, (Belgium). Adalbert was born about 1004 in Gand, Flanders (Belgium).

The child from this marriage was:

+ 212 M    i. Ralph de Gand 92 was born about 1022 in Gand, Flanders (Belgium).

155. Baldwin V, de Lille, Count of Flanders 7 239 240 was born in 1012 and died on 1 Sep 1067 in Lille, France at age 55. Another name for Baldwin was Baldwin V of Flanders.

Research Notes: Second husband of Adele de France

From Wikipedia - Baldwin V, Count of Flanders :

Baldwin V of Flanders (died 1 September 1067) was Count of Flanders from 1035 until his death.

He was the son of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders , who died in 1035.

History
In 1028 Baldwin married Adèle of France in Amiens, daughter of King Robert II of France ; at her instigation he rebelled against his father but in 1030 peace was sworn and the old count continued to rule until his death.

During a long war (1046-1056) as an ally of Godfrey the Bearded , Duke of Lorraine , against the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III , he initially lost Valenciennes to Hermann of Hainaut . However, when the latter died in 1051 Baldwin married his son Baldwin VI to Herman's widow Richildis and arranged that the sons of her first marriage were disinherited, thus de facto uniting the County of Hainaut with Flanders. Upon the death of Henry III this marriage was acknowledged by treaty by Agnes de Poitou , mother and regent of Henry IV .

From 1060 to 1067 Baldwin was the co-Regent with Anne of Kiev for his nephew-by-marriage Philip I of France , indicating the importance he had acquired in international politics.

Family
Baldwin and Adèle had five children:
Baldwin VI , 1030-1070
Matilda , c.1031-1083 who married William the Conqueror
Robert I of Flanders , c.1033-1093
Henry of Flanders c.1035
Sir Richard of Flanders c. 1050-1105

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Flanders: 1035-1067.

Baldwin married Adele Capet, Princess of France,213 214 daughter of Robert II "the Pious", King of France and Constance, of Provence, in 1028 in Amiens. Adele was born about 1009 and died about 8 Jan 1079 in Messines Monastery, Messines (Mesen), West Flanders, (Belgium) about age 70. Other names for Adele were Adèle of France, Countess of Contentin, Adele "the Holy" of Messines, Aelis of France, and Countess of Contentin.

Marriage Notes: May have been married in Paris.

Research Notes: Second daughter of Robert the Pious and Constance of Arles.

From Wikipedia - Adela of France, Countess of Flanders :

Adela Capet, Adèle of France or Adela of Flanders[1], known also as Adela the Holy or Adela of Messines; (1009 - 8 January 1079 , Messines ) was the second daughter of Robert II (the Pious), and Constance of Arles . As dowry to her future husband, she received from her father the title of Countess of Corbie.

Her family
She was a member of the House of Capet , the rulers of France. As the wife of Baldwin V , she was Countess of Flanders from 1036 to 1067.

She married first 1027 Richard III Duke of Normandy (997 † 1027). They never had children.

As a widow, she remarried in 1028 in Paris to Baldwin V of Flanders (1012 † 1067). Their children were:
Baldwin VI of Flanders , (1030 † 1070)
Matilda of Flanders (1032 † 1083). In 1053 she married William Duke of Normandy , the future king of England
Robert I of Flanders , (1033-1093)
Henry of Flanders (c. 1035)
Sir Richard of Flanders (c. 1050-1105)

Political influence
Adèle's influence lay mainly in her family connections. On the death of her brother, Henry I of France, the guardianship of his seven-year-old son Philip I fell jointly on his widow, Ann of Kiev , and on his brother-in-law, Adela's husband, so that from 1060 to 1067, they were Regents of France.

Church influence
Adèle had an especially great interest in Baldwin V's church-reform politics and was behind her husband's founding of several collegiate churches . Directly or indirectly, she was responsible for establishing the Colleges of Aire (1049), Lille (1050) and Harelbeke (1064) as well as the abbeys of Messines (1057) and Ename (1063). After Baldwin's death in 1067, she went to Rome, took the nun's veil from the hands of Pope Alexander II and retreated to the Benedictine convent of Messines, near Ypres . There she died, being buried at the same monastery. Her commemoration day is 8 September.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 136)

156. Jeanne, of Geneva 25 241 was born about 1040 in <Geneva, Switzerland>. Another name for Jeanne was Joan of Geneva.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 274A-23 (Amadeus II)

Jeanne married Amadeus II, Count of Maurienne and Savoy, Margrave of Susa,25 241 son of Eudes I, Count of Maurienne and Savoy and Alix, Duchess of Turin, Betw 1065 and 1070. Amadeus was born about 1032 in <Geneva, Switzerland> and died on 26 Jan 1080 about age 48. Other names for Amadeus were Amadeo II Count of Maurienne and Savoy, Amadeus I Count of Maurienne and Savoy and Margrave of Susa.

Research Notes: Count of Maurienne and Savoy, Margrave of Susa


The child from this marriage was:

+ 213 M    i. Humbert II "Le Renforcé", Count of Maurienne and Savoy 25 336 was born about 1062 in <Savoie>, France, died on 14 Oct 1103 about age 41, and was buried on 19 Oct 1103.

157. Adalbert de Gand 92 was born about 1004 in Gand, Flanders (Belgium).

Adalbert married Ermengarde, of Flanders,92 daughter of Baldwin IV "the Bearded", Count of Valenciennes & Count of Flanders and Ogive, de Luxembourg, about 1021 in Gand, East Vlaanderen, (Belgium). Ermengarde was born about 1005 in <Flanders (Belgium)>.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 154)

158. Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona 71 242 was born in 1023 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 26 May 1076 in Barcelona, Barcelona, Aragón, Spain at age 53. Other names for Ramon were Ramon Berenguer I "el Viejo" Count of Barcelona, Raymond Berenger I "le Vieux" Count of Barcelona, and Raimund I Berenger Count of Barcelona.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona :


Ramon Berenguer I the Old (née in French : Ramond Berenger LeVieux, in Catalan : el Vell) was Count of Barcelona in 1035-1076. He promulgated the earliest versions of a written code of Catalan law, the Usages of Barcelona .

Born in 1024, he succeeded his father, Berenguer Ramon the Crooked in 1035. It is during his reign that the dominant position of Barcelona among other Catalan counties became evident.

Ramon Berenguer campaigned against the Moors , extending his dominions as far west as Barbastro and imposing heavy tributes (parias ) on other Moorish cities. Historians claim that those tributes helped create the first wave of prosperity in Catalan history. During his reign Catalan maritime power started to be felt in Western Mediterranean. Ramon Berenguer the Old was also the first count of Catalonia to acquire lands (counties of Carcassonne and Razés ) and influence north of the Pyrenees.

Another major achievement of his was beginning of codification of Catalan law in the written Usatges or Usatici of Barcelona which was to become the first full compilation of feudal law in Western Europe. Legal codification was part of the count's efforts to forward and somehow control the process of feudalization which started during the reign of his weak father, Berenger Ramon. Another major contributor was the Church acting through the institution of the Peace and Truce of God . This established a general truce among warring factions and lords in a given region for a given time. The earliest extant date for introducing the Truce of God in Western Europe is 1027 in Catalonia, during the reign of Ramon Berenguer the Old.

Ramon Berenguer I together with his third wife Almodis also founded the Romanesque cathedral of Barcelona, to replace the older basilica presumably destroyed by Almanzor. Their velvet and brass bound wooden coffins are still shown in the Gothic cathedral which replaced Ramon Berenguer's building.

He was succeeded by his twin sons Ramon Berenguer II and Berenguer Ramon II . It has been speculated that the obscure wife of Henry of Burgundy , the grandmother of Alfonso Henriques , first king of Portugal , was his sister.

Ramon Berenguers's marriages and descendants


First wife, Isabel/Elisabeth of Narbonne or of Béziers
Berenguer (died young)
Arnau (died young)
Pere Ramon (1050-1073?), murdered his father's wife, Almodis, and was exiled
Second wife, Blanca (origin unknown)
Third wife, Almodis de La Marche , countess of Limoges
Berenguer Ramon II, Count of Barcelona the Fratricide (1053/54-1097)
Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona the Towhead (1053/54-1082)
Inés, married Hugh d'Albo
Sancha, married William Raymond , count of Cerdanya

Ramon married Almodis de la Marche, Countess of Limoges,71 337 338 daughter of Bernard I, Count of La Marche and Péregord and Amélie, Countess of Aubnay, in 1056. Almodis was born about 1000 in Toulouse, France, died on 16 Nov 1071 about age 71, and was buried in Cathedral of Barcelona, Spain. Other names for Almodis were Almode de la Marche, Almodis de la Haute Marche, and Almodis of La Marche.

Death Notes: Murdered

Research Notes: Second wife of Pons of Toulouse. Third wife of Ramon Berenguer I.

From Wikipedia - Almodis de la Marche :

Almodis de la Marche (990 or c. 1020 - 16 October 1071 ) was the daughter of Bernard I, Count of Marche and wife Amélie. She married Hugh V of Lusignan around 1038 and they had two sons and one daughter:
Hugh VI of Lusignan (c. 1039-1101)
Jordan de Lusignan
Mélisende de Lusignan (b. bef. 1055), married before 1074 to Simon I "l'Archevêque", Vidame de Parthenay

Almodis and Hugh of Lusignan divorced due to consanguinity , and Hugh arranged for her to marry Count Pons of Toulouse in 1040. Together they produced several children, including:
William IV of Toulouse
Raymond IV of Toulouse
Hugh, Abbot of Saint-Gilles
Almodis of Toulouse, married Count Pierre of Melgueil

She was still Pons' wife in April 1053, but shortly thereafter Almodis was abducted by Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona . He kidnapped her from Narbonne with the aid of a fleet sent north by his ally, the Muslim emir of Tortosa . They married immediately (despite the fact both of her previous husbands were still alive) and they appear with their twin sons in a charter the next year. Pope Victor II excommunicated Almodis and Ramon for this illegal marriage until 1056. Together they produced four children:
Berenguer Ramon II, Count of Barcelona
Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona
Inés of Barcelona, married Count Guigues I of Albon
Sancha of Barcelona, married Count Guillermo Ramon I of Cerdagne

Almodis maintained contact with her former husbands and many children, and in 1066/1067 she traveled to Toulouse for her daughter's wedding. A few years before, in 1060, Hugh V of Lusignan had revolted against his lord, Duke William VIII of Aquitaine , in support of Almodis' son William IV of Toulouse . Her sons supported one another in military campaigns; Hugh VI of Lusignan , Raymond IV of Toulouse , and Berenguer Ramon all took the Cross.

Her third husband Ramon had a son from a previous marriage, Pedro Ramon, who was his heir. Pedro apparently resented Almodis' influence and was concerned she was trying to replace him with her own two sons. He murdered her in October 1071. Pedro was disinherited and exiled for his crime, and fled the country. When his father died in 1076, Barcelona was split between Berenguer Ramon and Ramon Berenguer, Almodis' sons. The family history of murder did not end with Pedro Ramon, as Berenguer Ramon earned his nickname "The Fratricide " when he killed his own twin brother.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 214 M    i. Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona 71 339 was born in 1054 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 5 Dec 1082 at age 28.

   215 M    ii. Berenguer Ramon II, Count of Barcelona 340 was born in 1054 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died in 1097 at age 43. Another name for Berenguer was Berenger Raymond II "the Fratricide" Count of Barcelona.

Research Notes: Twin brother of Ramon Berenguer II, whom he murdered on 5 December 1082.

From Wikipedia - Berenguer Ramon II, Count of Barcelona :

Berenguer Ramon II the Fratricide (1050s - 1090s) was Count of Barcelona (1076-1097). He was the son of Ramon Berenguer I , and initially ruled jointly with his twin brother Ramon Berenguer II .

Born in 1053 or 1054 he succeeded his father Ramon Berenguer I the Old to co-rule with his twin brother Ramon Berenguer, in 1075. The twins failed to agree and divided their possessions between them, against the will of their late father. Ramon Berenguer II was killed while hunting in the woods on December 5 , 1082 . Berenguer Ramon II, who became the sole ruler of Catalonia for the next four years, was credited by popular opinion with having orchestrated this murder. This suspicion and other divisions of loyalty led to a civil war. Various parties asserted ways to resolve this 'unjust and iniquitous murder', which led to a moderate compromise in 1086 in which Berenguer Ramon II would rule Catalonia with his brother's four-year-old son (Later to become known as Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona for eleven years until he came of age.[1]

In the 1080s Berenguer Ramon's involvement in the internal strife in the Moorish taifa kingdoms brought him in conflict with El Cid . In the ensuing war the Count of Barcelona was twice taken prisoner.

After his resignation in 1097 his life is more obscure. Still living under the accusations of his brother's assassination, the guilt of which may have been determined by trial by combat , which he lost, he went to Jerusalem , either on pilgrimage , as a penance, or as part of the First Crusade , and perished there between 1097 and 1099. Berenguer Ramon II was succeeded by his nephew Ramon Berenguer III , son of Ramon Berenguer II .

159. Mathilde, of Verdun 148 died about 1039.

Mathilde married Régnier V, Count of Hainaut,205 son of Régnier IV, Count of Hainaut and Hedwig, of France, about 1015. Régnier died after 1039.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Hainaut: 1013.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 132)

160. Regilinde, of Lorraine died in 1064.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-21 (Albert II)

Regilinde married Albert II, Count of Namur,192 son of Albert I, Count of Namur and Ermengarde, of Lorraine,. Albert was born about 1000 and died in 1064 about age 64.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 127)

161. Oda 43 223 was born about 995 in Lorraine, France and died in 1044 about age 49.

Oda married Lambert II, Count of Louvain,43 174 son of Lambert I "the Bearded", Count of Louvain and Gerberga, of Lorraine,. Lambert was born about 991 in <Lorraine, France>, died after 21 Sep 1062, and was buried in Cloister of St. Gertrud, Nivelles, France. Another name for Lambert was Lambert II "Baudry" Count of Louvain.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 113)

162. Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine 243 244 was born about 997 and died in 1069 about age 72. Another name for Godfrey was Godfrey "the Bearded" Duke of Upper & Lower Lorraine.

Research Notes: Eldest son of Gothelo I.

From Wikipedia - Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine :
Godfrey III[1] (c. 997-1069), called the Bearded, was the eldest son of Gothelo I , duke of Upper and Lower Lorraine . By inheritance, he was count of Verdun and he became margrave of Antwerp as a vassal of the duke of Lower Lorraine. The Holy Roman Emperor Henry III authorised him to succeed his father as duke of Upper Lorraine in 1044, but refused him the ducal title in Lower Lorraine, for he feared the power of a united duchy. Instead Henry threatened to appoint a younger son, Gothelo , as duke in Lower Lorraine. At a much later date, Godfrey became duke of Lower Lorraine, but he had lost the upper duchy by then.

Godfrey rebelled against his king and devastated land in Lower Lorraine, as well as the city of Verdun , which, though his by inheritance, Henry had not given him. He was soon defeated by an imperial army and was deposed imprisoned together with his son (Gibichenstein , 1045). When his son died in prison, the war recommenced. Baldwin V of Flanders joined Godfrey and Henry gave Thierry, Bishop of Verdun , the eponymous county. Godfrey surprised the bishop (who escaped) and sacked Verdun, burning the cathedral. On 11 November 1048 at Thuin , Godfrey fell on Adalbert , his replacement in Upper Lorraine, and defeated him, killing him in battle. Henry immediately nominated the young Gerard of Chatenoy to replace Adalbert at the Diet of Worms . In his subsequent campaigns to take the Moselle region, Godfrey met with stiff resistance from Gerard and was forced to renounce his claims and reconcile with the bishop. He even assisted in rebuilding the cathedral he had destroyed.

In 1053, his first wife Doda having died, Godfrey remarried Beatrice of Bar , the widow of Boniface III of Tuscany and mother of Matilda , Boniface' heir. Henry arrested Beatrice and her young son Frederick and imprisoned her in Germany, separate from either husband or son, who died within days. The emperor claimed the marriage had been contracted without his consent and was invalid. Young Frederick died a short while later. Nevertheless, Godfrey took over the government of the Tuscany in right of Beatrice and Matilda.

Baldwin V then rebelled, carrying the war to Trier and Nijmegen . Henry responded by devastating Flanders and ravaging Lille and Tournai (1054). In this war, Godfrey captured Frederick of Luxembourg , Duke of Lower Lorraine, who had received that duchy, including Antwerp, from Henry III.
In 1055, Godfrey besieged Antwerp, but Frederick was delivered by the Lorrainers, no longer loyal to Godfrey. Henry died in 1056 and his successor, Henry IV , was only six years old. In that year, Baldwin made peace and did homage to the new king. In 1056 and 1059, by the treaties of Andernach , Baldwin received the march of Ename in the Landgraviate of Brabant , probably in exchange for giving up the march of Valenciennes , which was confiscated by emperor Henry III in 1045.

In 1057, Godfrey was exiled to Tuscany, where he joined Beatrice and co-governed with her. He was enfeoffed with the Duchy of Spoleto (1057) by Pope Stephen IX , his brother. In January 1058, Leo de Benedicto Christiano threw open the city gates to him and Beatrice after the election of Pope Nicholas II . Possessing the Tiber and assaulting the Lateran , Godfrey succeeded in expelling the antipope Benedict X on 24 January . During the papal reign of his brother and his brothers reforming successors, he played an important rôle in the politics of central and northern Italy, including Sardinia , where he interfered on behalf of Barisone I of Logudoro against the Republic of Pisa , indicating his authority over both.

In 1065, he was recalled to become duke of Lower Lorraine after the death of Frederick. He was also given Antwerp again. He installed his court at Bouillon and died on Christmas Eve 1069.

Family
By Doda, he had:
Godfrey , succeeded him in Lower Lorraine
Ida of Lorraine , married Eustace II, Count of Boulogne
Wiltrude, married Adalbert of Calw

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Upper and Lower Lorraine:

• Count of Verdun:

• Margrave of Antwerp:

Godfrey married Doda.243 Other names for Doda were Dada and Ida.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 216 F    i. Ida, of Lorraine 243 301 was born about 1040 in Bouillon, Ardenne, South Belgium and died on 13 Aug 1113 about age 73.

163. Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine 191 246 died in 1115. Other names for Thierry were Dietrich II Duke of Lorraine and Theodoric II "the Valiant" Duke of Lorraine.

Research Notes: Second husband of Gertrude of Flanders.

From Wikipedia - Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine :

Theodoric II (died 1115), called the Valiant, was the duke of Lorraine from 1070 to his death. He was the son and successor of Gerhard and Hedwige de Namur. He is sometimes numbered Theodoric I if the dukes of the House of Ardennes , who ruled in Upper Lorraine from 959 to 1033, are ignored in favour of the dukes of Lower Lorraine as predecessors of the later dukes of Lorraine.

In fact, Sophia, the daughter of Duke Frederick II of the House of Ardennes, who had inherited the counties of Bar and Montbéliard , had a husband named Louis , who contested the succession. In order to receive the support of his brother, he gave him the county of Vaudémont and convened an assembly of nobles, who elected him duke over Louis. Soon Louis was dead, but his son, Theodoric II of Bar , claimed the succession anyway. However, Emperor Henry IV confirmed Theodoric the Valiant in the duchy. Probably for this reason, Theodoric remained faithful to the emperors throughout his rule. He fought the Saxons while they were at war with the Emperor between 1070 and 1078 and he opposed the popes Gregory VII and Urban II when they were in conflict with the Emperor.

In 1095, he planned to take up the Cross (i.e., go on Crusade , specifically the First ), but his ill health provoked him to drop out, nevertheless convincing his barons to go east. Thereafter, he took little part in imperial affairs, preferring not to intervene between Henry IV and his son Henry , or against Lothair of Supplinburg , duke of Saxony .

Family and children
His first wife was Hedwige (d. 1085 or 1090), daughter of Frederick, count of Formbach , they married around 1075.

They had the following issue:
Simon , his successor in Lorraine
Gertrude (d. 1144), married Floris II of Holland

His second wife was Gertrude (1080-1117), daughter of Robert I of Flanders and Gertrude of Saxony .

They had the following issue:
Theodoric (1100-1168), lord of Bitche and count of Flanders (1128-1168)
Henry I (d. 1165), bishop of Toul
Ida, married Sigefroy (d. 1104), count of Burghausen
Ermengarde, married Bernard de Brancion
Gisela, married Frederick, count of Saarbrücken

Thierry married Gertrude, of Flanders,341 daughter of Robert I, Count of Flanders and Gertrude, of Saxony,. Gertrude was born about 1070 and died in 1117 about age 47.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 217 M    i. Thierry I, of Lorraine, Count of Flanders 342 343 was born about 1099 and died on 17 Jan 1168 about age 69.

164. Gerard, of Lorraine, Count of Vaudemont 154 247 was born about 1057 in <Lorraine, France>, died about 1120 about age 63, and was buried in Belval, Ardennes, France. Another name for Gerard was Gerhard I Count of Vaudemont.

Gerard married Helwide, Countess of Egisheim,154 247 daughter of Gerard II, Count of Egisheim and Richarde, before 1038. Helwide was born before 1078 in Eguisheim, Haut-Rhin, France and died in 1118. Another name for Helwide was Edith of Egisheim.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. after 1126


The child from this marriage was:

+ 218 F    i. Gisele, of Vaudemont 154 247 was born about 1090 in Vaudemont, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France and died after 1141.

165. Albert III, Count of Namur 43 248 was born about 1048 in <Namur>, Belgium and died on 22 Jun 1102 about age 54.

Albert married Ida, of Saxony, daughter of Bernard II, Duke in Saxony and Eilika, of Schweinfurt, 1065 or 1066. Ida was born about 1046 in Saxony, (Germany). Another name for Ida was Ida Billung.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-22 (Albert III)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 219 F    i. Adelaide, of Namur 344 was born in 1068 and died in 1124 at age 56.

+ 220 F    ii. Clementia, of Burgundy 43 345 was born about 1078 in Namur, Namur, Belgium and died about 1122 about age 44.

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166. Geoffrey, de Bretagne 250 was born about 1001 in Bretagne, France.

Geoffrey married Hedwige, de Normandie.346 Hedwige was born about 1004 in Normandy, France.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 221 F    i. Emme, de Bretagne 347 was born about 1026 in Bretagne, France.

167. Richard III, Duke of Normandy 254 was born about 997 and died on 6 Aug 1028 about age 31.

Death Notes: Died in 1027 or 1028.

Research Notes: Eldest son. First husband of Adele of France.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132A-23

From Wikipedia - Richard III, Duke of Normandy :

Richard III (997 - 1027) was the eldest son of Richard II , who died in 1027. Before succeeding his father, perhaps about 1020, he had been sent by his father in command of a large army, to attack bishop/count Hugh of Chalon in order to rescue his brother-in-law, Reginald , later Count of Burgundy , who the count/bishop had captured and imprisoned. He was betrothed to Adela, countess of Corbie (1009-June 5, 1063), second daughter of Robert II of France and Constance of Arles , but they never married.

After his father's death, he ruled the Duchy of Normandy only briefly, dying mysteriously, perhaps by poison, soon after his father. The duchy passed to his younger brother Robert I . Adela later married Baldwin V, Count of Flanders .

By unknown women, he had two known children:
Alice/Alix of Normandy who married Ranulf, Viscount of Bayeux.
Nicolas, the Lay Abbot of Rouen (b? - d. 27 Feb 1092). He helped his cousin, Duke William II the Conqueror with the contribution of 15 ships and 100 soldiers for the invasion of England in 1066.

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Normandy: 1026-1028.

Richard had a relationship with < >, [Unknown mistress].348 This couple did not marry.

Their child was:

+ 222 F    i. Alice, of Normandy 334 349 was born about 1021 in <Normandy, France>.

Richard married Adele Capet, Princess of France,213 214 daughter of Robert II "the Pious", King of France and Constance, of Provence, on 10 Jan 1027. Adele was born about 1009 and died about 8 Jan 1079 in Messines Monastery, Messines (Mesen), West Flanders, (Belgium) about age 70. Other names for Adele were Adèle of France, Countess of Contentin, Adele "the Holy" of Messines, Aelis of France, and Countess of Contentin.

Research Notes: Second daughter of Robert the Pious and Constance of Arles.

From Wikipedia - Adela of France, Countess of Flanders :

Adela Capet, Adèle of France or Adela of Flanders[1], known also as Adela the Holy or Adela of Messines; (1009 - 8 January 1079 , Messines ) was the second daughter of Robert II (the Pious), and Constance of Arles . As dowry to her future husband, she received from her father the title of Countess of Corbie.

Her family
She was a member of the House of Capet , the rulers of France. As the wife of Baldwin V , she was Countess of Flanders from 1036 to 1067.

She married first 1027 Richard III Duke of Normandy (997 † 1027). They never had children.

As a widow, she remarried in 1028 in Paris to Baldwin V of Flanders (1012 † 1067). Their children were:
Baldwin VI of Flanders , (1030 † 1070)
Matilda of Flanders (1032 † 1083). In 1053 she married William Duke of Normandy , the future king of England
Robert I of Flanders , (1033-1093)
Henry of Flanders (c. 1035)
Sir Richard of Flanders (c. 1050-1105)

Political influence
Adèle's influence lay mainly in her family connections. On the death of her brother, Henry I of France, the guardianship of his seven-year-old son Philip I fell jointly on his widow, Ann of Kiev , and on his brother-in-law, Adela's husband, so that from 1060 to 1067, they were Regents of France.

Church influence
Adèle had an especially great interest in Baldwin V's church-reform politics and was behind her husband's founding of several collegiate churches . Directly or indirectly, she was responsible for establishing the Colleges of Aire (1049), Lille (1050) and Harelbeke (1064) as well as the abbeys of Messines (1057) and Ename (1063). After Baldwin's death in 1067, she went to Rome, took the nun's veil from the hands of Pope Alexander II and retreated to the Benedictine convent of Messines, near Ypres . There she died, being buried at the same monastery. Her commemoration day is 8 September.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 136)

168. Adelais, de Normandie 25 was born about 1007 in <Normandy, France> and died about 1037 in France about age 30. Another name for Adelais was Judith of Normandy.

Adelais married Renaud I, Count Palantine of Burgundy,25 son of Otto Guillaume, Count of Burgundy and Ermentrude, Countess of Rheims, before 1023 in France. Renaud was born about 986 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 4 Sep 1057 in France about age 71. Another name for Renaud was Renaud I de Bourgogne.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 111)

169. Robert I, Duke of Normandy 237 255 256 257 was born about 1008 in Normandy, France and died on 22 Jul 1035 in Nicaea, Bythnia, (Turkey) about age 27. Other names for Robert were Robert (I, II, the Devil, Magnificent) de Normandie and Robert I 6th Duc de Normandie.

Birth Notes: Citing Alison Weir's Britains's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy, thepeerage.com has born c. 1008.

Death Notes: May have died on 2 July 1035.

Research Notes: Father of William the Conqueror and Adelaide (Adela) of Normandy.

From Wikipedia - Robert I, Duke of Normandy :

Robert the Magnificent[1] (June 22 , 1000 - 3 July 1035 ), also called Robert the Devil and Robert I or II, was the Duke of Normandy from 1027 until his death. He was the son of Richard II of Normandy and Judith , daughter of Conan I of Rennes . He was the father of William the Conqueror .

Life
When his father died, his elder brother Richard succeeded, whilst he became Count of Hiémois . When Richard died a year later, there were great suspicions that Robert had Richard murdered, hence his other nickname, "Robert le diable" ("the devil"). He is sometimes identified with the legendary Robert the Devil .

Robert aided King Henry I of France against Henry's rebellious brother and mother, and for his help he was given the territory of the Vexin . He also intervened in the affairs of Flanders , supported Edward the Confessor , who was then in exile at Robert's court, and sponsored monastic reform in Normandy .

By his mistress, Herleva of Falaise, he was father of the future William I of England (1028-1087). He also had an illegitimate daughter, but the only chronicler to explicitly address the issue, Robert of Torigny , contradicts himself, once indicating that she had a distinct mother from William, elsewhere stating that they shared the same mother. This daughter, Adelaide of Normandy (1030-c. 1083), married three times: to Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu , Lambert II, Count of Lens , and Odo II of Champagne .

After making his illegitimate son William his heir, he set out on pilgrimage to Jerusalem . According to the Gesta Normannorum Ducum he travelled by way of Constantinople , reached Jerusalem, and died on the return journey at Nicaea on 2 July 1035 . Some sources attribute his death to poison and date it to 1 or 3 July. His son William, aged about eight, succeeded him.

According to the historian William of Malmesbury , around 1086 William sent a mission to Constantinople and Nicaea, charging it with bringing his father's body back to be buried in Normandy. Permission was granted, but, having travelled as far as Apulia (Italy) on the return journey, the envoys learned that William himself had meanwhile died. They then decided to re-inter Robert's body in Italy.


Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Normandy: 1027-1035.

• Count of Hiémois: 1026.

• Succeeded: to the title of 6th Duc de Normandie, 8 Aug 1028.

Robert had a relationship with Harlette de Falaise,229 230 231 daughter of Fulbert de Falaise and Doda, de Falaise,. This couple did not marry. Harlette was born about 1003 in Falaise, Calvados, Normandy, France, died before 1050, and was buried in Abbey of St. Grestain, France. Other names for Harlette were Arlotte de Falaise, Arletta de Falaise, Arlette de Falaise, Herleva de Falaise, and Herleve de Falaise.

Birth Notes: Citing the Royal Genealogies Website, thepeerage.com has b. abt 1012. Wikipedia (Herleva) has abt 1003.

Burial Notes: From Wikipedia (Herleva):
According to Robert of Torigni , Herleva was buried at the abbey of Grestain, which was founded by Herluin and their son Robert around 1050. This would put Herleva in her forties around the time of her death. However, David C. Douglas suggests that Herleva probably died before Herluin founded the abbey because her name does not appear on the list of benefactors, whereas the name of Herluin's second wife, Fredesendis, does.

Research Notes: Mother of William I of England (William the Conqueror).

Source http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593882938 has b. 1003 in Falaise, Cavados, France. From that source:
Her son William I, King of England was illegitimate. aka (Herleve)

1 NAME Harlette /De Falaise/ 1 NAME Herleve (Arlette) /de Falaise/ 2SOUR S033320 3 DATA 4 TEXT Date of Import: Jan 17, 2001 1 BIRT 2 DATEABT. 1003 2 PLAC Falaise, Normandie 1 BIRT 2 DATE ABT. 1003 2 PLAC ofFalais, Calvados, France 2 SOUR S033320 3 DATA 4 TEXT Date of Import:Jan 17, 2001

[De La Pole.FTW]

Sources: A. Roots 121E, 130; RC 89, 160; Coe; Kraentzler 1156, 1163,1179, 1241, 1264, 1265, 1309, 1342, 1350, 1383; AIS; Davis; Ayers, p648.
Roots: Arlette (or Herleve/Herleva).
Coe: Arlette. AIS: Narlette of Falaise.
K: Harlette de Falaise.
Davis: Herleve, daughter of Fulbert, a tanner of Falaise.


Father: Fulbert THORGILSSON b: Abt 0986 in Falaise,Calvados,France
Mother: Doda UNKNOWN b: Abt 0988 in ,France

Marriage 1 Herluin DE CONTEVILLE b: Abt 1001 in Conteville,Seine Maritime,France
Note:
_UIDE180A329BD15BA45BDEC96201555521E3798
2 _PREF Y
Children
Odo UNKNOWN b: Abt 1030 in Conteville,Seine Maritime,France
Emma DE CONTEVILLE b: Abt 1033 in ,France
Robert DE CONTEVILLE b: 1037 in of Conteville, Seine Maritime, France
Muriel DE CONTEVILLE b: 1042 in Of Conteville,Normandy,France

Marriage 2 Robert I UNKNOWN b: Abt 1003 in ,Normandy,France
Married: Abt 1023 in not married 3
Note:
_UID2FB1974BB9DEBD4BBFE274FEEECDAECEABB8
2 _PREF Y
Children
William I UNKNOWN b: 14 Oct 1027 in Falaise Castle,Normandy,France
Adelaide UNKNOWN b: 1030 in Falais,Calvados,France
Ralph UNKNOWN b: Abt 1033 in ,, France

Sources:

Title: GEDCOM File : 2134392.ged
Date: 12 Jul 2002
Author: Mark Willis Ballard
Title: GEDCOM File : mwballard.ged
Note:
6928 N. Lakewood Avenue
773-743-6663
mwballard52@yahoo.com
Date: 4 Nov 2003
Title: De La Pole.FTW
Note:
Source Media Type: Other
Repository:
Name: Not Given


Their children were:

+ 223 M    i. William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, King of England 237 350 was born about 1028 in Falaise, Normandy, France and died on 9 Sep 1087 in Rouen, Normandy, France about age 59.

+ 224 F    ii. Adelaide, of Normandy, Countess of Aumale 351 352 353 was born about 1030 and died between 1081 and 1090.

170. Fulk IV "le Réchin", Count of Anjou 260 261 262 was born in 1043 in Anjou, France and died on 14 Apr 1109 at age 66.

Research Notes: From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871918 :

Count of Anjou and chronicler. Having inhereted the right to Touraine and Chateau-Landon, half of the Angevin inheritance, from his uncle, Geoffrey Martel I, Fulk went to war against his brother Geoffrey, captured and imprisoned him in 1066 and took Anjou and Saintonge, Geoffrey's half of the inheritance, into his domains. The Chronicle of the Counts of Anjou tells that his wife eloped with Philip I of France (RIN # 1332) in 1107. Fulk himself was the initiator of this work in the 1090's, chronicling his forbearers. (This reference is not to his first wife Hildegard, RIN #1763)
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 20,30,33-7

---
From Wikipedia - Fulk IV, Count of Anjou :

Fulk IV (1043-1109), called le Réchin, was the Count of Anjou from 1068 until his death. The nickname by which he is usually referred has no certain translation. Philologists have made numerous very different suggestions, including "quarreler", "sullen", and "heroic".

Biography
He was the younger son of Geoffrey, Count of Gâtinais (sometimes known as Aubri), and Ermengarde of Anjou , a daughter of Fulk the Black , count of Anjou, and sister of Geoffrey Martel , also count of Anjou.

When Geoffrey Martel died without direct heirs he left Anjou to his nephew Geoffrey III of Anjou , Fulk le Réchin's older brother.

Fulk fought with his brother, whose rule was deemed incompetent, and captured him in 1067. Under pressure from the Church he released Geoffrey. The two brothers soon fell to fighting again, and the next year Geoffrey was again imprisoned by Fulk, this time for good.

Substantial territory was lost to Angevin control due to the difficulties resulting from Geoffrey's poor rule and the subsequent civil war. Saintonge was lost, and Fulk had to give the Gâtinais to Philip I of France to placate the king.

Much of Fulk's rule was devoted to regaining control over the Angevin baronage, and to a complex struggle with Normandy for influence in Maine and Brittany .

In 1096 Fulk wrote an incomplete history of Anjou and its rulers titled Fragmentum historiae Andegavensis or "History of Anjou", though the authorship and authenticity of this work is disputed. Only the first part of the history, describing Fulk's ancestry, is extant. The second part, supposedly describing Fulk's own rule, has not been recovered. If he did write it, it is one of the first medieval works of history written by a layman.[1]

Fulk may have married as many as five times; there is some doubt regarding two of the marriages.
His first wife was Hildegarde of Baugency . After her death, before 1070, he married Ermengarde de Borbon , and then possibly Orengarde de Châtellailon . Both these were repudiated (Ermengarde de Borbon in 1075 and Orengarde de Chatellailon in 1080), possibly on grounds of consanguinity.

By 1080 he may have married Mantie , daughter of Walter I of Brienne . This marriage also ended in divorce, in 1087. Finally, he married Bertrade de Montfort , who was apparently "abducted" by King Philip I of France in 1092.

He had two sons. The eldest (a son of Ermengarde de Borbon), Geoffrey IV Martel , ruled jointly with him for some time, but died in 1106. The younger (a son of Bertrade de Montfort) succeeded him as Fulk V .

He also had a daughter by Hildegarde of Baugency, Ermengarde , who married firstly with William IX , count of Poitou and duke of Aquitaine and secondly with Alan IV, Duke of Brittany .

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Anjou: 1068-1109.

Fulk married Bertrade, de Montfort,354 daughter of Simon I de Montfort and Agnes d'Évreux, in 1089. Bertrade was born about 1070 and died on 14 Feb 1117 in <Fontevraud Abbey> about age 47. Another name for Bertrade was Beatrice de Montfort.

Research Notes: 5th wife of Fulk IV. "Abducted" by King Philip I of France in 1092.

From Wikipedia - Bertrade de Montfort :

Bertrade de Montfort (c. 1070-14 February 1117) was the daughter of Simon I de Montfort and Agnes, Countess of Evreux . Her brother was Amauri de Montfort .


Marriages
The oft-married Fulk IV, Count of Anjou was married to the mother of his son in 1089, when the lovely Bertrade caught his eye. According to the chronicler John of Marmoutier :
The lecherous Fulk then fell passionately in love with the sister of Amaury of Montfort, whom no good man ever praised save for her beauty. For her sake, he divorced the mother of Geoffrey II Martel…

Bertrade and Fulk were married, and they became the parents of a son, Fulk , but in 1092 Bertrade left her husband and took up with King Philip I of France . Philip married her on 15 May 1092, despite the fact that they both had spouses living. He was so enamoured of Bertrade that he refused to leave her even when threatened with excommunication . Pope Urban II did excommunicate him in 1095, and Philip was prevented from taking part in the First Crusade . Astonishingly, Bertrade persuaded Philip and Fulk to be friends.

Children
With Fulk IV, Count of Anjou :
Fulk of Jerusalem , Count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem (1089/92 - 1143)

With Philip I of France :
Philippe de France, Count of Mantes (living in 1123)
Fleury de France, seigneur of Nangis (living in 1118)
Cecile of France (died 1145), married (1) Tancred, Prince of Galilee ; married (2) Pons of Tripoli

Later life
According to Orderic Vitalis , Bertrade was anxious that one of her sons succeed Philip, and sent a letter to King Henry I of England asking him to arrest her stepson Louis . Orderic also claims she sought to kill Louis first through the arts of sorcery, and then through poison. Whatever the truth of these allegations, Louis succeeded Philip in 1108. Bertrade lived on until 1117; William of Malmesbury says: "Bertrade, still young and beautiful, took the veil at Fontevraud Abbey , always charming to men, pleasing to God, and like an angel." Her son from her first marriage was Fulk V of Anjou who later became King of Jerusalem iure uxoris . The dynasties founded by Fulk's sons ruled for centuries, one of them in England (Plantagenet ), the other in Jerusalem .


The child from this marriage was:

+ 225 M    i. Fulk V "the Young", Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem 355 356 357 was born in 1092 in Angers, France and died on 10 Nov 1144 in Acre, Palestine at age 52.

Fulk next married Hildegarde, of Baugency.358 Hildegarde died before 1070.

171. Adelaide de Vermandois, Countess of Vermandois and Valois 100 266 267 was born about 1065 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France> and died on 28 Sep 1120 in <Vermandois> about age 55. Another name for Adelaide was Adele of Vermandois.

Death Notes: Possibly d. 1124

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

[Adele of Vermandois] was the heiress of the county of Vermandois, and descendant of a junior patrilineal line of descent from Charlemagne . The first Count of Vermandois was Pepin of Vermandois . He was a son of Bernard of Italy , grandson of Pippin of Italy and great-grandson of Charlemagne and Hildegard .

As such, Elizabeth had distinguished ancestry and connections. Her father was a younger brother of Philip I of France and her mother was among the last Carolingians . She was also distantly related to the Kings of England , the Dukes of Normandy , the Counts of Flanders and through her Carolingian ancestors to practically every major nobleman in Western Europe .

Adelaide married Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France,273 274 son of Henry I, of France and Anne, of Kiev, before 1080. Hugh was born in 1057 and died on 18 Oct 1102 in Tarsus, Cilicia, (Turkey) at age 45. Other names for Hugh were Hugh of Vermandois, Hugues "le Grand" de France, Hugh Magnus, and Hugh de Vermandois.

Marriage Notes: After 1067 and before 1080?
FamilySearch has m. abt 1064.

Death Notes: Died on crusade.

Research Notes: Duke of France and Burgundy, Marquis of Orleans, Count of Amiens, Chaumont, Paris, Valois, and Vermandois. He was a leader of the First Crusade.

First husband of Adelaide de Vermandois.

From Wikipedia - Hugh of Vermandois :

Hugh of Vermandois (1053 - October 18 , 1101 ), was son to King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev , and the younger brother of King Philip I of France . He was in his own right Count of Vermandois . William of Tyre called him "Hugh Magnus", Hugh the Great, but he was an ineffectual leader and soldier, great only in his boasting. Indeed, Sir Steven Runciman is certain that "Magnus" is a copyist's error, and should be "minus", "the younger" (referring to Hugh as younger brother of the King of France).

In early 1096 Hugh and Philip began discussing the First Crusade after news of the Council of Clermont reached them in Paris . Although Philip could not participate, as he had been excommunicated , Hugh was said to have been influenced to join the Crusade after an eclipse of the moon on February 11 , 1096.

That summer Hugh's army left France for Italy , where they would cross the Adriatic Sea into territory of the Byzantine Empire , unlike the other Crusader armies who were travelling by land. On the way, many of the soldiers led by fellow Crusader Emicho joined Hugh's army after Emicho was defeated by the Hungarians , whose land he had been pillaging. Hugh crossed the Adriatic from Bari in Southern Italy , but many of his ships were destroyed in a storm off the Byzantine port of Dyrrhachium .
Hugh and most of his army was rescued and escorted to Constantinople , where they arrived in November of 1096. Prior to his arrival, Hugh sent an arrogant, insulting letter to Eastern Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus , according to the Emperor's biography by his daughter (the Alexiad), demanding that Alexius meet with him:

"Know, O King, that I am King of Kings, and superior to all, who are under the sky. You are now permitted to greet me, on my arrival, and to receive me with magnificence, as befits my nobility."

Alexius was already wary of the armies about to arrive, after the unruly mob led by Peter the Hermit had passed through earlier in the year. Alexius kept Hugh in custody in a monastery until Hugh swore an oath of vassalage to him.

After the Crusaders had successfully made their way across Seljuk territory and, in 1098 , captured Antioch , Hugh was sent back to Constantinople to appeal for reinforcements from Alexius. Alexius was uninterested, however, and Hugh, instead of returning to Antioch to help plan the siege of Jerusalem , went back to France. There he was scorned for not having fulfilled his vow as a Crusader to complete a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and Pope Paschal II threatened to excommunicate him. He joined the minor Crusade of 1101 , but was wounded in battle with the Turks in September, and died of his wounds in October in Tarsus .

Family and children
He married Adele of Vermandois, the daughter of Herbert IV of Vermandois and Adele of Valois .They had nine children:
Count Raoul I of Vermandois
Henry, senior of Chaumont-en-Vexin , (d. 1130 ).
Simon, Bishop of Noyon
Elizabeth de Vermandois , married
Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester ;
William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey
Matilde de Vermandois, married Raoul I of Beaugency
Constance de Vermandois, married Godefroy de la Ferte-Gaucher
Agnes de Vermandois, married Margrave Boniface del Vasto . Mother of Adelaide del Vasto .
Beatrix de Vermandois, married Hugh III of Gournay-en-Bray
Emma de Vermandois



Children from this marriage were:

+ 226 F    i. Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester 266 359 was born about 1081 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France>, died on 13 Feb 1131 in England about age 50, and was buried in Lewes, Sussex, England.

   227 M    ii. Raoul I, Count of Vermandois . Another name for Raoul was Count Raoul of Vermandois.

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

   228 M    iii. Henry, of Chaumont-en-Vexin died in 1130.

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

   229 M    iv. Simon, Bishop of Noyon .

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

   230 F    v. Matilde de Vermandois .

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois
Married Raoul I of Beaugency

   231 F    vi. Constance de Vermandois .

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

Married Godefroy de la Ferte-Gaoucher

   232 F    vii. Agnes de Vermandois .

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

Married Margrave Boniface del Vasto. ;Mother of Adelaide del Vasto

   233 F    viii. Beatrix de Vermandois .

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

Married Hugh III of Gournay-en-Bray

   234 F    ix. Emma de Vermandois .

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

173. Beatrix, of Hainaut 216 was born about 998 in <Hainaut, Belgium>.

Beatrix married Ebles I, Count of Rheims & Roucy, Archbishop of Rheims,171 172 son of Giselbert, Count of Roucy and Unknown,. Ebles was born about 980 in <Roucy, Marne, France> and died on 11 May 1033 about age 53.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f93/a0019300.htm has b. 994.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 110)

Beatrix next married Manasses Calva Asina de Rameru,154 son of Hilduin II de Rameru and Unknown,. Manasses was born about 1010 in <Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died on 15 Nov 1057 in Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, Lorraine, France about age 47. Another name for Manasses was Manasses de Dammartin Count of Dammartin.

Death Notes: Was killed during the Siege of Bar-le-Duc.

Research Notes: Second husband of Beatrix of Hainaut

174. William I, Count of Nevers 269 was born about 1030 and died on 20 Jun 1100 about age 70.

William married Ermengarde,360 daughter of Renaud, Count of Tonnerre and Unknown, in 1045.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 235 M    i. Renaud II de Nevers, Count of Nevers and Auxerre 361 362 was born about 1047 in <Nevers, Nievre>, France and died on 5 Aug 1089 about age 42.

178. Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France 273 274 was born in 1057 and died on 18 Oct 1102 in Tarsus, Cilicia, (Turkey) at age 45. Other names for Hugh were Hugh of Vermandois, Hugues "le Grand" de France, Hugh Magnus, and Hugh de Vermandois.

Death Notes: Died on crusade.

Research Notes: Duke of France and Burgundy, Marquis of Orleans, Count of Amiens, Chaumont, Paris, Valois, and Vermandois. He was a leader of the First Crusade.

First husband of Adelaide de Vermandois.

From Wikipedia - Hugh of Vermandois :

Hugh of Vermandois (1053 - October 18 , 1101 ), was son to King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev , and the younger brother of King Philip I of France . He was in his own right Count of Vermandois . William of Tyre called him "Hugh Magnus", Hugh the Great, but he was an ineffectual leader and soldier, great only in his boasting. Indeed, Sir Steven Runciman is certain that "Magnus" is a copyist's error, and should be "minus", "the younger" (referring to Hugh as younger brother of the King of France).

In early 1096 Hugh and Philip began discussing the First Crusade after news of the Council of Clermont reached them in Paris . Although Philip could not participate, as he had been excommunicated , Hugh was said to have been influenced to join the Crusade after an eclipse of the moon on February 11 , 1096.

That summer Hugh's army left France for Italy , where they would cross the Adriatic Sea into territory of the Byzantine Empire , unlike the other Crusader armies who were travelling by land. On the way, many of the soldiers led by fellow Crusader Emicho joined Hugh's army after Emicho was defeated by the Hungarians , whose land he had been pillaging. Hugh crossed the Adriatic from Bari in Southern Italy , but many of his ships were destroyed in a storm off the Byzantine port of Dyrrhachium .
Hugh and most of his army was rescued and escorted to Constantinople , where they arrived in November of 1096. Prior to his arrival, Hugh sent an arrogant, insulting letter to Eastern Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus , according to the Emperor's biography by his daughter (the Alexiad), demanding that Alexius meet with him:

"Know, O King, that I am King of Kings, and superior to all, who are under the sky. You are now permitted to greet me, on my arrival, and to receive me with magnificence, as befits my nobility."

Alexius was already wary of the armies about to arrive, after the unruly mob led by Peter the Hermit had passed through earlier in the year. Alexius kept Hugh in custody in a monastery until Hugh swore an oath of vassalage to him.

After the Crusaders had successfully made their way across Seljuk territory and, in 1098 , captured Antioch , Hugh was sent back to Constantinople to appeal for reinforcements from Alexius. Alexius was uninterested, however, and Hugh, instead of returning to Antioch to help plan the siege of Jerusalem , went back to France. There he was scorned for not having fulfilled his vow as a Crusader to complete a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and Pope Paschal II threatened to excommunicate him. He joined the minor Crusade of 1101 , but was wounded in battle with the Turks in September, and died of his wounds in October in Tarsus .

Family and children
He married Adele of Vermandois, the daughter of Herbert IV of Vermandois and Adele of Valois .They had nine children:
Count Raoul I of Vermandois
Henry, senior of Chaumont-en-Vexin , (d. 1130 ).
Simon, Bishop of Noyon
Elizabeth de Vermandois , married
Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester ;
William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey
Matilde de Vermandois, married Raoul I of Beaugency
Constance de Vermandois, married Godefroy de la Ferte-Gaucher
Agnes de Vermandois, married Margrave Boniface del Vasto . Mother of Adelaide del Vasto .
Beatrix de Vermandois, married Hugh III of Gournay-en-Bray
Emma de Vermandois


Hugh married Adelaide de Vermandois, Countess of Vermandois and Valois,100 266 267 daughter of Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois and Valois and Adela, of Valois and Vexin, before 1080. Adelaide was born about 1065 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France> and died on 28 Sep 1120 in <Vermandois> about age 55. Another name for Adelaide was Adele of Vermandois.

Marriage Notes: After 1067 and before 1080?
FamilySearch has m. abt 1064.

Death Notes: Possibly d. 1124

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

[Adele of Vermandois] was the heiress of the county of Vermandois, and descendant of a junior patrilineal line of descent from Charlemagne . The first Count of Vermandois was Pepin of Vermandois . He was a son of Bernard of Italy , grandson of Pippin of Italy and great-grandson of Charlemagne and Hildegard .

As such, Elizabeth had distinguished ancestry and connections. Her father was a younger brother of Philip I of France and her mother was among the last Carolingians . She was also distantly related to the Kings of England , the Dukes of Normandy , the Counts of Flanders and through her Carolingian ancestors to practically every major nobleman in Western Europe .

(Duplicate Line. See Person 171)

179. Robert I, Count of Flanders 275 276 was born between 1029 and 1035 and died on 13 Oct 1093 in Kassel. Another name for Robert was Robert "the Friesian."

Birth Notes: Wikipedia has b. 1033.

Death Notes: May have died on 3 Oct 1093.

Research Notes: Second son of Baldwin V of Flanders. Second husband of Gertrude of Saxony.

From Wikipedia - Robert I, Count of Flanders :

Robert I of Flanders (1029/1032 - 13 October 1093 in Kassel ), known as Robert the Frisian, was count of Flanders from 1071 to 1092.


History
He was the younger son of Baldwin V of Flanders and Adèle , a daughter of King Robert II of France .

Robert was originally intended to secure the northern borders of Flanders by his marriage to Gertrude of Saxony , Dowager Countess of Holland, but after his brother's death in 1070 he displaced his nephews and became count of Flanders.

Family
By Gertrude of Saxony he had five children:
Robert II
Adela (d. 1115), who first married king Canute IV of Denmark , and was the mother of Charles the Good , later count of Flanders. She then married Roger Borsa , duke of Apulia .
Gertrude, who married 1) Henry III, Count of Louvain and had 4 children.[1] 2) Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine , and was the mother of Thierry of Alsace , also later count of Flanders
Philip of Loo, whose illegitimate son William of Ypres was also a claimant to the county of Flanders
Ogiva, abbess of Messines

Count of Flanders
Robert's nephew Arnulf III (son of Baldwin VI of Flanders ) succeeded his father in 1070 and was supported by his mother Richilde, Countess of Mons and Hainaut . However, Robert challenged Arnulf's succession to the throne of Flanders and began rallying support mainly in northern Flanders (where the bulk of Arnulf's forces were located). Arnulf's ranks contained individuals such as Count Eustace II of Boulogne , Count Eustace III of Boulogne , and Godfrey of Bouillon .

Moreover, Arnulf was supported by King Philip I of France since Philip's aunt, Adela , married Baldwin V of Flanders . A contingent of ten Norman knights led by William FitzOsborn were among the forces sent by Philip to aid Arnulf. Robert's forces attacked Arnulf's numerically superior army at Cassel before it could organize. Arnulf himself was killed along with William FitzOsborn while Richilde was captured by Robert's forces. However, Robert himself was captured by Eustace II. Ultimately, Richilde was exchanged for Robert's freedom.[1] As a result of the battle Robert became count of Flanders.

Robert married Gertrude, of Saxony,363 364 daughter of Bernard II, Duke in Saxony and Eilika, of Schweinfurt, in 1063. Gertrude was born about 1030 and died on 4 Aug 1113 about age 83. Another name for Gertrude was Gertrude Billung.

Research Notes: Widow of Florent I (Floris I), Count of Holland.

From Wikipedia - Gertrude of Saxony :

Gertrude of Saxony (also known as Gertrude Billung) (c. 1030 - August 4 , 1113 ), was the daughter of Bernard II, Duke of Saxony and Eilika of Schweinfurt . She married Floris I, Count of Holland (c. 1017 - June 28 , 1061 ) c. 1050, and upon his death, her son Dirk V became Count of Holland . Since he was still young, she became regent.

When Dirk V came into power, William I, Bishop of Utrecht , took advantage of the situation, occupying territory that he had claimed in Holland . Gertrude and her son withdrew to the islands of Frisia (Zeeland), leaving William to occupy the disputed lands.

In 1063 Gertrude married Robert of Flanders (Robert the Frisian), the second son of Baldwin V of Flanders . This act gave Dirk the Imperial Flanders as an appanage - including the islands of Frisia west of the Frisian Scheldt . She and her husband then acted as co-regents for the young count.

Family and children
She had a total of seven children with Floris I:
Albrecht (b. ca. 1051), a canon in Liege .
Dirk V (ca. 1052, Vlaardingen -17 June 1091 ).
Pieter (b. ca. 1053), a canon in Liége.
Bertha (ca. 1055-1094, Montreuil-sur-Mer ), who married Philip I of France in 1072.
Floris (b. ca. 1055), a canon in Liége.
Machteld (b. ca. 1057)
Adela (b. ca. 1061), who married Count Baudouin I of Guînes .

From her second marriage to Robert I she had five children:
Robert II of Flanders (c. 1065 - October 5 , 1111 ).
Adela (d.1115), who first married king Canute IV of Denmark , and was the mother of Charles the Good , later count of Flanders. She then married Roger Borsa , duke of Apulia .
Gertrude, who married Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine , and was the mother of Thierry of Alsace , also later count of Flanders.
Philip of Loo, whose illegitimate son William of Ypres was also a claimant to the county of Flanders.
Ogiva, abbess of Messines.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 236 F    i. Gertrude, of Flanders 341 was born about 1070 and died in 1117 about age 47.

180. Matilda, of Flanders 277 278 was born about 1032 in Flanders, died on 2 Nov 1083 in Caen, Normandy, France about age 51, and was buried in Abbaye aux Dames, Caen, Normandy, France. Another name for Matilda was Maud of Flanders.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots gives both abt. 1031 and 1032.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots gives 1 Nov 1083 and 2 Nov 1083.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Matilda of Flanders :

Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 - 2 November 1083) was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England and the wife of William I the Conqueror .

She was the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Flanders , and Adèle (1000-1078/9), daughter of Robert II of France .

At 4'2" (127 cm) tall, Matilda was England's smallest queen, according to the Guinness Book of Records . According to legend, Matilda (or "Maud") told the representative of William, Duke of Normandy (later king of England as William the Conqueror), who had come asking for her hand, that she was far too high-born (being descended from King Alfred the Great of England) to consider marrying a bastard. When that was repeated to him, William rode from Normandy to Bruges , found Matilda on her way to church, dragged her off her horse by her long braids, threw her down in the street in front of her flabbergasted attendants, and then rode off. Another version of the story states that William rode to Matilda's father's house in Lille, threw her to the ground in her room (again, by the braids), and hit her (or violently shook her) before leaving. Naturally Baldwin took offense at this but, before they drew swords, Matilda settled the matter [1] by deciding to marry him, and even a papal ban (on the grounds of consanguinity ) did not dissuade her. They were married in 1053.

There were rumours that Matilda had been in love with the English ambassador to Flanders , a Saxon named Brihtric, who declined her advances. Whatever the truth of the matter, years later when she was acting as Regent for William in England, she used her authority to confiscate Brihtric's lands and throw him into prison, where he died.

When William was preparing to invade England, Matilda outfitted a ship, the Mora, out of her own money and gave it to him. For many years it was thought that she had some involvement in the creation of the Bayeux Tapestry (commonly called La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde in French), but historians no longer believe that; it seems to have been commissioned by William's half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux , and made by English artists in Kent .

Matilda bore William eleven children, and he was believed to have been faithful to her, at least up until the time their son Robert rebelled against his father and Matilda sided with Robert against William. After she died, in 1083 at the age of 51, William became tyrannical, and people blamed it on his having lost her. Contrary to the belief that she was buried at St. Stephen's, also called l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes in Caen , Normandy , where William was eventually buried, she is intombed at l'Abbaye aux Dames , which is the Sainte-Trinité church, also in Caen. Of particular interest is the 11th century slab, a sleek black stone decorated with her epitaph, marking her grave at the rear of the church. It is of special note since the grave marker for William was replaced as recently as the beginning of the 19th century. In 1961, their graves were opened and their bones measured, proving their physical statures. [2]

Children
Some doubt exists over how many daughters there were. This list includes some entries which are obscure.
Robert Curthose (c. 1054 - 1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano , daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano
Adeliza (or Alice) (c. 1055 - ?), reportedly betrothed to Harold II of England (Her existence is in some doubt.)
Cecilia (or Cecily) (c. 1056 - 1126), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen
William Rufus (1056 - 1100), King of the English
Richard, Duke of Bernay (1057 - c. 1081), killed by a stag in New Forest
Adela (c. 1062 - 1138), married Stephen, Count of Blois
Agatha (c. 1064 - c. 1080), betrothed to (1) Harold of Wessex , (2) Alfonso VI of Castile
Constance (c. 1066 - 1090), married Alan IV Fergent , Duke of Brittany ; poisoned, possibly by her own servants
Matilda (very obscure, her existence is in some doubt)
Henry Beauclerc (1068-1135), King of England, married (1) Edith of Scotland , daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland , (2) Adeliza of Louvain
NOTE:
Gundred
(c. 1063 - 1085), wife of William de Warenne (c. 1055 - 1088), was formerly thought of as being yet another of Matilda's daughters, with speculation that she was William I's full daughter, a stepdaughter, or even a foundling or adopted daughter. However, this connection to William I has now been firmly debunked--see Gundred's discussion page for further information.
Matilda was a seventh generation direct descendent of Alfred the Great . Her marriage to William strengthened his claim to the throne. All sovereigns of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom have been descended from her, as is the present Queen Elizabeth II .




Matilda married William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, King of England,237 350 son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy and Harlette de Falaise, in 1053 in Cathedral de Notre Dame, Normandie, France. William was born about 1028 in Falaise, Normandy, France and died on 9 Sep 1087 in Rouen, Normandy, France about age 59. Other names for William were William of Normandy and William I King of England.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia (William the Conqueror) and thepeerage.com give b. in 1027 or 1028.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 237 F    i. Adela, of Normandy 365 366 was born between 1062 and 1067 and died about 8 Mar 1137.

+ 238 M    ii. Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England 367 368 was born between May 1068 and May 1069 in <Selby, Yorkshire>, England and died on 1 Dec 1135 in St. Denis-le-Fermont, France.

181. Judith, of Normandy 279 was born in 1028 and died on 4 Mar 1094 at age 66.

Judith married Tostig, Earl of Northumbria.369 Tostig died on 25 Sep 1066.

Research Notes: First husband of Judith of Normandy.

Judith next married Welf IV, Duke of Bavaria 370 in 1071. Welf died on 6 Nov 1101.

Research Notes: Second husband of Judith of Normandy.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 239 M    i. Henry I, Duke of Bavaria 371 was born in 1074 and died on 13 Dec 1126 at age 52.

182. Henry, of Burgundy 71 281 282 was born about 1035 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died about 1071 about age 36. Another name for Henry was Henri Comte de Bourgogne.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 27 Jan. 1066/7 and d. 27 Jan.1066/1074. Wikipedia has d. abt. 1071.

Research Notes: His wife was NOT named Sibylle of Barcelona, daughter of Berenger Ramon I, according to Wikipedia.

From Wikipedia - Henry of Burgundy :

Henry of Burgundy (1035 - c. 1071 ) was the son and heir of Robert I , duke of Burgundy . He died shortly before his father and failed to succeed in Burgundy. The name of his wife is unknown (that it was Sibil has been discredited) as is her origin, although a connection to the Counts of Barcelona has been hypothesized. Their children were:
Hugh I, Duke of Burgundy (1057-1093)
Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy (1058-1103)
Robert, bishop of Langres (1059-1111)
Helie, a nun (b. 1061)
Beatrice (b. 1063), married Guy I, count of Vignory
Reginald, abbot of St Pierre (1065-1092)
Henry, Count of Portugal (1066-1112), who became a vassal of León and ruler of the county of Portugal in 1093; his son would be Afonso Henriques , first king of Portugal

Noted events in his life were:

• "Le damoiseau de Bourgogne":

Henry married < >, [Not Sibylle of Barcelona].

Children from this marriage were:

   240 M    i. Hugh I, Duke of Burgundy was born in 1057 and died in 1093 at age 36.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia (Henry of Burgundy)

+ 241 M    ii. Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy 372 373 was born about 1058 and died on 23 Mar 1103 in Cilicia about age 45.

   242 M    iii. Robert, Bishop of Langres was born in 1059 and died in 1111 at age 52.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Henry of Burgundy

+ 243 F    iv. Beatrice, of Burgundy 374 was born about 1063 and died after 1110.

   244 M    v. Reginald, Abbot of St. Pierre was born in 1065 and died in 1092 at age 27.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Henry of Burgundy

+ 245 M    vi. Henry, of Burgundy, Count of Portugal 71 375 376 was born in 1069 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 1 Nov 1112 at age 43.

   246 F    vii. Helie .

Research Notes: A nun.

Source: Wikipedia - Henry of Burgundy

183. Constance, of Burgundy 283 284 was born in 1046 and died in 1092 at age 46.

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. 1093

Research Notes: Second wife of Alfonso VI.

From Wikipedia - Constance of Burgundy :

Constance of Burgundy (1046 - 1093), was the daughter of Duke Robert I of Burgundy and Helie de Semur-en-Brionnais .
She built a monastery in Burgos for Adelelmus in 1079. She married Alfonso VI of Castile on May 8 , 1079 . They had two children:
Urraca of Castile (1079 - March 8 , 1126 ).
Elvira of Castile. Considered to have died young.

Constance married Alfonso VI "the Brave", of Castile, King of Castile and Leon,71 377 378 son of Ferdinand I, King of Castile and Léon and Sancha, Princess of Léon, in 1081. Alfonso was born before Jun 1040 in <Burgos, Castile>, Spain and died on 29 Jun 1109 in Toledo, Castile, Spain. Another name for Alfonso was Alfonso I of Castile.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. 1039

Research Notes: Second husband of Constance of Burgundy.

From Wikipedia - Alfonso VI of León and Castile :

Alfonso VI (before June 1040 - June 29 /July 1 , 1109 ), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile from 1072 following the death of his brother Sancho II . In 1077 he proclaimed himself "Emperor of all Spain ". Much romance has gathered around his name.

Early life
As the second and favorite son of King Ferdinand I of León and Princess Sancha of León , Alfonso was allotted León, while Castile was given to his eldest brother Sancho , and Galicia to his youngest brother García . Sancho was assassinated in 1072. García was dethroned and imprisoned for life the following year.

In the cantar de gesta The Lay of the Cid , he plays the part attributed by medieval poets to the greatest kings, and to Charlemagne himself. He is alternately the oppressor and the victim of heroic and self-willed nobles - the idealized types of the patrons for whom the jongleurs and troubadours sang. He is the hero of a cantar de gesta which, like all but a very few of the early Spanish songs, like the cantar of Bernardo del Carpio and the Infantes of Lara , exists now only in the fragments incorporated in the chronicle of Alfonso the Wise or in ballad form.

His flight from the monastery of Sahagún (Safagún in Leonese language ), where his brother Sancho endeavoured to imprison him, his chivalrous friendship for his host Almamun of Toledo , caballero aunque moro, "a knight although a Moor ", the passionate loyalty of his vassal, Pero (Pedro) Ansúrez, and his brotherly love for his sister Urraca of Zamora , may owe something to the poet who took him as a hero.

They are the answer to the poet of the nobles who represented the king as having submitted to taking a degrading oath at the hands of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid ) to deny intervention in his brother's death in the church of Santa Gadea at Burgos , and as having then persecuted the brave man who defied him.

Marriages and children
Alfonso married at least five times and had two mistresses and a fiancée:

In 1067, two brothers from Iberia are said to have competed for the hand of Agatha , one of the daughters of William I of England and Matilda of Flanders and formerly fiancee of Harold Godwinson . Alfonso proved successful, and was betrothed to Agatha. A nun at the time, Agatha is said to have prayed for death rather than being forced to marry Alphonso, and she died before the marriage could take place.

In 1069, Alfonso married Agnes of Aquitaine , daughter of William VIII of Aquitaine and his second wife Mateoda. They last appear together in May 1077, and then Alfonso appears alone. This suggests that she had died, although Orderic Vitalis reports that in 1109 Alfonso's 'relict' Agnes remarried to Elias I of Maine , leading some to speculate that Alfonso and Agnes had divorced due to consanguinity . It seems more likely that Orderic gave the wrong name to Alfonso's widow, Beatrice. Agnes and Alfonso had no children.

Apparently between his first and second marriages he formed a liaison with Jimena Muñoz , a "most noble" (nobilissima) concubine "derived from royalty" (real generacion). She appears to have been put aside, given land in Ulver, at the time of Alfonso's remarriage. By her Alfonso had two illegitimate daughters, Elvira and Teresa .

His second wife, who he married by May 1080, was Constance of Burgundy , daughter of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy . This marriage initially faced papal opposition, apparently due to her kinship with Agnes. Her reign as queen brought significant Cluniac influences into the kingdom. She died in September or October, 1093, the mother of Alfonso's eldest legitimate daughter Urraca , and of five other children who died in infancy.

Either late in Constance's reign or shortly after her death, Alfonso formed a liaison with a second mistress, Zaida of Seville , said by Iberian Muslim sources to be daughter-in-law of Al Mutamid , the Muslim King of Seville. She fled the fall of Seville for Alfonso's kingdom in 1091, and soon became his lover, having by him Alfonso's only son, Sancho , who, though illegitimate was apparently not born of an adulterous relationship, and hence born after the death of Constance. He would be named his father's heir. Several modern sources have suggested that Zaida, baptised under the name of Isabel, is identical with Alfonso's later wife, queen Isabel (or that she was a second queen Isabel who he married in succession to the first). Zaida/Isabel died in childbirth, but the date is unknown, and it is unclear whether the child being delivered was Sancho, an additional illegitimate child, otherwise unknown, or legitimate daughter Elvira (if Zaida was identical to Queen Isabel).

By April 1095, Alfonso married Bertha. Chroniclers report her as being from Tuscany , Lombardy , or alternatively, say she was French. Several theories have been put forward regarding her origin. Based on political considerations, proposals make her daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy or of Amadeus II of Savoy . She had no children and died in late 1099 (Alfonso first appears without her in mid-January 1100).

Within months, by May 1100, Alfonso again remarried, to Isabel, having by her two daughters, Sancha, (wife of Rodrigo González de Lara ), and Elvira , (who married Roger II of Sicily ). A non-contemporary tomb inscription says she was daughter of a "king Louis of France ", but this is chronologically impossible. It has been speculated that she was of Burgundian origin, but others conclude that Alfonso married his former mistress, Zaida, who had been baptized as Isabel. (In a novel twist, Reilly suggested that there were two successive queens named Isabel: first the French (Burgundian) Isabel, mother of Sancha and Elvira, with Alfonso only later marrying his mistress Zaida (Isabel), after the death of or divorce from the first Isabel.) Alfonso was again widowed in mid-1107.

By May 1108, Alfonso married his last wife, Beatrice . She, as widow of Alfonso, is said to have returned home to France, but nothing else is known of her origin unless she is the woman Orderic named as "Agnes, daughter of William, Duke of Poitou", who as relict of Alfonso, (Agnetem, filiam Guillelmi, Pictavorum ducis, relictam Hildefonsi senioris, Galliciae regis), remarried to Elias of Maine. If this is the case, she is likely daughter of William IX of Aquitaine and niece of Alfonso's first wife. Beatrice had no children by Alfonso.

Alfonso's designated successor, his son Sancho, was slain after being routed at the Battle of Uclés in 1108, making Alfonso's eldest legitimate daughter, the widowed Urraca as his heir. In order to strengthen her position as his successor, Alfonso began negotiations for her to marry her second cousin, Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre , but died before the marriage could take place, Urraca succeeding.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 247 F    i. Urraca, of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon 25 379 380 was born about 1082 in <Burgos, Castile>, Spain and died on 8 Mar 1126 in Saldana, Palencia, Spain about age 44.

184. Hugues de Dammartin, Count of Dammartin 154 286 was born about 1042 in <Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died in 1103 about age 61.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Dammartin-en-Goële :

History
Dammartin is historically important as the seat of a county of which the holders played a considerable part in French history . The earliest recorded count of Dammartin was a certain Hugh, who made himself master of the town in the 10th century; but his dynasty was replaced by another family in the 11th century. Reynald I (Renaud ), count of Dammartin (d. 1227), who was one of the coalition crushed by King Philip Augustus at the battle of Bouvines (1214), left two co-heiresses, of whom the elder, Maud (Matilda or Mahaut), married Philip Hurepel , son of Philip Augustus, and the second, Alix, married Jean de Trie , in whose line the county was reunited after the death of Philip Hurepel's son Alberic. The county passed, through heiresses, to the houses of Fayel and Nanteuil , and in the 15th century was acquired by Antoine de Chabannes (d. 1488), one of the favorites of King Charles VII , by his marriage with Marguerite, heiress of Reynald V of Nanteuil-Aci and Marie of Dammartin. This Antoine de Chabannes, count of Dammartin in right of his wife, fought under the standard of Joan of Arc , became a leader of the Ecorcheurs , took part in the war of the public weal against Louis XI , and then fought for him against the Burgundians . The collegiate church at Dammartin was founded by him in 1480, and his tomb and effigy are in the chancel.

His son, Jean de Chabannes , left three heiresses, of whom the second left a daughter who brought the county to Philippe de Boulainvilliers , by whose heirs it was sold in 1554 to the dukes of Montmorency . In 1632 the county was confiscated by Louis XIII and bestowed on the princes of Conde .

Hugues married Roaide, Countess of Bulles.154 Roaide was born about 1046 in Bulles, Oise, France.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 248 F    i. Aelis de Dammartin 71 was born about 1084 in Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne, France.

185. Adela, de Rameru .289

Adela married Arnold II, Count of Chiny. Arnold died in 1106.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-23 (Adelaide of Namur)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 249 M    i. Otto II, Count of Chiny died on 28 Mar 1125.

186. Beatrix de Mondidier 290 died 2 Sep aft 1129.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A-23

Beatrix married Geoffroy IV, Count of Mortagne, 1st Count de Perche,381 son of Routrou II, Count of Mortagne, Viscount of Chateaudun and Adeline de Bellesme, Dame de Domfront,. Geoffroy died in 1100.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A-23 (Beatrix de Montdidier)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 250 F    i. Maud, de Perche was born in 1105 and died on 28 May 1143 at age 38.

+ 251 F    ii. Margaret de Perche 382 died after 1156.

+ 252 F    iii. Juliana, of Mortagne and Perche .383

187. Marguerite de Rameru 291 292 293 was born between 1045 and 1050 in <Montdidier, Somme, France> and died about 1110. Other names for Marguerite were Marguerite de Montdidier, Margaret de Mondidier, Margaret de Rameru, and Margaret de Roucy.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. abt 1050; http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f96/a0019615.htm has b. 1045.

Marguerite married Hugh de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,293 384 385 son of Renaud de Clermont and Ermengardis de Clermont, about 1080. Hugh was born about 1030 in <Clermont, Oise (Picardie), France> and died in 1101 about age 71. Other names for Hugh were Hugh Count of Clermont, Creil and Mouchy, Hugues Comte de Clermont, and Hugh de Creil Count of Clermont in Beauvaisis.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Clermont in Beauvaisis:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 253 F    i. Adelaide de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis 293 386 387 was born about 1058 in <Northamptonshire, England> and died in <England>.

+ 254 F    ii. Ermentrude de Clermont 388 was born about 1066 in <Clermont, Beauvais, France>.

+ 255 M    iii. Renaud II, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis 154 389 390 was born about 1108 in Clermont, Oise, France and died about 1162 about age 54.

188. Andre I de Rameru, and d'Arcis-sur-Aube 294 died in 1118.

Andre married Adele.

Research Notes: First wife of Andre I de Rameru.

Andre next married Guisemode.391

Research Notes: Second wife of Andre I de Rameru. Widow of Hugue of Pleurs. Was she the mother of Alix de Rameru?

Noted events in her life were:

• Founded: Abbey de Bassefontaine, 1143.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 256 F    i. Alix de Rameru, Dame of Rameru .392

189. Raymond, of Burgundy, Count of Amous 296 297 was born about 1060 in <Dijon>, France and died on 26 Mar 1107 in Grajal do Campos, Léon, Spain about age 47. Other names for Raymond were Raimundo of Burgundy and Raymond de Bourgogne.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1065

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. September 1107. FamilySearch has d. 24 Mar 1107.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Raymond of Burgundy :

Raymond of Burgundy (Spanish and Portuguese : Raimundo) was the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy and was Count of Amous . He came to the Iberian Peninsula for the first time during the period 1086-1087 with Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy . He came for the second time (1090) to marry Urraca of Castile , eventual heiress of Alfonso VI of Castile , King of León and Castile .
He came with his cousin Henry of Burgundy , who married the other daughter of Alfonso VI, Teresa of León (or Portugal ). By his marriage Raymond received the County of Galicia , the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra . The last two were later offered to Henry of Burgundy, father of the first Portuguese King Afonso I Henriques of Portugal .

He was succeeded by his son:
Alfonso VII of Castile and Leon (1104/1105-1157)

Raymond married Urraca, of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon,25 379 380 daughter of Alfonso VI "the Brave", of Castile, King of Castile and Leon and Constance, of Burgundy, about 1087 in Toledo, Castile, Spain. Urraca was born about 1082 in <Burgos, Castile>, Spain and died on 8 Mar 1126 in Saldana, Palencia, Spain about age 44. Other names for Urraca were Urraca of Léon, Urraca I Queen of Léon and Castile, and Urraca Alfonsez of Castile and Léon.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Urraca of León and Castile :

Urraca of León (1078 - March 8 , 1126 ) was Queen of León and Castile from 1109 to her death. She was the first woman ever to reign in a western European monarchy. Urraca was the daughter of Alfonso VI of León by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy . She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Uclés (1108) .
In childhood, she was betrothed to and later married Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). The widow Urraca was now ruler of Galicia, and as She her father's only surviving legitimate child, she could claim to be heiress of the reign of Castile. King Alfonso VI of León selected the king of Navarre and Aragon, Alfonso I of Aragon as her husband. They had hoped for an alliance that would safeguard the kingdom, since Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. However, the marriage proved barren and turned exceedingly bitter. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir , Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

Urraca and Alfonso of Aragon were also second cousins, and Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo , objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguineous . Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón . Their inability to produce a child created a rift, and Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. The royal couple were soon separated. By October of 1110 or 1111, her supporters fought a battle against Alfonso's forces at Candespina , in which her premier nobleman and former aspirant to her hand, count Gómez González , was killed. A further defeat was inflicted at Viadangos , at which Pedro Froilaz de Traba was captured. Their marriage was annulled in 1114. Urraca never remarried, though she took as lover another powerful nobleman, count Pedro González de Lara.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry , the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon . He alternatively allied with Alfonso I of Aragon , then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.
According to the Chronicon Compostellanum , Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The supposed father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. However the author of the chronicles was openly hostile to the adulterous queen, and the historian Reilly notes that a pregnancy was unlikely at the queen's age of 48. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII .

Illegitimate children
Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover, Pedro González de Lara. She recognized their son, Fernando Perez Furtado , in 1123.

Noted events in her life were:

• Queen of Léon and Castile: 1109-1126.

Children from this marriage were:

   257 F    i. InfantaSancha was born before 1095.

+ 258 M    ii. Alfonso VII, King of Castile and Léon 25 393 394 was born on 1 Mar 1105 in Toledo, Castile, Spain, died on 21 Aug 1157 in La Fresneda, Teruel, Aragon, Spain at age 52, and was buried in Catedral De Toledo, Toledo, Castile.

190. Ermentrude, of Burgundy 154 298 was born about 1060 in Burgundy, France and died after 8 Mar 1105.

Ermentrude married Thierry I, Count of Montbéliard & Bar-le-Duc,154 395 son of Louis, Count of Montbéliard and Sophia, Countess of Bar-le-Duc, in 1076. Thierry was born about 1045 in <Bar-le-Duc, Meuse>, France and died on 2 Jan 1105 about age 60. Another name for Thierry was Dietrich I Count of Montbéliard & Bar-le-Duc.

Research Notes: Count of Bar-le-Duc by right of his wife.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 259 M    i. Renaud I, Count of Mousson, Count of Bar-le-Duc 154 396 was born about 1077 in Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, France and died on 10 Mar 1149 about age 72.

191. Gisele, of Burgundy 71 299 was born about 1070 in <Bourgogne, Champagne, France> and died after 1133. Other names for Gisele were Gille de Bourgogne and Gisela de Bourgogne.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1060 in Bourgogne

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. after 1133

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 101-24 (Louis VI) and line 274A-24 (Humbert II).

Gisele married Humbert II "Le Renforcé", Count of Maurienne and Savoy,25 336 son of Amadeus II, Count of Maurienne and Savoy, Margrave of Susa and Jeanne, of Geneva, about 1090. Humbert was born about 1062 in <Savoie>, France, died on 14 Oct 1103 about age 41, and was buried on 19 Oct 1103.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 274A-24 (new to 8th edition) and line 101-24 (Louis VI)

Noted events in his life were:

• Marquis of Turin:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 260 F    i. Adelaide, of Savoy 397 was born about 1092 and died on 1 Aug 1154 about age 62.

+ 261 M    ii. Amadeus III, Count of Savoy, Maurienne and Turin 398 was born about 1095 in <Savoie>, France and died on 30 Aug 1148 in Cyprus about age 53.

192. Sibylle, of Burgundy-Ivrea 300 died after 1103. Another name for Sibylle was Matilda of Burgundy-Ivrea.

Sibylle married Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy,372 373 son of Henry, of Burgundy and < >, [Not Sibylle of Barcelona], in 1080. Eudes was born about 1058 and died on 23 Mar 1103 in Cilicia about age 45. Other names for Eudes were Eudes I "the Red" of Burgundy and Eudes I Borel of Burgundy.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy :

Eudes I, surnamed Borel and called the Red, (1058-23 March 1103 ) was Duke of Burgundy between 1079 and 1103. Eudes was the second son of Henry of Burgundy and grandson of Robert I . He became the duke following the abdication of his older brother, Hugh I, who retired to become a Benedictine monk. Eudes married Sibylla of Burgundy (1065 - 1101), daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy .

They had:
Florine of Burgundy 1083-1097
Helie of Burgundy 1080-1141 wife of Bertrand of Toulouse and William III of Ponthieu
Hugh II of Burgundy
Henry d.1131

An interesting incident is reported of this robber baron by an eyewitness, Eadmer , biographer of Anselm of Canterbury . While Saint Anselm was progressing through Eudes's territory on his way to Rome in 1097, the bandit, expecting great treasure in the archbishop's retinue, prepared to ambush and loot it. Coming upon the prelate's train, the duke asked for the archbishop, whom they had not found. Anselm promptly came forward and took the duke by surprise, saying "My lord duke, suffer me to embrace thee." The flabbergasted duke immediately allowed the bishop to embrace him and offered himself as Anselm's humble servant.

He was a participant in the ill-fated Crusade of 1101 .

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Burgundy: 1079-1103.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 262 F    i. Hélie, of Burgundy 399 400 was born about 1080 and died on 28 Feb 1141 in Abbey of Perseigne about age 61.

193. Geoffrey, Count of Boulogne, Duke of Lower Lorraine 302 was born prob. bef. 1061 in <Baisy, > Brabant and died on 18 Jul 1100 in Jerusalem, Palestine at age 39. Other names for Geoffrey were Galfrid Count of Boulogne, Godfrey of Jerusalem, Goisfrid Count of Boulogne, and Duke of Lower Lorraine.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1050, Buckinghamshire, England

Noted events in his life were:

• Domesday tenant: 1086, Carshalton, Surrey.

• Leader of the First Crusade:

• Elected King of Jerusalem: but took the title Advocate of the Holy Sepulcher. as Godfrey I

Geoffrey married Beatrice de Mandeville,401 daughter of Geoffrey de Mandeville and Adeliza de Balts,. Another name for Beatrice was Beatrix de Mandeville.

Research Notes: Aunt of the first Earl of Essex.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 263 M    i. William de Boulogne 71 402 was born about 1080 in <Buckinghamshire>, England and died about 1159 about age 79.

194. Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and Lens 303 304 died after 1125.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eustace III, Count of Boulogne :

Eustace III, was a count of Boulogne , successor to his father Count Eustace II of Boulogne . His mother was Ida of Lorraine .

Eustace appeared at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 as an ally of William the Conqueror , and is listed as a possible killer of Harold II ; he is also believed to have given William his own horse after the duke's was killed under him by Gyrth , brother of Harold.

He succeeded to Count of Boulogne in 1087.[1]

He went on the First Crusade in 1096 with his brothers Godfrey of Bouillon (duke of Lower Lotharingia ) and Baldwin of Boulogne . He soon returned to Europe to administer his domains. He married Mary of Scotland , daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland , and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Eustace and Mary had one daughter, Matilda of Boulogne .

When his youngest brother king Baldwin I of Jerusalem died in 1118, the elderly Eustace was offered the throne. Eustace was at first uninterested, but was convinced to accept it; he travelled all the way to Apulia before learning that a distant relative, Baldwin of Bourcq , had been crowned in the meantime. Eustace returned to Boulogne and died about 1125.

On his death the county of Boulogne was inherited by his daughter, Matilda, and her husband Stephen de Blois , count of Mortain , afterwards king of England , and at the death of Matilda in 1151 it was inherited by their son, Eustace IV of Boulogne , later their second son William and ultimately by their daughter Marie of Boulogne , since both sons died without children.

Noted events in his life were:

• Crusader:

• Count of Boulogne: 1087-1125.

Eustace married Mary, of Scotland,403 daughter of Malcolm III Canmore, King of Scots and Saint Margaret, of Scotland, in 1102. Mary died on 18 Apr 1118. Another name for Mary was Marie of Scotland.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 264 F    i. Matilda, of Boulogne 404 405 was born about 1105 in Boulogne, France, died on 3 Jul 1151 in Hedingham Castle about age 46, and was buried in Faversham Abbey.

195. Godefroi de Louvain, Duc de Basse-Lorraine 306 307 was born about 1060 in <Lorraine, France>, died on 25 Jan 1139 in Affligem Abbey, Affligem, Belgium about age 79, and was buried in Church of Affligem Abbey, Affligem, Belgium. Other names for Godefroi were Godfrey I of Brabant, Godfrey I Duke of Lower Lorraine, Count of Louvain, Godfrey I of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Bearded" of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Courageous" of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Great" of Leuven, and Godfrey V or VI Duke of Lower Lorraine.

Research Notes: Duke of Lower Lorraine, Margrave of Antwerp, Count of Louvain

From Wikipedia - Godfrey I of Leuven :

Godfrey I (c. 1060-25 January 1139 ), called the Bearded, the Courageous, or the Great, was the landgrave of Brabant , and count of Brussels and Leuven (or Louvain) from 1095 to his death and duke of Lower Lorraine (as Godfrey V or VI) from 1106 to 1129. He was also margrave of Antwerp from 1106 to his death.

Godfrey was the son of Henry II of Leuven and a countess called Adela (origin unknown). He succeeded his brother Henry III in 1095. He first came into conflict with Otbert, Bishop of Liège , over the county of Brunengeruz that both claimed. In 1099, Emperor Henry IV allotted the county to the bishop, who entrusted it to Albert III, Count of Namur . Godfrey arbitrated a dispute between Henry III of Luxembourg and Arnold I, Count of Loon , over the appointment of the abbot of Sint-Truiden .

Godfrey was in favour with the emperor and defended his interests in Lorraine. In 1102, he stopped Robert II of Flanders , who was invading the Cambraisis . After the death of the emperor in 1106, his son and successor, Henry V , who had been in rebellion, decided to avenge himself on his father's partisans. Duke Henry of Lower Lorraine was imprisoned and his duchy confiscated and given to Godfrey. After Henry escaped from prison, he tried to retake his duchy and captured Aachen , but ultimately failed.
In 1114, during a rift between the emperor and Pope Paschal II , Godfrey led a revolt in Germany. In 1118, the emperor and the duke were reconciled. In 1119, Baldwin VII of Flanders died heirless and Flanders was contested between several claimants, of which William of Ypres had married a niece of Godfrey's second wife. Godfrey supported William, but could not enforce his claim against that of Charles the Good . Also dead in that year was Otbert. Two separate men were elected to replace him and Godfrey again sided with the loser.

By marrying his daughter Adeliza to Henry I of England , who was also the father-in-law of the emperor, he greatly increased his prestige. However, Henry V died in 1125 and Godfrey supported Conrad of Hohenstaufen , the duke of Franconia , against Lothair of Supplinburg . Lothair was elected. Lothair withdrew the duchy of Lower Lorraine and granted it to Waleran , the son of Henry, whom Henry V had deprived in 1106. Nonetheless, Godfrey maintained the margraviate of Antwerp and retained the ducal title (which would in 1183 become Duke of Brabant ).

After the assassination of Charles the Good in 1127, the Flemish succession was again in dispute. William Clito prevailed, but was soon fraught with revolts. Godfrey intervened on behalf of Thierry of Alsace , who prevailed against Clito. Godfrey continued to war against Liège and Namur .
Godfrey spent his last years in the abbey of Affligem . He died of old age on 25 January 1139 and was buried in the left aisle of the abbey church. He is sometimes said to have passed in 1140, but this is an error.

Family and children
He married Ida, daughter of Otto II of Chiny and Adelaide of Namur . They had several children:
Adeliza of Louvain (b. 1103-d. abbey of Affligem, April 23 , 1151 ) married Henry I, King of England and later William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel (1109-before 1151).
Godfrey II of Leuven (b. 1107-d. June 13 , 1142 ), Duke of Lower Lotharingia, Landgrave of Brabant, Count of Brussels and Leuven. He married Lutgardis of Sulzbach , daughter of Berenger I of Sulzbach .
Clarissa (d. 1140).
Henry (d. in the abbey of Affligem , 1141), monk.
Ida (d. 1162) married to Arnold II, count of Cleves (d. 1147).

Later, he married to Clementia of Bourgogne but had no issue.

He also had a son from an unknown mistress:
Joscelin (d. 1180); he accompanied his half-sister Adeliza to England and married Agnes, heiress of the Percy family, and took this surname. Probably the same as Gosuinus, mentioned in 1143 together with his sister Adeliza. Joscelin is an ancestor of U.S presidents Franklin Pierce and George W Bush

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Louvain:

• Duke of Lower Lorraine:

Godefroi married Ida, of Chiny and Namur,307 406 daughter of Otto II, Count of Chiny and Adelaide, of Namur, between 1100 and 1105. Ida was born about 1083 and died between 1117 and 1122.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-24 (Ida) and 155-23 (Godfrey I) disagree re. marriage date (abt. 1105 and abt. 1100, respectively)

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-24


Children from this marriage were:

+ 265 F    i. Adeliza, of Louvain 407 was born about 1103 and was buried on 23 Apr 1151 in Abbey of Affligem.

+ 266 M    ii. Godfrey II, Count of Leuven, Landgrave of Brabant 408 409 was born about 1110 and died on 13 Jun 1142 about age 32.

   267 F    iii. Clarissa 410 died in 1140.

   268 M    iv. Henry died in 1141 in Abbey of Affligem.

Research Notes: Monk

Source: Wikipedia - Godfrey I of Leuven

   269 F    v. Ida died in 1162.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Godfrey I of Leuven

Godefroi next married Clementia, of Burgundy,43 345 daughter of Albert III, Count of Namur and Ida, of Saxony, about 1099 in Belgium. Clementia was born about 1078 in Namur, Namur, Belgium and died about 1122 about age 44. Another name for Clementia was Clementia Countess of Namur.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 270 M    i. Joscelin, de Louvain 43 345 was born about 1121 in <Louvain>, Belgium, died before 1180 in Egmanton, Nottinghamshire, England, and was buried before 29 Sep 1180.

Godefroi had a relationship with < >, [Unknown mistress].307 This couple did not marry.

Their child was:

   271 M    i. Joscelin died in 1180.

Research Notes: Married the heiress of the Percy family and took that surname. Ancestor of U.S. presidents Franklin Pierce and George W. Bush.

Source: Wikipedia - Godfrey I of Leuven

197. Agnes, of Poitou 308 was born about 1025 and died on 14 Dec 1077 about age 52. Another name for Agnes was Empress Agnes.


Agnes married Henry III "the Black", Holy Roman Emperor,308 411 son of Conrad II "the Salic", of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor and Gisele, of Swabia, on 21 Nov 1043 in Ingelheim, Besançon. Henry was born on 29 Oct 1017 and died on 5 Oct 1056 in Bodfeld, Hartz at age 38. Other names for Henry were Heinrich III Holy Roman Emperor and Henry III "the Pious" Holy Roman Emperor.

Marriage Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor and Agnes of Poitou

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor :

Henry III (29 October 1017 - 5 October 1056 ), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors . He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia and his father made him duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI) in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V . Then, on Easter Day 1028, his father having been crowned Holy Roman Emperor, Henry was elected and crowned King of Germany in the cathedral of Aachen by Pilgrim, Archbishop of Cologne . After the death of Herman IV, Duke of Swabia in 1038, his father gave him that duchy (as Henry I) as well as the kingdom of Burgundy , which Conrad had inherited in 1033. Upon the death of his father on June 4 , 1039 , he became sole ruler of the kingdom and was crowned emperor by Pope Clement II in Rome (1046).

Early life and reign
Henry's first tutor was Bruno , Bishop of Augsburg . On Bruno's death in 1029, Egilbert, Bishop of Freising , was appointed to take his place. In 1033, at the age of sixteen, Henry came of age and Egilbert was compensated for his services. In 1035, Adalbero , Duke of Carinthia , was deposed by Conrad, but Egilbert convinced Henry to refuse this injustice and the princes of Germany, having legally elected Henry, would not recognise the deposition unless their king did also. Henry, in accordance with his promise to Egilbert, did not consent to his father's act and Conrad, stupefied, fell unconscious after many attempts to turn Henry. Upon recovering, Conrad knelt before his son and exacted the desired consent. Egilbert was penalised dearly by the emperor.
In 1036, Henry was married to Gunhilda of Denmark . She was a daughter of Canute the Great , King of Denmark , England , and Norway , by his wife Emma of Normandy . Early on, Henry's father had arranged with Canute to have him rule over some parts of northern Germany (the Kiel ) and in turn to have their children married. The marriage took place in Nijmegen at the earliest legal age.
In 1038, Henry was called to aid his father in Italy (1038) and Gunhilda died on the Adriatic Coast , during the return trip (during the same epidemic in which Herman IV of Swabia died). In 1039, his father, too, died and Henry became sole ruler and imperator in spe. pcnr...

Children
By his first wife, Gunhilda of Denmark , he had:
Beatrice (1037 - 13 July 1061 ), abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim
By his second wife, Agnes , he had:
Adelaide (1045, Goslar - 11 January 1096 ), abbess of Gandersheim from 1061 and Quedlinburg from 1063
Gisela (1047, Ravenna - 6 May 1053 )
Matilda (October 1048 - 12 May 1060 , Pöhlde ), married 1059 Rudolf of Rheinfelden , duke of Swabia and antiking (1077)
Henry , his successor
Conrad (1052, Regensburg - 10 April 1055 ), duke of Bavaria (from 1054)
Judith (1054, Goslar - 14 March 1092 or 1096 ), married firstly 1063 Solomon of Hungary and secondly 1089 Ladislaus I Herman , duke of Poland

Sources
Gwatkin, H. M. , Whitney, J. P. (ed) et al. The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926.
Norwich, John Julius . The Normans in the South 1016-1130. Longmans: London, 1967.

Noted events in his life were:

• Made: Duke of Bavaria as Henry VI, 1026. by his father, after the death of Duke Henry V.

• Crowned: King of Germany, Easter Day 1028, Cathedra of Aachen. by Pilgrim, Archbishop of Cologne

• Crowned: Holy Roman Emperor, 1046, Rome, (Italy). by Pope Clement II

Children from this marriage were:

   272 F    i. Adelaide, Abbess of Gandersheim and Quedlinburg 412 was born in 1045 in Goslar, Lower Saxony, Germany and died on 11 Jan 1096 at age 51.

   273 F    ii. Judith Sophia, of Swabia was born in 1047 in Goslar, Lower Saxony, Germany and died 14 Mar 1092 or 1096 at age 45.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor and Agnes of Poitou. These articles disagree about her birthdate (1054 vs. 1047, respectively). Since her first marriage was in 1063, 1047 seems more likely.

   274 F    iii. Gisela was born in 1047 in Ravenna, Italy and died on 6 May 1053 at age 6.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor

   275 F    iv. Matilda, of Swabia was born in Oct 1048 and died on 12 May 1060 in Pöhlde, (Lower Saxony, Germany) at age 11.

Research Notes: Sources: Wikipedia - Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor and Agnes of Poitou. These disagree on her birthdate (either 1045 or 1048, respectively).

+ 276 M    v. Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor 413 414 was born on 11 Nov 1050 in Goslar, Lower Saxony, Germany, died on 7 Aug 1106 in Liège, (Belgium) at age 55, and was buried in Aug 1111 in Speyer Cathedral, Speyer, [Rhineland-Palatinate, ] Germany.

   277 M    vi. Conrad, Duke of Bavaria was born in 1052 in Regensburg, Germany and died on 10 Apr 1055 at age 3. Another name for Conrad was Conrad II Duke of Bavaria.

Research Notes: Duke of Bavaria from 1054, as "Conrad II"

Source: Wikipedia - Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor and Agnes of Poitou. These two sources disagree on Conrad's death date (10 April 1055 vs. 1056, respectively).

198. Sibilla Manasses, de Guînes 309 310 311 was born about 1038 in Guînes, Pas-de-Calais, France. Other names for Sibilla were Sebilla de Guines and Sibblla Manasses.

Sibilla married Henry Castellan de Gand 310 415 416 about 1036 in Castellane, Basse Alps, France. Henry was born about 1005 in Castellane, Basse Alps, France. Other names for Henry were Henry Castellan de Gand, Henry Castellane of Ghent, and Henry Gand.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019555.htm has b. 1005, Bourboucy, France.
FamilySearch has b. abt 1005 in Bouboucy, France. This sounds rather early.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 278 F    i. Beatrice de Gand 417 418 was born about 1062 in Castellane, Basse Alps, France.

199. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan 228 312 313 was born about 1049 in Pont-Audemer, Beaumont, Normandy, France, died on 5 Jun 1118 in Leicestershire, England about age 69, and was buried in Preaux, Normandy, France. Another name for Robert was Robert de Meulan.

Research Notes: First husband of Isabel de Vermandois.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 50-24 (Isabel de Vermandois) has "b. abt 1049, d. 5 Jun 1118, Lord of Beaumont, Pont-Audemer and Brionne, Count of Meulan, cr. 1st Earl of Leicester, Companion of William the Conqueror at Hastings 1066, son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline (or Adelise), dau. of Waleran, Count of Meulan..."

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester

Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan (1049 - June 5 , 1118 ) was a powerful English and French nobleman, revered as one of the wisest men of his age. Chroniclers speak highly of his eloquence, his learning, and three kings of England valued his counsel.
He accompanied William the Conqueror to England in 1066 , where his service earned him more than 91 lordships and manors. When his mother died in 1081 , Robert inherited the title of Count of Meulan in Normandy , also the title of Viscount Ivry and Lord of Norton. He did homage to Philip I of France for these estates and sat as French Peer in the Parliament held at Poissy .

At the Battle of Hastings Robert was appointed leader of the infantry on the right wing of the army.

He and his brother Henry were members of the Royal hunting party in the New Forest , when William Rufus received his mysterious death wound, 2 August 1100 . He then pledged alligience to William Rufus' brother, Henry I of England , who created him Earl of Leicester in 1107.

On the death of William Rufus, William, Count of Evreux and Ralph de Conches made an incursion into Robert's Norman estates, on the pretence that they had suffered injury through some advice that Robert had given to the King; their raid was very successful for they collected a vast booty.
According to Henry of Huntingdon , Robert died of shame after "a certain earl carried off the lady he had espoused, either by some intrigue or by force and stratagem." His wife Isabella remarried in 1118 to William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey .


Family and children
He was the eldest son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline of Meulan , daughter of Waleran III, Count de Meulan , and an older brother of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick .

In 1096 he married (Isabel) Elizabeth de Vermandois , daughter of Hugh Magnus and a scion of the French royal family. Their children were:
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 )
Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (born 1104 )
Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (born 1104 )
Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford (born c. 1106 )
Adeline de Beaumont, married two times:
Hugh IV of Montfort-sur-Risle ;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)
Aubree de Beaumont, married Hugh II of Château-neuf-Thimerais.
Maud de Beaumont, married William Lovel. (b. c. 1102)
Isabel de Beaumont, a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland

Sources
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 50-24, 50-25, 53-24, 53-25, 66-25, 114-29, 140-24, 184-4, 215-24, 215-25
Edward T. Beaumont, J.P. The Beaumonts in History. A.D. 850-1850. Oxford.

Robert married Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester,266 359 daughter of Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France and Adelaide de Vermandois, Countess of Vermandois and Valois, between 1096 and 1101. The marriage ended in divorce. Isabel was born about 1081 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France>, died on 13 Feb 1131 in England about age 50, and was buried in Lewes, Sussex, England. Other names for Isabel were Elizabeth de Vermandois, Isabella de Vermandois, and Isabel de Vermandois.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 53-24 has m. 1096. Wikipedia has m. abt. 1101.

Noted events in their marriage were:

• Betrothal: to Robert de Meulan, 1096.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1085 in Valois, France

Research Notes: From: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Elizabeth de Vermandois, or Elisabeth or Isabel de Vermandois (c. 1081 -13 February 1131 ), is a fascinating figure about whose descendants and ancestry much is known and about whose character and life relatively little is known. She was twice married to influential Anglo-Norman magnates, and had several children (among whose descendants are numbered many kings and some queens of England and Scotland). Her Capetian and Carolingian ancestry was a source of much pride for some of these descendants (who included these arms as quarterings in their coats-of-arms[1] ). However, the lady herself led a somewhat controversial life.

Family
Elizabeth de Vermandois was the third daughter of Hugh Magnus and Adele of Vermandois. Her paternal grandparents were Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev . Her maternal grandparents were Herbert IV of Vermandois and Adele of Vexin .
Her mother was the heiress of the county of Vermandois, and descendant of a junior patrilineal line of descent from Charlemagne . The first Count of Vermandois was Pepin of Vermandois . He was a son of Bernard of Italy , grandson of Pippin of Italy and great-grandson of Charlemagne and Hildegard .

As such, Elizabeth had distinguished ancestry and connections. Her father was a younger brother of Philip I of France and her mother was among the last Carolingians . She was also distantly related to the Kings of England , the Dukes of Normandy , the Counts of Flanders and through her Carolingian ancestors to practically every major nobleman in Western Europe .

Countess of Leicester
In 1096, while under age (and probably aged 9 or 11), Elizabeth married Robert de Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester . Meulan was over 35 years her senior, which was an unusual age difference even for this time period. He was a nobleman of some significance in France, having inherited lands from his maternal uncle Henry, Count of Meulan, and had fought bravely and with distinction at his first battle, the Battle of Hastings in 1066 then aged only 16. His parents Roger de Beaumont , Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemar and Adeline of Meulan , heiress of Meulan had died long before; Roger had been a kinsman and close associate of William the Conqueror . Meulan had inherited lands in Normandy after his father died circa 1089, and had also been given lands in the Kingdom of England after his participation in the Norman conquest of England . However, at the time of the marriage, he held no earldom in England while his younger brother was already styled Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick .

Planche states that the bride (Elizabeth) agreed willingly to the marriage, although this means little in the context. Despite the immense age difference, this was a good marriage for its times. Meulan was a respected advisor to three reigning monarchs: William II of England ), Robert Curthose of Normandy and Philip I of France .

According to Middle Ages custom, brides were often betrothed young - 8 being the legal age for betrothal and 12 for marriage (for women). The young betrothed wife would often go to her husband's castle to be raised by his parents or other relatives and to learn the customs and ways of her husband's family. The actual wedding would not take place until much later. Some genealogists speculate that the usual age at which a noble bride could expect the marriage to be consummated would be 14. This is consistent with the date of birth of Elizabeth's first child Emma in 1102 when she would be about 15 to 17.

The marriage produced several children, including most notably two sons who were twins (born 1104 ), and thus remarkable in both surviving and both becoming important noblemen. They are better known to historians of this period as the Beaumont twins, or as Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and his younger twin Robert Bossu (the Humpback) or Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . (Readers of Ellis Peters' Cadfael historical mystery series will find both twins mentioned frequently).

Another notable child of this marriage was Elisabeth or Isabel de Beaumont, one of the youngest mistresses of Henry I of England and later mother (by her first marriage) of Richard Strongbow .

Some contemporaries were surprised that the aging Count of Meulan (b circa 1049/1050) was able to father so many children, given how busy he was with turmoil in England and Normandy from 1102 to 1110 (or later) and acting as Henry I's unofficial minister. One explanation is offered below; another might simply be an indication of his good health and energy (expended mostly in dashing from one troublespot in Normandy to England back to Normandy).

William II of England died suddenly in a purported hunting accident, and was hastily succeeded not by the expected heir but by the youngest brother Henry . This seizure of the throne led to an abortive invasion by the older brother Duke Robert of Normandy, followed by an uneasy truce between the brothers, followed by trouble in both England and Normandy for some time (stirred up by Duke Robert, and by an exiled nobleman Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury ). Finally, Henry invaded Normandy and in the Battle of Tinchebray (September 28 , 1106 ) destroyed organized opposition to his takeover of Normandy and imprisoned his ineffectual older brother for his lifetime. Meulan and his brother Warwick were apparently supporters of Henry during this entire period, and Meulan was rewarded with the earldom of Leicester in 1103 . By 1107, Meulan was in possession of substantial lands in three domains. In 1111, he was able to revenge himself on the attack on his seat Meulan by Louis VI of France . He avenged himself by harrying Paris .

Countess of Surrey
Elizabeth, Countess of Meulan apparently tired of her aging husband at some point during the marriage. The historian Planche says (1874) that the Countess was seduced by or fell in love with a younger nobleman, William de Warenne (c. 1071 -11 May 1138 ) himself the thwarted suitor of Edith of Scotland , Queen consort of Henry I of England. Warenne, whose mother Gundred has been alleged (in modern times) to be the Conqueror's daughter and stepdaughter by some genealogists, was said to want a royal bride, and Elizabeth fitted his requirements, even though she was also another man's wife.

In 1115, the Countess was apparently carried off or abducted by Warenne, which abduction apparently concealed a long-standing affair. There was some kind of separation or divorce between Meulan and his wife, which however did not permit her to marry her lover. The elderly Count of Meulan died, supposedly of chagrin and mortification in being thus publicly humiliated, in the Abbey of Preaux, Normandy on 5 June 1118 , leaving his properties to his two elder sons whom he had carefully educated.

Elizabeth married, secondly, William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey , sometime after the death of her first husband. By him, it is alleged, she already had several children (all born during her marriage to Meulan). She also had at least one daughter born while she was living out of wedlock with Warenne (1115-1118). It is unclear whether this daughter was Ada de Warenne, wife of Henry of Scotland or Gundrede de Warenne, wife of Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick (her half-brothers' first cousin).

The later life of Elizabeth de Vermandois is not known. Her sons by her first marriage appear to have a good relationship with their half-brother William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey although on opposing sides for much of the wars between Stephen and Matilda . Her eldest son Waleran, Count of Meulan was active in supporting the disinherited heir William Clito , son of Robert Curthose until captured by King Henry. He was not released until Clito's death without issue in 1128. Her second son Robert inherited his father's English estates and the earldom of Leicester and married the heiress of the Fitzosbern counts of Breteuil. Her daughter Isabel however became a king's concubine or mistress at a young age; it is unclear whether her mother's own life or her eldest brother's political and personal travails in this period played any part in this decision. Before her mother died, Isabel had become wife of Gilbert de Clare , later (1147) Earl of Pembroke, so had adopted a more conventional life like her mother.

There are no known biographies of Elizabeth de Vermandois, nor any known fictional treatments of her life.

Children and descendants
During her first marriage (1096-1115) to Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (d 5 June 1118), Elizabeth had 3 sons (including twin elder sons) and 6 daughters:
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 ) whose fate is unknown. She was betrothed as an infant to Aumari, nephew of William, Count of Evreux, but the marriage never took place. She probably died young, or entered a convent.[2]
Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (born 1104 ) married and left issue.
Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (born 1104 ) married and left issue (his granddaughter Hawisa or Isabella of Gloucester was the unfortunate first wife of King John .
Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford (born c. 1106 ) lost his earldom, left issue
Adeline de Beaumont (b ca 1107), married two times:
Hugh IV, 4th Lord of Montfort-sur-Risle to whom she was married firstly by her brother Waleran;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)
Aubree (or Alberee) de Beaumont (b ca 1109), married by her brother Waleran to Hugh II of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais (possibly son of Hugh I of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais and his wife Mabille de Montgomerie, 2nd daughter of Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury )
Maud de Beaumont (b ca 1111), married by her brother Waleran to William Lovel, or Louvel or Lupel, son of Ascelin Goel, Lord of Ivri.
Isabel de Beaumont (b Aft. 1102), a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke by whom she was mother of Richard Strongbow , who invaded Ireland 1170 ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland (this marriage is not conclusively proven)
In her second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.
Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh;
Ralph de Warenne (dsp)
Gundrada de Warenne , (Gundred) who married first
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick and had issue; second (as his 2nd wife)
William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Warenne and Surrey and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen's garrison from Warwick Castle; and they had issue.

Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.

The second earl had married Isabella, daughter of Hugh, Count of Vermandois, widow of Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester. The arms of Warenne "checky or and azure" were adopted from the Vermandois coat after this marriage.

The original Vermandois arms were "checky or and sable" but there was no black tincture in early medieval heraldry until sable was discovered, being the crushed fur of this animal. A very deep indigo was used instead which faded into blue so the Vermandois arms becams "checky argent and or".
The Vermandois arms were inherited by the earls of Warenne and Surrey, the Newburgh earls of Warwick, the Beauchamp earls of Warwick and Worcester and the Clifford earls of Cumberland.


Children from this marriage were:

   279 F    i. Isabel de Beaumont 419 was born between 1100 and 1107 and died after 1172. Another name for Isabel was Isabella of Meulan.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Isabella of Meulan was born between 1102 and 1107.1 She was the daughter of Robert de Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois.2 She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke, son of Gilbert fitz Richard and Adeliza de Clermont . She died after 1172.2
As a result of her marriage, Isabella of Meulan was styled as Countess of Pembroke.
-----------

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Isabel de Beaumont (b Aft. 1102), a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke by whom she was mother of Richard Strongbow , who invaded Ireland 1170 ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland (this marriage is not conclusively proven)

Isabel married Gilbert FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke,293 420 421 son of Gilbert FitzRichard, de Clare and Adelaide de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,. Gilbert was born about 1100 and died on 6 Jan 1148 about age 48. Another name for Gilbert was Gilbert de Clare 1st Earl of Pembroke.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke also went by the nick-name of Gilbert 'Strongbow'. He was also known as Gilbert FitzGilbert.2 He was created 1st Earl of Pembroke [England] circa 1138.

   280 F    ii. Emma de Beaumont was born in 1102.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 ) whose fate is unknown. She was betrothed as an infant to Aumari, nephew of William, Count of Evreux, but the marriage never took place. She probably died young, or entered a convent.[2]

+ 281 M    iii. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 228 422 423 was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. (Relationship to Father: Biological, Relationship to Mother: Biological)

+ 282 M    iv. Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 424 425 was born in 1104 in <Meulan, Île-de-France>, France, died on 10 Apr 1166 in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France at age 62, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France.

   283 M    v. Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford was born about 1106.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois

   284 M    vi. Adeline de Beaumont 266 was born about 1107.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Adeline de Beaumont (b ca 1107), married two times:
Hugh IV, 4th Lord of Montfort-sur-Risle to whom she was married firstly by her brother Waleran;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)

   285 F    vii. Aubree de Beaumont 266 was born about 1109.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Aubree (or Alberee) de Beaumont (b ca 1109), married by her brother Waleran to Hugh II of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais (possibly son of Hugh I of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais and his wife Mabille de Montgomerie, 2nd daughter of Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury )

   286 F    viii. Maud de Beaumont was born about 1111.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Maud de Beaumont (b ca 1111), married by her brother Waleran to William Lovel, or Louvel or Lupel, son of Ascelin Goel, Lord of Ivri.

200. Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick 314 315 was born about 1046, died on 20 Jun 1123 about age 77, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France. Other names for Henry were Henry de Newburgh and Henry de Neubourg.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 1119 (Line 151-24, Margaret de Perche); Wikipedia has d. 20 Jun 1123.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick :

Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick (? - 20 June 1123 ) was a Norman nobleman. He is also known as Henry de Neubourg or Henry de Newburgh, from the castle of Newburg near Louviers , in Normandy where he was born.

Henry was the younger son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline of Meulan , daughter of Waleran III, Count de Meulan . He inherited the modest lordship of La Neubourg, in central Normandy, but acquired a much greater holding in England, when, in reward for help in suppressing the Rebellion of 1088 , William II of England made him Earl of Warwick .

His name is included in the roll of the knights who came over with the William the Conqueror , but he does not appear to have been present at the Battle of Hastings . He spent the greater part of his life in Normandy , his name is not found in the Domesday Book . He took a leading role in reconciling the Conqueror with his eldest son Robert Curthose in 1081 and he stood high in the Conqueror's favour. He was the companion and friend of Henry I , and when in 1100 a division took place amongst the barons who had gathered together to choose a successor to William II, it was mainly owing to his advice that Henry was selected and when in the following year most of the barons were openly or secretly disloyal and favoured the attempt of Duke Robert to gain the Crown, he and his brother were amongst the few that remained faithful to the King.

He had many honours conferred upon him, in 1068 he was made Constable of Warwick Castle and shortly afterwards King William gave it to him together with the borough and manor. The Castle was enlarged and strengthened during the long succession of powerful lords, and it eventually became one of the most renowned of English fortresses and it remains even to-day the glory of the midland shires. The Bear and Ragged Staff was the badge of Guy the great opponent of the Danes, and Henry on his elevation to the Earldom in 1076 by William I, assumed it, and it has ever since been used by successive Earls. Odericus tells us that "he earned this honour by his valour and loyalty" and Wace speaks of him as "a brave man". He was made a Councillor by the King in 1079 and a Baron of the Exchequer in Normandy 12 April 1080 .

In 1099 he fought against the Welsh and built a castle at Abertawy , near Swansea , which was unsuccessfully attacked by the Welsh in 1113 ; he also captured the Gower Peninsula in the south of Glamorganshire . He built other castles at Penrhys , Llandhidian and Swansea in ll20 , together with the others at Oystermouth and Aberllychor , the only remains of the latter are a mound and a keep.

Some time between 1106 and 1116 he was granted the lordship of Gower in Wales .

Henry was by disposition quiet and retiring, and was overshadowed by his elder brother Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester , reputedly one of the most brilliant men in England.

He died 20 June 1123 and was buried in the Abbey at Preaux .

Family and children
He married before 1100 Marguerite, daughter of Geoffrey II of Perche and Beatrix of Montdidier , and had children:
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick , who succeeded him as earl;
Henry de Neubourg, probably inherited Dorset and Devon estates.
Robert de Neubourg , who inherited Henry's Norman lands, and was Chief Justiciar of Normandy;
Rotrou (died 27 November 1183 ), who was Bishop of Évreux and then Archbishop of Rouen , and who was Chief Justiciar and Steward of Normandy.
Geoffroy.

Noted events in his life were:

• 1st Earl of Warwick: 1090.

• Granted: Lordship of Gower in Wales, 1107.

Henry married Margaret de Perche,382 daughter of Geoffroy IV, Count of Mortagne, 1st Count de Perche and Beatrix de Mondidier, before 1100. Margaret died after 1156. Another name for Margaret was Marguerite de Perche.

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1156.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 287 M    i. Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick 426 427 was born about 1102 and died on 12 Jun 1153 about age 51.

203. Hamon de Massey, 1st Baron de Dunham 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 was born before 1056 in Dunham Massey, Bucklow, Cheshire, England and died in 1101 in Dunham, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. Other names for Hamon were Haimo de Masci, Hamo de Mascy Baron de Dunham, Hamon I De Mascy 1st Baron of Massey, and Hammon I Massey Baron of Dunham Massey.

Birth Notes:
FamilySearch or Rootsweb AFN: 18GS-7Q3 b. abt 1076

Research Notes: Illegitmate son of William de la Ferte-Macé per most sources.

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From Wikipedia - Hamon de Massey 2 Dec 2010:

The first Hamon de Massey was the owner of the manors of Agden , Baguley , Bowdon , Dunham , Hale and Little Bollington after the Norman conquest of England in 1066, taking over from the Saxon thegn Aelfward according to the Domesday Book .[1]

The name of Hamon de Massey was passed on to his descendants for several generations. There are several different ways of spelling the name, including "de Masci", "de Mace", "de Macei", "de Mascy", "de Massy" and "de Massie".

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From Wikipedia - Dunham Massey

The Chester to York Roman road passes between the settlements of Dunham Massey and Bowdon and today forms the boundary between the two places. The name Dunham is derived from the Anglo-Saxon dun, meaning hill. The Massey element of the name is a result of its ownership by the Massey Barons. The manor of Dunham is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as having belonged to the Saxon thegn Aelfward before the Norman Conquest and to Hamo de Masci after. De Masci was an influential baron, who also had control over the manors of Baguley , Bowdon , Hale , Partington , and Timperley . The addition of "Massey" to the name Dunham reflects the manor's importance within the barony; Dunham was the seat of the Masseys. The importance of Dunham is further emphasised by the presence of two of de Massey's castles: Dunham Castle and Watch Hill Castle on the border with Bowdon; a third, Ullerwood Castle , was near Hale. The Masseys remained barons of Dunham and its environs until the 14th century, when the line became extinct.

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From Wikipedia - Bramall Hall 17 March 2011:

Bramall Hall is a Tudor manor house in Bramhall , within the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport , Greater Manchester, England. It is a timber-framed building, the oldest parts of which date from the 14th century, with later additions from the 16th and 19th centuries. The house, which functions as a museum, and its 70 acres (28 ha) of landscaped parkland with lakes, woodland, and gardens are open to the public.

Dating back to Anglo-Saxon England , the manor of Bramall was first described in the Domesday Book in 1086, when it was held by the Masseys. From the late 14th century it was owned by the Davenports who built the present house, and remained lords of the manor for about 500 years before selling the estate of nearly 2,000 acres in 1877 to the Manchester Freeholders' Company, a property company formed expressly for the purpose of exploiting the estate's potential for residential building development. The Hall and a residual park of over 50 acres was sold on by the Freeholders (though not the lordship of the manor) to the Nevill family of successful industrialists. In 1925 it was purchased by John Henry Davies , and then, in 1935, acquired by the local government authority for the area - Hazel Grove and Bramhall Urban District Council. Bramall Hall is owned now, following local government reorganisation in 1974, by Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council (SMBC), which describes it as "the most prestigious and historically significant building in the Conservation Area".[1]

The name "Bramall" means "nook of land where broom grows" and is derived from the Old English noun br meaning broom , a type of shrub common in the area, and the Old English noun halh, which has several meanings - including nook, secret place and valley - that could refer to Bramall.[2] The manor of Bramall dates from the Anglo-Saxon period , when it was held as two separate estates owned by the Anglo-Saxon freemen Brun and Hacun.[3] The manor was devastated during William the Conqueror 's Harrying of the North .[4] After William subdued the north-west of England, the land was divided among his followers and Bramall was given to Hamon de Massey in around 1070.[3]

The earliest reference to Bramhall was recorded in the Domesday Book as "Bramale" at which time the manor was part of the Hamestan Hundred in Cheshire. With Cheadle and Norbury , Bramall was one of three places described in the Domesday Book that today lie within the modern-day Metropolitan Borough of Stockport .[1] Whereas its value was 32 shillings before 1066, it was worth only 5 shillings by 1086.[5]

In the first part of the 12th century, the manor passed from the second Baron of Dunham Massey to Matthew de Bromale. According to Dean, Matthew's father is said to have founded the de Bromale family, naming himself after the manor, and he may have been related to or a follower of the de Masseys. He may have also held the manor at some point. The de Bromales held the manor until 1370 when Alice de Bromale married John de Davenport , and the family name was changed.[4]


----------------------
Genealogy.com (Snell) says he was an illegitimate son (per Wyatt Massey 11/20/1999). Fought at Battle of Hastings and/or served as Mathieu's squire. Mathieu was later killed in battle in Normandy. Hamon was the first to live at Dunham Massey and was known as the Baron de Dunham. He founded the Massey family.

Has death date as 1101 in Dunham, Lancaster, Lancashire, England.

-------------
Herman W. Snell ("Descendants of William De Belleme") quotes from History of Cheshire, by Sir Peter Leycester

"Hamo de Mascy is thought to have been the illegitimate, or "natural" son of William de La Ferte, viscount of the powerful Belleme (Bellamy) family of Normandy. The seat of his holdings was the town of La Ferte Mace (fur-tee ma-cee) located in the present day Orne district. William's oldest son (legitimate) was Baron Mathieu de La Ferte Mace. His youngest (legitimate) was Hugue de Macey. All three sons were present at the Battle of Hastings, 1066, and as a result were given land grants in England. At Hastings, Mathieu's rank was Baron, Hugue's rank was knight, and Hamo served as Mathieu's squire. Mathieu would not live to enjoy his English possessions, as shortly after Hastings he was killed in battle in Shropshire. Hamo received his grants in Chesire and founded the Mascy (Massey) family. The seat of his holdings was the village of Dunham and his family lived at Dunham Massey Hall. His title was Baron de Dunham, and his descendants would continue to live at Dunham Massey Hall until 1458 when it came into the possession of the Booth family by marriage to a Massey heiress. In 1085 the Masseys held nine lordships in Chesire.

Dunham Massey Hall, at the time the Masseys lived in it, was a three winged manor (in the shape of a squared off U) surrounded by a moat. The extensive grounds outside the moat contained a deer park, orchards, a river, and fishing ponds. Later owners made many changes and it bears little resemblance to the old Massey homestead. It now belongs to the British National Trust and is open to the public. It is located four miles spouthwest of Altrincham, which is a suburb of Manchester. "

Sites obtained by Hamon l, in addition the the house in Chester and land in Wirrall peninsula, were Ullerton or Owlarton. It is located approx. two miles south-southeast from the town of Knutsford. Going northwest to the Mersey River, Northeast to Bramhall or Bromhale, which is those days would have been two miles s/w from Stockport, Thence below Stockport to the Mersey River.
With these two lines denoting the s/e/ and s/w/ boundary and the Mersey River being the northern boundary of an area having a triangular shape. At about the midway point of the northern boundary on the Mersey River would be the river crossing to the City of Manchester original location in Lancaster, which lies to the north of Chester.

This probably marks the area with the greatest holdings of the Barons de Mascy in Cheshire. With these lands Hamon de Mascy had lesser Lords who held portions thereof for him or under his 'right'. Examples would be Adae de Carrington and Alano de Tatton. Both constituted Estates granted to Hamon.

In 1092 King William Rufus was a guest at the Court of Hugh Lupus in Chester. at least two of his Barons attended the King, Hamon de Mascy and William Venables. They along with their entourage of adherents and servants of Hamon's, accompanied the King on a hunting expedition in the Wirrall Peninsula. This probably took place on lands which had been set aside as a hunting preserve of the King and treated as his possession, which had not been the subject of a grant, not even to Earl Hugh Lupus. No doubt it was a consequence of some occurrence on this hunting expedition that a new estate was given to Hamon I, in fee of Hugh Lupus.

Pontington, the area which is called today the village of Puddington,was granted by the King him self, so that there after the
de Mascy Cheshire Barons held it in fee of the King rather than in fee of the Earl. For that reason Pontington was in later years especially prized.One can only speculate why King William Rufus made this generous grant. However, as soon as the hunting party returned to Hugh Lupus' Castle at Chester, Hamon sought out a scrivener, possibly a Monk whoes duties were appropriate to the purpose of recording as follows:

"I, William, King of England do give onto Mascy all my right, interest and title to the hop and hopland(valley land) from me and mine with bow and arrow, when I shoot upon yerrow(the place), and in witness to the sooth(action or statement) I seal with my wang tooth."

Inscribed as witness was William Venables "fratre suo". In the consideration given to the first Hamon de Mascy it should be remembered that he was a part of the court and governing body of nobles in Cheshire at a time when it was a county Palatinate under Earl Hugh Lupus. What this means is, that it's rule was like that under a country under martial law. At least Earl Hugh Lupus was not hampered by either King William the Conqueror or King William Rufus and he reigned in Cheshire as King. The Barons and their Lords were almost constantly put to defend against the Welsh on Cheshire's western border and to maintain control over the Saxons who made up the bulk of the population.

Hamon Massey, the first Baron of Dunham-Massy, held the towns of Dunham,Bowden, Hale, Ashley and half of Owlerton in Bucklow Hundred, under Hugh Lupus, Earl of Cheshire in the reign of William the Conqueror. All of which one Edward held formerly, as appears by Domesday Book.So it appears this Edward was dispossessed of his right herein and these lands given to Hamon by Hugh Lupus. Hamon also had land in Maxfield Hundred,Bromhale and Puddington in Wirrall Hundred and other places, at the same time.

[FN:From the History of Cheshire, by Sir Peter Leycester:FN].

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From http://www.springhillfarm.com/broomhall/history.html:
After the conquest the Saxons were ejected and their lands were granted to Normans. BRAMALE (Bramhall) was granted to HAIMO (Hamo, Hamon) DE MASCI (Mascy, Massey &c) as part of the barony of Dunham Massey, the the Macclesfield Hundred. It is linked historically with Brunhala = Bromhale = Broomhall near Wrenbury and Nantwich, through the family of Hamo de Masci, the first baron.

Noted events in his life were:

• Received: Bramall (Bromale), Abt 1070, Bramhall, Cheshire, England. From Wikipedia - Bramall Hall:
The manor was devastated during William the Conqueror 's Harrying of the North .[4] After William subdued the north-west of England, the land was divided among his followers and Bramall was given to Hamon de Massey in around 1070.[3]

The earliest reference to Bramhall was recorded in the Domesday Book as "Bramale" at which time the manor was part of the Hamestan Hundred in Cheshire. With Cheadle and Norbury , Bramall was one of three places described in the Domesday Book that today lie within the modern-day Metropolitan Borough of Stockport .[1] Whereas its value was 32 shillings before 1066, it was worth only 5 shillings by 1086.[5]

In the first part of the 12th century, the manor passed from the second Baron of Dunham Massey to Matthew de Bromale. According to Dean, Matthew's father is said to have founded the de Bromale family, naming himself after the manor, and he may have been related to or a follower of the de Masseys. He may have also held the manor at some point. The de Bromales held the manor until 1370 when Alice de Bromale married John de Davenport , and the family name was changed.[4]

Hamon married Margaret Sacie, daughter of Le Sire De Sacie and Unknown, about 1099 in Dunham Massey, Bucklow, Cheshire, England. Margaret was born about 1077 in Dunham, Lancaster, Lancashire, England.

Research Notes: Rootsweb? FamilySearch?


Children from this marriage were:

+ 288 M    i. Robert de Mascy 429 was born after 1098 and died after 1124.

+ 289 M    ii. Hamon II Massey 430 was born about 1100 in Cheadle, Cheshire, England and died about 1140 in Dunham Massey, Bucklow, Cheshire, England about age 40.

208. Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester 332 333 was born about 1047 in Avranches, Normandy, France, died on 27 Jul 1101 about age 54, and was buried in Chapter House of Chester Cathedral. Other names for Hugh were Hugh Lupus d'Avranches, Hugh "Lupus" d'Avranches 1st Earl of Chester, and Hugh "the Fat" d'Avranches 1st Earl of Chester.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
In 1066 he contributed 60 ships to the invasion of England, but did not fight at the Battle of Hastings.2,5 He was created 1st Earl of Chester [England] in 1071.1 He succeeded to the title of Vicomte d'Avranches after 1082.2 He founded the Abbey of St. Sever in Normandy and St. Werburg at Chester.2 On 23 July 1101 a monk.


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From Wikipedia - Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester :

Hugh d'Avranches (died 27 July 1101), called the Fat or the Wolf (Latin : Lupus, Welsh : Flaidd) was the first Earl of Chester and one of the great magnates of early Norman England .

Early career
Hugh was the son of Richard Goz, Viscount of Avranches , in the far southwest of Normandy , and inherited from his father a large estate, not just in the Avranchin but scattered throughout western Normandy.
Hugh became an important councillor of William, Duke of Normandy . He contributed sixty ships to the invasion of England , but did not fight at Hastings , instead being one of those trusted to stay behind and govern Normandy.

Earl of Chester
After William became king of England, Hugh was given the command of Tutbury Castle Staffordshire but in 1070 he was promoted to become Earl of Chester , with palatine powers in view of Cheshire 's situation on the Welsh border . Tutbury with its surrounding lands was passed to Henry de Ferrers . [1]

Hugh spent much of his time fighting savagely with his neighbours in Wales . Together with his cousin Robert of Rhuddlan he subdued a good part of northern Wales. Initially Robert of Rhuddlan held north-east Wales as a vassal of Hugh. However in 1081 Gruffydd ap Cynan King of Kingdom of Gwynedd was captured by treachery at a meeting near Corwen . Gruffydd was imprisoned by Earl Hugh in his castle at Chester, but it was Robert who took over his kingdom, holding it directly from the king. When Robert was killed by a Welsh raiding party in 1088 Hugh took over these lands, becoming ruler of most of North Wales, but he lost Anglesey and much of the rest of Gwynedd in the Welsh revolt of 1094, led by Gruffydd ap Cynan , who had escaped from captivity.

In time Hugh became so fat he could hardly walk; he is often referred to as "the Fat". The Welsh, for his brutality, called him Flaidd ("the Wolf").

Norwegian invasion
In the summer of 1098 Hugh joined with Hugh of Montgomery, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury in an attempt to recover his losses in Gwynedd. Gruffydd ap Cynan retreated to Anglesey, but then was forced to flee to Ireland when a fleet he had hired from the Danish settlement in Ireland changed sides. The situation was changed by the arrival of a Norwegian fleet under the command of King Magnus III of Norway , also known as Magnus Barefoot, who attacked the Norman forces near the eastern end of the Menai Straits . Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury was killed by an arrow said to have been shot by Magnus himself. The Normans were obliged to evacuate Anglesey, and the following year Gruffydd returned from Ireland to take possession again. Hugh apparently made an agreement with him and did not again try to recover these lands.

Marriage and succession
Hugh married Ermentrude of Claremont , by whom he had one son, Richard , who succeeded him. Richard married Matilda of Blois , daughter of Stephen, Count of Blois and Adela, a daughter of William the Conqueror . Both Richard and Matilda died in the White Ship disaster (1120), and Hugh was then succeeded by his nephew Ranulph le Meschin, Earl of Chester . Hugh was buried beneath the stained glass windows in the Chapter House of Chester Cathedral .

Noted events in his life were:

• Created: Earl of Chester, 1070.

Hugh married Ermentrude de Clermont,388 daughter of Hugh de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Marguerite de Rameru,. Ermentrude was born about 1066 in <Clermont, Beauvais, France>.

Noted events in her life were:

• Countess of Chester:

Children from this marriage were:

   290 M    i. Richard d'Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester 431 was born in 1094 and died on 25 Nov 1120 at age 26.

Death Notes: Died in the White Ship disaster.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Richard d'Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester :

Richard d'Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester (1094-25 November 1120 ), was the son of Hugh, 1st Earl of Chester and Ermentrude of Clermont .

Early life
He was seven years old when his father, known as Hugh the Fat, was killed. He probably came into his inheritance in 1107. He married Lucia-Mahaut , daughter of Stephen, Count of Blois .

Military career
At the age of twenty, in 1114, Richard was on military campaign and was styled the Earl of Chester. Together with King Alexander of Scotland , he led an Anglo-Norman army into Gwynedd as part of a three-pronged campaign organised by Henry I of England against Gwynedd, and Gruffydd ap Cynan . Gruffydd, rather than risk battle, satisfied the King with an oath of homage and a suitable fine. The campaign soon fizzled out, and Richard returned to Chester .

White Ship
The line of the d'Avranches as Earls of Chester failed when Richard, with his illegitimate half-brother Ottuel , joined the young William Adelin , heir to the English King Henry aboard the doomed White Ship . The ship went down, drowning all but one boy, in the year 1120. Richard died aged twenty-six, leaving no issue.

The earldom then passed through his father Hugh's sister Maud to Richard's first cousin Ranulph I , in 1121.

   291 F    ii. Matilda d'Avranches

209. Maud d'Avranches 331 334 335 was born about 1054 in <Avranches, Normandy, France>. Other names for Maud were Margaret d'Avranches and Maud de Abrincis.

Research Notes: Sister of Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132B-25 (Ranulph II)

Maud married Ranulph II, Vicomte of Bayeux in Normandy,334 432 433 son of Ranulph I, Vicomte of the Bessin and Alice, of Normandy, about 1069 in Avranches, Normandy, France. Ranulph was born about 1048 in <Normandy, France> and died after Apr 1089. Other names for Ranulph were Ranulf de Briquessart, Ranulf de Gernon Viscomte de Bessin, and Ranulf de Meschines Vicomte de Bayeux.

Research Notes: Adult by 1066

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132B-25
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From Wikipedia - Ranulf de Briquessart :

Ranulf de Briquessart[1] or Ranulf the Viscount (died c. 1089 or soon after) was an 11th century Norman magnate and viscount . Ranulf's family were connected to the House of Normandy by marriage, and, besides Odo , bishop of Bayeux , was the most powerful magnate in the Bessin region.[2] He married Margaret, daughter of Richard Goz, viscount of the Avranchin , whose son and successor Hugh d'Avranches became Earl of Chester in England c. 1070.[3]

Ranulf is probably the "Ranulf the viscount" who witnessed a charter of William , Duke of Normandy , at Caen on 17 June 1066.[4] Ranulf helped preside over a judgement in the curia of King William (as duke) in 1076 in which a disputed mill was awarded to the Abbey of Mont St. Michael .[5] On 14 July 1080 he witnessed a charter to the Abbey of Lessay (in the diocese of Coutances ), another in the same year addressed to Remigius de Fécamp bishop of Lincoln in favour of the Abbey of Préaux .[6] and one more in the same period, 1079 x 1082, to the Abbey of St Stephen of Caen .[7] His name is attached to a memorandum in 1085, and on 24 April 1089 he witnessed a confirmation of Robert Curthose , Duke of Normandy and Count of Maine to St Mary of Bayeaux, where he appears below his son in the witness list.[8]

He probably died sometime after this. His son Ranulf le Meschin became ruler of Cumberland and later Earl of Chester.[9] The Durham Liber Vitae , c. 1098 x 1120, shows that his eldest son was one Richard, who died in youth, and that he had another son named William.[10] He also had a daughter called Agnes, who later married Robert de Grandmesnil (died 1136).[9]

Noted events in his life were:

• Adult: by 1066.

• Living: 1089.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 292 M    i. Ranulf le Meschin, 3rd Earl of Chester 334 434 435 436 437 was born about 1070 in <Briquessart, Livry, France>, died on 17 Jan 1129 in Chester, Cheshire, England about age 59, and was buried in St Werburgh, Chester, Cheshire, England.

+ 293 M    ii. William le Meschin, Lord of Skipton-in-Craven, Yorkshire 334 438 439 was born about 1100 in <Gernon Castle, Normandy, France>.

212. Ralph de Gand 92 was born about 1022 in Gand, Flanders (Belgium).

Ralph married Gisele 92 about 1047 in <Flanders (Belgium)>. Gisele was born about 1028 in <Flanders (Belgium)>.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 294 M    i. Gilbert de Gaunt 92 was born about 1048 in <Alost, Flanders (Belgium)>, died in 1094 about age 46, and was buried in Bardney, Lincolnshire, England.

213. Humbert II "Le Renforcé", Count of Maurienne and Savoy 25 336 was born about 1062 in <Savoie>, France, died on 14 Oct 1103 about age 41, and was buried on 19 Oct 1103.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 274A-24 (new to 8th edition) and line 101-24 (Louis VI)

Noted events in his life were:

• Marquis of Turin:

Humbert married Gisele, of Burgundy,71 299 daughter of Guillaume I de Bourgogne and Stephanie, de Longwy, about 1090. Gisele was born about 1070 in <Bourgogne, Champagne, France> and died after 1133. Other names for Gisele were Gille de Bourgogne and Gisela de Bourgogne.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1060 in Bourgogne

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. after 1133

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 101-24 (Louis VI) and line 274A-24 (Humbert II).

(Duplicate Line. See Person 191)

214. Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona 71 339 was born in 1054 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 5 Dec 1082 at age 28. Another name for Ramon was Raimund Berenger II "the Towhead" Count of Barcelona.

Death Notes: Murdered by his twin brother, Berenguer Ramon II.

Research Notes: Twin brother of Berenguer Ramon II, by whom he was murdered.

From Wikipedia - Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona :

Ramon Berenguer II the Towhead or Cap de estopes[1][2] (1053 or 1054 - December 5 , 1082 ) was Count of Barcelona from 1076 until his death. He ruled jointly with his twin brother Berenguer Ramon II .

He succeeded his father Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona to co-rule with his twin brother Berenguer Ramon, in 1075.

The twins failed to agree and divided their possessions between them, against the will of their late father. Ramon Berenguer the Towhead, called so because of the thickness and colour of his hair, was killed while hunting in the woods in 1082. His brother, who went on to become the sole ruler of Catalonia , was credited by popular opinion of having orchestrated this murder. Berenguer Ramon the Fratricide was later succeeded by Ramon Berenguer's son Ramon Berenguer III .

Ramon Berenguers's marriage and child
Mahalta (or Maud) of Apulia , born ca. 1059, died 1111/1112, daughter of Duke Robert Guiscard and of Sikelgaita de Salerno. Following his murder, she remarried to Aimery I of Narbonne , being mother of his son Aimery II
Ramon Berenguer III the Great, count of Barcelona and Provence (before 1082-1131)

Ramon married Mathilda, of Apulia,71 daughter of Robert I "Guiscard", de Hauteville and Sigelgaita, Princess of Salerno, in 1078. Mathilda was born about 1059 in <Apulia, Calabria>, Italy and died in 1083 about age 24. Other names for Mathilda were Maud of Apulia and Mathilda d'Apulia.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 295 M    i. Raymond III Berenger, Count of Barcelona 71 was born 11 Nov 1080 or 1082 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 19 Jun 1131 at age 50.

216. Ida, of Lorraine 243 301 was born about 1040 in Bouillon, Ardenne, South Belgium and died on 13 Aug 1113 about age 73.

Research Notes: Second wife of Eustace II.

From Wikipedia - Ida of Lorraine
Ida of Lorraine (also referred to as Blessed Ida of Boulogne)[1] (c. 1040 - 13 Apr 1113 )[2] was a saint and noblewoman.

She was born in Bouillon, Ardenne, South Belgium, the daughter of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine and his wife, Doda.[3].

Family
In 1057, she married Eustace II of Boulogne .[2] They had three sons:
Eustace III , the next Count of Boulogne
Godfrey of Bouillon , first ruler of Kingdom of Jerusalem
Baldwin , second ruler of Kingdom of Jerusalem

Ida shunned the use of a wet-nurse in raising her sons. Instead, she breast-fed them to ensure that they were not contaminated by the wet-nurse's morals.[4] When her sons went on the First Crusade , Ida contributed heavily to their expenses.[5]

Life
Ida was always religiously and charitably active, but the death of her husband provided her wealth and the freedom to use it for her projects. She founded several monasteries:
Saint-Wulmer in Boulogne[6][1]
Our Lady of the Chapel, Calais[1]
Saint-Bertin[1]
Abbey of Cappelle [7]
Abbey of Le Wast [7]

She maintained a correspondence with Anselm of Canterbury . Some of Anselm's letters to Ida have survived.[8] [9]

She became increasingly involved in church life. However, current scholarship feels that she did not actually become a Benedictine Nun, but that she was a "Secular Oblate of the Benedictine Order".[6][1]

Death and burial
Ida died on 13 April 1113, which is the date she is honoured. Traditionally, her burial place has been ascribed to the Monastery of Saint Vaast [6]. However, one author believes that the original burial place was the Monastery of Vast. Her remains were moved in 1669 to Paris and again in 1808 to Bayeux . [1]

Her life story was written by contemporary monk of Saint Vaast Abbey.[6]

She is venerated in Bayeux.[1]

Ida married Eustace II, Count of Boulogne,71 221 222 son of Eustace I, Count of Boulogne and Maud, of Louvain, in 1057. Eustace was born between 1015 and 1020 in <Buckinghamshire>, England and died about 1087. Another name for Eustace was Bustace.

Death Notes: May have died around 1080.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eustace II, Count of Boulogne :
Eustace II, (c. 1015-1020 - c. 1087) [1][2] was count of Boulogne from 1049-1087, fought on the Norman side at the Battle of Hastings , and afterwards received a large honour in England.

He was the son of Eustace I . His first wife was Goda , daughter of the English king Æthelred the Unready , and sister of Edward the Confessor .[3] Goda died in 1055, before the Norman Conquest of her homeland, in which her husband participated. From his second marriage with Ida of Lorraine (daughter of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine ), Eustace had three sons, Eustace III , the next count of Boulogne, and Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin , both later monarchs of Jerusalem .

In 1048 Eustace joined his father-in-law's rebellion against the Emperor Henry III . The next year Eustace was excommunicated by Pope Leo IX for marrying within the prohibited degree of kinship [4]. It's likely the pope's action was at the behest of Henry III. The rebellion failed, and in 1049 Eustance and Godfrey submitted to Henry III.

Eustace paid a visit to England in 1051, and was honourably received at the Confessor's court. Edward and Eustace were former brothers-in-law and remained allied politically. On the other hand the dominant figure in England, Earl Godwin , had recently married his son Tostig to the daughter of Eustace's rival the count of Flanders. Furthermore Godwin's son Sweyn had been feuding with Eustace's stepson Ralph the Timid .

A brawl in which Eustace and his servants became involved with the citizens of Dover led to a serious quarrel between the king and Godwin. The latter, to whose jurisdiction the men of Dover were subject, refused to punish them. His lack of respect to those in authority was made the excuse for outlawing himself and his family. They left England, but returned the next year (1052) with a large army, aided by the Flemish.

In 1052 William of Talou rebelled against his nephew William of Normandy. Eustace may well have been involved in this rebellion, although there is no specific evidence, for after William of Talou's surrender he fled to the Boulonnais court.

The following years saw still further advances by Eustace's rivals and enemies. Count Baldwin of Flanders consolidated his hold over territories he had annexed to the east. In 1060 he became regent of France during the minority of his nephew Philip I of France . In contrast Eustace's stepson Walter of Mantes failed in his attempt to claim the County of Maine . He was captured by the Normans and died soon afterwards in mysterious circumstances.

These events evidently caused a shift in Eustace political allegiances, for he then became an important participant in the Norman conquest of England in 1066. He fought at Hastings, although sources vary regarding the details of his conduct during the battle. Sources suggest that Eustace was present, with William thr Bastard at the Malfosse incident in the immediate aftermath of the battle, where a Saxon, feigning death leaps up and attacks him, and is presumably cut down before h can reach William.

Eustace received large land grants afterwards, which suggests he contributed in other ways as well, perhaps by providing ships.

In the following year, probably because he was dissatisfied with his share of the spoil, he assisted the Kentishmen in an attempt to seize Dover Castle . The conspiracy failed, and Eustace was sentenced to forfeit his English fiefs .

Subsequently he was reconciled to the Conqueror, who restored a portion of the confiscated lands.

Eustace died circus 1087, and was succeeded by his son, Eustace III .

Noted events in his life were:

• Comanion of William the Conqueror: at Battle of Hastings, 1066.

• Count of Boulogne: 1049-1087.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 142)

217. Thierry I, of Lorraine, Count of Flanders 342 343 was born about 1099 and died on 17 Jan 1168 about age 69. Other names for Thierry were Dietrich I of Lorraine, Count of Alsace, Thierry of Alsace, and Thierry Count of Flanders.

Research Notes: Youngest son of Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine.

From Wikipedia - Thierry, Count of Flanders :

Thierry of Alsace (Dietrich) (c. 1099 - January 17 , 1168 ), in Flanders known as Diederik van den Elzas, was count of Flanders from 1128 to 1168. He was the youngest son of Duke Thierry II of Lorraine and Gertrude of Flanders (daughter of Robert I of Flanders ). With a record of four campaigns in the Levant and Africa (including participation in the Second Crusade , the failed 1157-1158 siege of the Syrian city Shaizar , and the 1164 invasion of Egypt ), he had a rare and distinguished record of commitment to crusading.

Life
After the murder of his cousin Charles the Good in 1127, Thierry claimed the county of Flanders as grandson of Robert I, but William Clito became count instead with the support of King Louis VI of France . William's politics and attitude towards the autonomy of Flanders made him unpopular, and by the end of the year Bruges , Ghent , Lille , and Saint-Omer recognized Thierry as a rival count. Thierry's supporters came from the Imperial faction of Flanders, and upon his arrival he engaged in battle against William.

Louis VI had Raymond of Martigné , the Archbishop of Reims , excommunicate him, and Louis himself then besieged Lille, but was forced to retire when Henry I of England , William's uncle, transferred his support to Thierry. However, Thierry was defeated at Tielt and Oostkamp and fled to Brugge. He was forced to flee Brugge as well, and went to Aalst , where he was soon under siege from William, Godfrey I of Leuven , and Louis VI. The city was about to be captured when William was found dead on July 27 , 1128 , leaving Thierry as the only claimant to the county.

Thierry set up his government in Ghent and was recognized by all the Flemish cities as well as King Henry, who had his Flemish lords in England swear fealty to him. Thierry himself swore homage to Louis VI after 1132, in order to gain the French king's support against Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut , who had advanced his own claim on Flanders.

In 1132 his wife, Suanhilde, died, leaving only a daughter. In 1139 then went on pilgrimage to the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem , and married Sibylla of Anjou , daughter of King Fulk of Jerusalem and widow of William Clito; a very prestigious marriage.

This was the first of Thierry's four pilgrimages to the Holy Land . While there he also led a victorious expedition against Caesarea Phillippi , and fought alongside his father-in-law in an invasion of Gilead . He soon returned to Flanders to put down a revolt in the Duchy of Lower Lotharingia , ruled at the time by Godfrey III of Leuven .

Thierry went on crusade a second time in 1147 during the Second Crusade . He led the crossing of the Maeander River in Anatolia and fought at the Battla of Attalya in 1148, and after arriving in the crusader Kingdom he participated in the Council of Acre , where the ill-fated decision to attack Damascus was made.

He participated in the Siege of Damascus , led by his wife's half-brother Baldwin III of Jerusalem , and with the support of Baldwin, Louis VII of France , and Conrad III of Germany , he lay claim to Damascus; the native crusader barons preferred one of their own nobles, Guy Brisebarre, lord of Beirut , but in any case the siege was a failure and all parties returned home.

During his absence, Baldwin IV of Hainaut invaded Flanders and pillaged Artois ; Sibylla reacted strongly and had Hainaut pillaged in response. The Archbishop of Reims intervened and a treaty was signed. When Thierry returned in 1150, he took vengeance on Baldwin IV at Bouchain , with the aid of Henry I, Count of Namur and Henry II of Leez , Bishop of Liège . In the subsequent peace negotiations, Thierry gave his daughter Marguerite in marriage to Baldwin IV's son, the future Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut .

In 1156 Thierry had his eldest son married to Elizabeth of Vermandois , daughter and heiress of Raoul I of Vermandois . In 1156 he returned to the Holy Land, this time with his wife accompanying him. He participated in Baldwin III's siege of Shaizar , but the fortress remained in Muslim hands when a dispute arose between Thierry and Raynald of Chatillon over who would possess it should it be captured. He returned to Flanders 1159 without Sibylla, who remained behind to become a nun at the convent of St. Lazarus in Bethany . Their son Philip had ruled the county in their absence, and he remained co-count after Thierry's return.

In 1164 Thierry returned once more to the Holy Land. He accompanied King Amalric I , another half-brother of Sibylla, to Antioch and Tripoli . He returned home in 1166, and adopted a date palm as his seal, with a crown of laurels on the reverse.

He died on February 4, 1168, and was buried in the Abbey of Watten , between Saint-Omer and Gravelines . His rule had been moderate and peaceful; the highly developed administration of the county in later centuries first began during these years. There had also been great economic and agricultural development, and new commercial enterprises were established; Flanders' greatest territorial expansion occurred under Thierry.

Family
His first wife, Suanhilde, died in 1132, leaving only one daughter:
Laurette of Flanders , who married four times: Iwain, Count of Aalst ; Henry II, Duke of Limburg ; Raoul I of Vermandois , Count of Vermandois ; Henry IV of Luxembourg . Laurette finally retired to a nunnery, where she died in 1170.
Thierry secondly married Sibylla of Anjou , daughter of Fulk V of Anjou and Ermengarde of Maine , and widow of William Clito . Their children were:
Philip of Flanders (died 1191)
Matthew of Alsace (died 1173), married Countess Marie of Boulogne
Margaret I of Flanders (died 1194), married Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
Gertrude of Flanders (died 1186), married Humbert III of Savoy
Matilda of Flanders, abbess of Fontevrault
Peter of Flanders (died 1176), Bishop of Cambrai

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Flanders: 1128-1168.

Thierry married Sybil, of Anjou,440 441 daughter of Fulk V "the Young", Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem and Erembourg, Countess of Maine, in 1131. Sybil was born about 1112 in <Anjou, France> and died in 1165 about age 53. Another name for Sybil was Sibylla of Anjou.

Research Notes: Second wife of Thierry I of Lorraine (also known as Dietrich I, Count of Alsace).

From Wikipedia - Sibylla of Anjou :

Sibylla of Anjou (c. 1112-1165) was a daughter of Fulk V of Anjou and Ermengarde of Maine , and wife of William Clito and Thierry, Count of Flanders .

In 1123 Sibylla married William Clito, son of the Norman Robert Curthose and future Count of Flanders . Sibylla brought the County of Maine to this marriage, which was annulled in 1124 on grounds of consanguinity . The annulment was made by Pope Honorius II upon request from Henry I of England , William's uncle; Fulk opposed it and did not consent until Honorius excommunicated him and placed an interdict over Anjou . Sibylla then accompanied her widower father to the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem , where he married Melisende , the heiress of the kingdom, and became king himself in 1131. In 1139 she married Thierry, Count of Flanders , who had arrived on his first pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

She returned to Flanders with her new husband, and during his absence on the Second Crusade the pregnant Sibylla acted as regent of the county. Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut took the opportunity to attack Flanders, but Sibylla led a counter-attack and pillaged Hainaut . In response Baldwin ravaged Artois . The archbishop of Reims intervened and a truce was signed, but Thierry took vengeance on Baldwin when he returned in 1149.

In 1157 she travelled with Thierry on his third pilgrimage, but after arriving in Jerusalem she separated from her husband and refused to return home with him. She became a nun at the convent of St. Lazarus in Bethany , where her step-aunt, Ioveta of Bethany , was abbess. Ioveta and Sibylla supported Queen Melisende and held some influence over the church, and supported the election of Amalric of Nesle as Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem over a number of other candidates. Sibylla died in Bethany in 1165.

With Thierry she had six children:
Philip , Count of Flanders
Matthew , Count of Boulogne , married Marie of Boulogne
Margaret , Countess of Flanders and Hainaut, married Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
Gertrude
Matilda
Peter


Children from this marriage were:

+ 296 M    i. Matthew, of Alsace, Count of Boulogne .442

   297 F    ii. Margarite, of Lorraine 443 was born between 1140 and 1145 and died on 17 Dec 1195.

Noted events in her life were:

• Heiress of Flanders:

+ 298 F    iii. Margaret I, of Flanders 444 died on 15 Nov 1194.

218. Gisele, of Vaudemont 154 247 was born about 1090 in Vaudemont, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France and died after 1141. Another name for Gisele was Gisele de Vaudemont.

Gisele married Renaud I, Count of Mousson, Count of Bar-le-Duc,154 396 son of Thierry I, Count of Montbéliard & Bar-le-Duc and Ermentrude, of Burgundy,. Renaud was born about 1077 in Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, France and died on 10 Mar 1149 about age 72. Other names for Renaud were Reinald I Count of Mousson, Count of Bar-le-Duc and Renaud I kEEP Comte de Bar.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 299 F    i. Clémence de Bar-le-Duc, Countess of Dammartin 154 445 was born about 1110 in <Dammartin, Île-de-France>, France and died after 20 Jan 1183.

219. Adelaide, of Namur 344 was born in 1068 and died in 1124 at age 56.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Otto II, Count of Chiny

Adelaide married Otto II, Count of Chiny, son of Arnold II, Count of Chiny and Adela, de Rameru,. Otto died on 28 Mar 1125.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-23 (Adelaide of Namur)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 300 F    i. Ida, of Chiny and Namur 307 406 was born about 1083 and died between 1117 and 1122.

220. Clementia, of Burgundy 43 345 was born about 1078 in Namur, Namur, Belgium and died about 1122 about age 44. Another name for Clementia was Clementia Countess of Namur.

Clementia married Godefroi de Louvain, Duc de Basse-Lorraine,306 307 son of Henry II, Count of Leuven and Brussels and Adelheid, Countess of Betuwe, about 1099 in Belgium. Godefroi was born about 1060 in <Lorraine, France>, died on 25 Jan 1139 in Affligem Abbey, Affligem, Belgium about age 79, and was buried in Church of Affligem Abbey, Affligem, Belgium. Other names for Godefroi were Godfrey I of Brabant, Godfrey I Duke of Lower Lorraine, Count of Louvain, Godfrey I of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Bearded" of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Courageous" of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Great" of Leuven, and Godfrey V or VI Duke of Lower Lorraine.

Research Notes: Duke of Lower Lorraine, Margrave of Antwerp, Count of Louvain

From Wikipedia - Godfrey I of Leuven :

Godfrey I (c. 1060-25 January 1139 ), called the Bearded, the Courageous, or the Great, was the landgrave of Brabant , and count of Brussels and Leuven (or Louvain) from 1095 to his death and duke of Lower Lorraine (as Godfrey V or VI) from 1106 to 1129. He was also margrave of Antwerp from 1106 to his death.

Godfrey was the son of Henry II of Leuven and a countess called Adela (origin unknown). He succeeded his brother Henry III in 1095. He first came into conflict with Otbert, Bishop of Liège , over the county of Brunengeruz that both claimed. In 1099, Emperor Henry IV allotted the county to the bishop, who entrusted it to Albert III, Count of Namur . Godfrey arbitrated a dispute between Henry III of Luxembourg and Arnold I, Count of Loon , over the appointment of the abbot of Sint-Truiden .

Godfrey was in favour with the emperor and defended his interests in Lorraine. In 1102, he stopped Robert II of Flanders , who was invading the Cambraisis . After the death of the emperor in 1106, his son and successor, Henry V , who had been in rebellion, decided to avenge himself on his father's partisans. Duke Henry of Lower Lorraine was imprisoned and his duchy confiscated and given to Godfrey. After Henry escaped from prison, he tried to retake his duchy and captured Aachen , but ultimately failed.
In 1114, during a rift between the emperor and Pope Paschal II , Godfrey led a revolt in Germany. In 1118, the emperor and the duke were reconciled. In 1119, Baldwin VII of Flanders died heirless and Flanders was contested between several claimants, of which William of Ypres had married a niece of Godfrey's second wife. Godfrey supported William, but could not enforce his claim against that of Charles the Good . Also dead in that year was Otbert. Two separate men were elected to replace him and Godfrey again sided with the loser.

By marrying his daughter Adeliza to Henry I of England , who was also the father-in-law of the emperor, he greatly increased his prestige. However, Henry V died in 1125 and Godfrey supported Conrad of Hohenstaufen , the duke of Franconia , against Lothair of Supplinburg . Lothair was elected. Lothair withdrew the duchy of Lower Lorraine and granted it to Waleran , the son of Henry, whom Henry V had deprived in 1106. Nonetheless, Godfrey maintained the margraviate of Antwerp and retained the ducal title (which would in 1183 become Duke of Brabant ).

After the assassination of Charles the Good in 1127, the Flemish succession was again in dispute. William Clito prevailed, but was soon fraught with revolts. Godfrey intervened on behalf of Thierry of Alsace , who prevailed against Clito. Godfrey continued to war against Liège and Namur .
Godfrey spent his last years in the abbey of Affligem . He died of old age on 25 January 1139 and was buried in the left aisle of the abbey church. He is sometimes said to have passed in 1140, but this is an error.

Family and children
He married Ida, daughter of Otto II of Chiny and Adelaide of Namur . They had several children:
Adeliza of Louvain (b. 1103-d. abbey of Affligem, April 23 , 1151 ) married Henry I, King of England and later William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel (1109-before 1151).
Godfrey II of Leuven (b. 1107-d. June 13 , 1142 ), Duke of Lower Lotharingia, Landgrave of Brabant, Count of Brussels and Leuven. He married Lutgardis of Sulzbach , daughter of Berenger I of Sulzbach .
Clarissa (d. 1140).
Henry (d. in the abbey of Affligem , 1141), monk.
Ida (d. 1162) married to Arnold II, count of Cleves (d. 1147).

Later, he married to Clementia of Bourgogne but had no issue.

He also had a son from an unknown mistress:
Joscelin (d. 1180); he accompanied his half-sister Adeliza to England and married Agnes, heiress of the Percy family, and took this surname. Probably the same as Gosuinus, mentioned in 1143 together with his sister Adeliza. Joscelin is an ancestor of U.S presidents Franklin Pierce and George W Bush

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Louvain:

• Duke of Lower Lorraine:

(Duplicate Line. See Person 195)

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221. Emme, de Bretagne 347 was born about 1026 in Bretagne, France.

Emme married Ivo St. Sauveur,446 son of Nigel de St. Sauveur and Godehilda Borrel, about 1042 in Normandy, France. Ivo was born about 1026 in <Normandy, France>. Another name for Ivo was Ivo de St. Sauveur.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 301 M    i. Sir Nigell FitzIvo, 1st Baron of Halton 447 448 449 was born about 1042 in <Cotentin, Normandy, France> and died about 1080 about age 38.

222. Alice, of Normandy 334 349 was born about 1021 in <Normandy, France>. Another name for Alice was Alix de Normandie.

Research Notes: Illegitimate daughter of Richard III.

Alice married Ranulph I, Vicomte of the Bessin,334 450 son of Anschitil, Vicomte of the Bessin and Unknown,. Ranulph was born about 1017 in <Bayeux, Calvados, Normandy, France>. Another name for Ranulph was Ranulf Count of Bayeux.

Research Notes: Fought at the Battle of Val-es-Dunes in 1047

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132A-24 (Alice of Normandy)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 302 M    i. Ranulph II, Vicomte of Bayeux in Normandy 334 432 433 was born about 1048 in <Normandy, France> and died after Apr 1089.


223. William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, King of England 237 350 was born about 1028 in Falaise, Normandy, France and died on 9 Sep 1087 in Rouen, Normandy, France about age 59. Other names for William were William of Normandy and William I King of England.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia (William the Conqueror) and thepeerage.com give b. in 1027 or 1028.

William married Matilda, of Flanders,277 278 daughter of Baldwin V, de Lille, Count of Flanders and Adele Capet, Princess of France, in 1053 in Cathedral de Notre Dame, Normandie, France. Matilda was born about 1032 in Flanders, died on 2 Nov 1083 in Caen, Normandy, France about age 51, and was buried in Abbaye aux Dames, Caen, Normandy, France. Another name for Matilda was Maud of Flanders.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots gives both abt. 1031 and 1032.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots gives 1 Nov 1083 and 2 Nov 1083.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Matilda of Flanders :

Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 - 2 November 1083) was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England and the wife of William I the Conqueror .

She was the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Flanders , and Adèle (1000-1078/9), daughter of Robert II of France .

At 4'2" (127 cm) tall, Matilda was England's smallest queen, according to the Guinness Book of Records . According to legend, Matilda (or "Maud") told the representative of William, Duke of Normandy (later king of England as William the Conqueror), who had come asking for her hand, that she was far too high-born (being descended from King Alfred the Great of England) to consider marrying a bastard. When that was repeated to him, William rode from Normandy to Bruges , found Matilda on her way to church, dragged her off her horse by her long braids, threw her down in the street in front of her flabbergasted attendants, and then rode off. Another version of the story states that William rode to Matilda's father's house in Lille, threw her to the ground in her room (again, by the braids), and hit her (or violently shook her) before leaving. Naturally Baldwin took offense at this but, before they drew swords, Matilda settled the matter [1] by deciding to marry him, and even a papal ban (on the grounds of consanguinity ) did not dissuade her. They were married in 1053.

There were rumours that Matilda had been in love with the English ambassador to Flanders , a Saxon named Brihtric, who declined her advances. Whatever the truth of the matter, years later when she was acting as Regent for William in England, she used her authority to confiscate Brihtric's lands and throw him into prison, where he died.

When William was preparing to invade England, Matilda outfitted a ship, the Mora, out of her own money and gave it to him. For many years it was thought that she had some involvement in the creation of the Bayeux Tapestry (commonly called La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde in French), but historians no longer believe that; it seems to have been commissioned by William's half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux , and made by English artists in Kent .

Matilda bore William eleven children, and he was believed to have been faithful to her, at least up until the time their son Robert rebelled against his father and Matilda sided with Robert against William. After she died, in 1083 at the age of 51, William became tyrannical, and people blamed it on his having lost her. Contrary to the belief that she was buried at St. Stephen's, also called l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes in Caen , Normandy , where William was eventually buried, she is intombed at l'Abbaye aux Dames , which is the Sainte-Trinité church, also in Caen. Of particular interest is the 11th century slab, a sleek black stone decorated with her epitaph, marking her grave at the rear of the church. It is of special note since the grave marker for William was replaced as recently as the beginning of the 19th century. In 1961, their graves were opened and their bones measured, proving their physical statures. [2]

Children
Some doubt exists over how many daughters there were. This list includes some entries which are obscure.
Robert Curthose (c. 1054 - 1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano , daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano
Adeliza (or Alice) (c. 1055 - ?), reportedly betrothed to Harold II of England (Her existence is in some doubt.)
Cecilia (or Cecily) (c. 1056 - 1126), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen
William Rufus (1056 - 1100), King of the English
Richard, Duke of Bernay (1057 - c. 1081), killed by a stag in New Forest
Adela (c. 1062 - 1138), married Stephen, Count of Blois
Agatha (c. 1064 - c. 1080), betrothed to (1) Harold of Wessex , (2) Alfonso VI of Castile
Constance (c. 1066 - 1090), married Alan IV Fergent , Duke of Brittany ; poisoned, possibly by her own servants
Matilda (very obscure, her existence is in some doubt)
Henry Beauclerc (1068-1135), King of England, married (1) Edith of Scotland , daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland , (2) Adeliza of Louvain
NOTE:
Gundred
(c. 1063 - 1085), wife of William de Warenne (c. 1055 - 1088), was formerly thought of as being yet another of Matilda's daughters, with speculation that she was William I's full daughter, a stepdaughter, or even a foundling or adopted daughter. However, this connection to William I has now been firmly debunked--see Gundred's discussion page for further information.
Matilda was a seventh generation direct descendent of Alfred the Great . Her marriage to William strengthened his claim to the throne. All sovereigns of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom have been descended from her, as is the present Queen Elizabeth II .


(Duplicate Line. See Person 180)

224. Adelaide, of Normandy, Countess of Aumale 351 352 353 was born about 1030 and died between 1081 and 1090. Other names for Adelaide were Adela of Normandy, Countess of Aumale and Adeliza Countess of Aumale.

Research Notes: Sister of William I the Conqueror, also illegitimate.

Adelaide married Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu, son of Hugh II, Count of Pontieu and Bertha, of Aumale,. Enguerrand died in 1053 in Arques.

Death Notes: Slain at Battle of Arques

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 130-24 (Adelaide)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 303 F    i. Judith, of Lens 451 452 453 was born in 1054 in <Lens, Artois>, France.

Adelaide next married Lambert, of Boulogne, Count of Lens in Artois. Lambert died in 1054 in Lille, France.

Death Notes: Slain in the Battle of Lille

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 130-24 (Adelaide)

Adelaide next married Eudes, Count of Champagne and Aumale, Earl of Holderness 454 between 1054 and 1056.

225. Fulk V "the Young", Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem 355 356 357 was born in 1092 in Angers, France and died on 10 Nov 1144 in Acre, Palestine at age 52. Other names for Fulk were Fulk of Jerusalem, Fulk V Count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem.

Birth Notes: May have been born in Anjou.

Death Notes: May have died in Jerusalem.

Research Notes: From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871915 :

Count of Anjou; King of Jerusalem (1131-1143). Fulk married the only daughter of Helias, Count of Maine, thereby uniting Anjou and Maine. In 1120 he went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In 1128 a delegation from Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem (RIN # 4676), arrived in France, asking Louis VII to choose one of the French nobility to marry his daughter Melisande and become heir to the throne of Jerusalem. Fulk, by then a widower, was chosen. He married Melisande in 1129 and succeeded as King of Jerusalem in 1131. To defend the holy city from the Muslim champion, Zengi, Fulk allied with the emir of Damascus and the emperor of Constantinople during the early 1130's. Turkish raiders took him prisoner in 1137, but then freed him.
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 19,37-9,46-8,60-1

----
From Wikipedia - Fulk of Jerusalem :

Fulk (1089/1092 in Angers - November 13, 1143 in Acre ), also known as Fulk the Younger, was Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129, and King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. He was also the paternal grandfather of Henry II of England .

Count of Anjou
Fulk was born in Angers between 1089 and 1092, the son of Count Fulk IV of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort . In 1092, Bertrade deserted her husband and bigamously married King Philip I of France .

He became count of Anjou upon his father's death in 1109, at the age of approximately twenty. In that year, he married Erembourg of Maine , cementing Angevin control over the County of Maine .

He was originally an opponent of King Henry I of England and a supporter of King Louis VI of France , but in 1127 he allied with Henry when Henry arranged for his daughter Matilda to marry Fulk's son Geoffrey of Anjou . Fulk went on crusade in 1120, and became a close friend of the Knights Templar . After his return he began to subsidize the Templars, and maintained two knights in the Holy Land for a year.

Crusader and King
By 1127 Fulk was preparing to return to Anjou when he received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem . Baldwin II had no male heirs but had already designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him. Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughter's inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord. Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, and a widower. His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a frontier state always in the grip of war.

However, Fulk held out for better terms than mere consort of the Queen; he wanted to be king alongside Melisende. Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulk's fortune and military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk abdicated his county seat of Anjou to his son Geoffery and left for Jerusalem , where he married Melisende on June 2, 1129. Later Baldwin II bolstered Melisende's position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III , born in 1130.

Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin II's death. From the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, excluding Melisende altogether. He favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility. The other crusader states to the north feared that Fulk would attempt to impose the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them, as Baldwin II had done; but as Fulk was far less powerful than his deceased father-in-law, the northern states rejected his authority. Melisende's sister Alice of Antioch , exiled from the Principality by Baldwin II, took control of Antioch once more after the death of her father. She allied with Pons of Tripoli and Joscelin II of Edessa to prevent Fulk from marching north in 1132; Fulk and Pons fought a brief battle before peace was made and Alice was exiled again.

In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the second generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade. These "natives" focused on Melisende's cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset , count of Jaffa , who was devotedly loyal to the Queen. Fulk saw Hugh as a rival, and it did not help matters when Hugh's own stepson accused him of disloyalty. In 1134, in order to expose Hugh, Fulk accused him of infidelity with Melisende. Hugh rebelled in protest. Hugh secured himself to Jaffa, and allied himself with the Muslims of Ascalon . He was able to defeat the army set against him by Fulk, but this situation could not hold. The Patriarch interceded in the conflict, perhaps at the behest of Melisende. Fulk agreed to peace and Hugh was exiled from the kingdom for three years, a lenient sentence.

However, an assassination attempt was made against Hugh. Fulk, or his supporters, were commonly believed responsible, though direct proof never surfaced. The scandal was all that was needed for the queen's party to take over the government in what amounted to a palace coup. Author and historian Bernard Hamilton wrote that the Fulk's supporters "went in terror of their lives" in the palace. Contemporary author and historian William of Tyre wrote of Fulk "he never attempted to take the initiative, even in trivial matters, without (Melisende's) consent". The result was that Melisende held direct and unquestioned control over the government from 1136 onwards. Sometime before 1136 Fulk reconciled with his wife, and a second son, Amalric was born.

Securing the borders
Jerusalem's northern border was of great concern. Fulk had been appointed regent of the Principality of Antioch by Baldwin II. As regent he had Raymund of Poitou marry the infant Constance of Antioch , daughter of Bohemund II and Alice of Antioch , and niece to Melisende. However, the greatest concern during Fulk's reign was the rise of Atabeg Zengi of Mosul .

In 1137 Fulk was defeated in battle near Barin but allied with Mu'in ad-Din Unur , the vizier of Damascus . Damascus was also threatened by Zengi. Fulk captured the fort of Banias , to the north of Lake Tiberias and thus secured the northern frontier.

Fulk also strengthened the kingdom's southern border. His butler Paganus built the fortress of Kerak to the south of the Dead Sea , and to help give the kingdom access to the Red Sea , Fulk had Blanche Garde , Ibelin , and other forts built in the south-west to overpower the Egyptian fortress at Ascalon. This city was a base from which the Egyptian Fatimids launched frequent raids on the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Fulk sought to neutralise this threat.

In 1137 and 1142, Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus arrived in Syria attempting to impose Byzantine control over the crusader states . John's arrival was ignored by Fulk, who declined an invitation to meet the emperor in Jerusalem.

Death
In 1143, while the king and queen were on holiday in Acre , Fulk was killed in a hunting accident. His horse stumbled, fell, and Fulk's skull was crushed by the saddle, "and his brains gushed forth from both ears and nostrils", as William of Tyre describes. He was carried back to Acre, where he lay unconscious for three days before he died. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Though their marriage started in conflict, Melisende mourned for him privately as well as publicly. Fulk was survived by his son Geoffrey of Anjou by his first wife, and Baldwin III and Amalric I by Melisende.

According to William, Fulk was "a ruddy man, like David... faithful and gentle, affable and kind... an experienced warrior full of patience and wisdom in military affairs." His chief fault was an inability to remember names and faces.

William of Tyre described Fulk as a capable soldier and able politician, but observed that Fulk did not adequately attend to the defense of the crusader states to the north. Ibn al-Qalanisi (who calls him al-Kund Anjur, an Arabic rendering of "Count of Anjou") says that "he was not sound in his judgment nor was he successful in his administration." The Zengids continued their march on the crusader states, culminating in the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144, which led to the Second Crusade (see Siege of Edessa ).

Family
In 1110, Fulk married Ermengarde of Maine (died 1126), the daughter of Elias I of Maine . Their four children were:
Geoffrey V of Anjou , father of Henry II of England .
Sibylla of Anjou (1112-1165, Bethlehem ), married in 1123 William Clito (div. 1124), married in 1134 Thierry, Count of Flanders .
Alice (or Isabella ) (1107-1154, Fontevrault), married William Adelin ; after his death in the White Ship she became a nun and later Abbess of Fontevrault .
Elias II of Maine (died 1151)

His second wife was Melisende , Queen of Jerusalem
Baldwin III of Jerusalem
Amalric I of Jerusalem

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Anjou: 1109-1129.

• King of Jerusalem: 1131-1144.

Fulk married Erembourg, Countess of Maine,455 456 daughter of Hélie de la Flêche, Count of Maine and Matilda, of Château-du-Loire, in 1110. Erembourg died in 1126. Other names for Erembourg were Eremburg of Maine, Eremburga of La Flêche, Ermengarde of Maine, and Erembourg de la Flêche.

Marriage Notes: May have been married in 1109.

Research Notes: First wife of Fulk V. Only daughter of Helie de la Flêche.

From Wikipedia - Ermengarde of Maine :

Ermengarde or Erembourg of Maine, also known as Erembourg de la Flèche (died 1126 ), was Countess of Maine and the Lady of Château-du-Loir from 1110 to 1126 . She was the daughter of Elias I of Maine , Count of Maine, and Mathilda of Château-du-Loire.

In 1109 she married Fulk V of Anjou , thereby finally bringing Maine under Angevin control. She gave birth to:
Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (d. 1151 )
Elias II of Maine (d. 1151 )
Matilda of Anjou (d. 1119 ), who married William Adelin , the son and heir to Henry I of England
Sibylla of Anjou (d. 1119 ), married in 1121 to William Clito , and then (after an annulment in 1124) to Thierry, Count of Flanders

She died in 1126 , on either the 15th January or the 12 October. After her death, Fulk left his lands to their son Geoffrey, and set out for the Holy Land , where he married Melisende of Jerusalem and became King of Jerusalem .

Noted events in her life were:

• Countess of Maine: 1110-1126.

• Lady of Château-du-Loire: 1110-1126.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 304 F    i. Sybil, of Anjou 440 441 was born about 1112 in <Anjou, France> and died in 1165 about age 53.

+ 305 M    ii. Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy 457 458 459 was born on 24 Aug 1113 in Anjou, France, died on 7 Sep 1151 at age 38, and was buried in Le Mans, France.

Fulk next married Melisende de Rethel 460 on 2 Jun 1129. Melisende died on 11 Sep 1161.

Research Notes: Second wife of Fulk V. Eldest daughter of Baldwin II, Count of Rethel.

226. Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester 266 359 was born about 1081 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France>, died on 13 Feb 1131 in England about age 50, and was buried in Lewes, Sussex, England. Other names for Isabel were Elizabeth de Vermandois, Isabella de Vermandois, and Isabel de Vermandois.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1085 in Valois, France

Research Notes: From: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Elizabeth de Vermandois, or Elisabeth or Isabel de Vermandois (c. 1081 -13 February 1131 ), is a fascinating figure about whose descendants and ancestry much is known and about whose character and life relatively little is known. She was twice married to influential Anglo-Norman magnates, and had several children (among whose descendants are numbered many kings and some queens of England and Scotland). Her Capetian and Carolingian ancestry was a source of much pride for some of these descendants (who included these arms as quarterings in their coats-of-arms[1] ). However, the lady herself led a somewhat controversial life.

Family
Elizabeth de Vermandois was the third daughter of Hugh Magnus and Adele of Vermandois. Her paternal grandparents were Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev . Her maternal grandparents were Herbert IV of Vermandois and Adele of Vexin .
Her mother was the heiress of the county of Vermandois, and descendant of a junior patrilineal line of descent from Charlemagne . The first Count of Vermandois was Pepin of Vermandois . He was a son of Bernard of Italy , grandson of Pippin of Italy and great-grandson of Charlemagne and Hildegard .

As such, Elizabeth had distinguished ancestry and connections. Her father was a younger brother of Philip I of France and her mother was among the last Carolingians . She was also distantly related to the Kings of England , the Dukes of Normandy , the Counts of Flanders and through her Carolingian ancestors to practically every major nobleman in Western Europe .

Countess of Leicester
In 1096, while under age (and probably aged 9 or 11), Elizabeth married Robert de Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester . Meulan was over 35 years her senior, which was an unusual age difference even for this time period. He was a nobleman of some significance in France, having inherited lands from his maternal uncle Henry, Count of Meulan, and had fought bravely and with distinction at his first battle, the Battle of Hastings in 1066 then aged only 16. His parents Roger de Beaumont , Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemar and Adeline of Meulan , heiress of Meulan had died long before; Roger had been a kinsman and close associate of William the Conqueror . Meulan had inherited lands in Normandy after his father died circa 1089, and had also been given lands in the Kingdom of England after his participation in the Norman conquest of England . However, at the time of the marriage, he held no earldom in England while his younger brother was already styled Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick .

Planche states that the bride (Elizabeth) agreed willingly to the marriage, although this means little in the context. Despite the immense age difference, this was a good marriage for its times. Meulan was a respected advisor to three reigning monarchs: William II of England ), Robert Curthose of Normandy and Philip I of France .

According to Middle Ages custom, brides were often betrothed young - 8 being the legal age for betrothal and 12 for marriage (for women). The young betrothed wife would often go to her husband's castle to be raised by his parents or other relatives and to learn the customs and ways of her husband's family. The actual wedding would not take place until much later. Some genealogists speculate that the usual age at which a noble bride could expect the marriage to be consummated would be 14. This is consistent with the date of birth of Elizabeth's first child Emma in 1102 when she would be about 15 to 17.

The marriage produced several children, including most notably two sons who were twins (born 1104 ), and thus remarkable in both surviving and both becoming important noblemen. They are better known to historians of this period as the Beaumont twins, or as Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and his younger twin Robert Bossu (the Humpback) or Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . (Readers of Ellis Peters' Cadfael historical mystery series will find both twins mentioned frequently).

Another notable child of this marriage was Elisabeth or Isabel de Beaumont, one of the youngest mistresses of Henry I of England and later mother (by her first marriage) of Richard Strongbow .

Some contemporaries were surprised that the aging Count of Meulan (b circa 1049/1050) was able to father so many children, given how busy he was with turmoil in England and Normandy from 1102 to 1110 (or later) and acting as Henry I's unofficial minister. One explanation is offered below; another might simply be an indication of his good health and energy (expended mostly in dashing from one troublespot in Normandy to England back to Normandy).

William II of England died suddenly in a purported hunting accident, and was hastily succeeded not by the expected heir but by the youngest brother Henry . This seizure of the throne led to an abortive invasion by the older brother Duke Robert of Normandy, followed by an uneasy truce between the brothers, followed by trouble in both England and Normandy for some time (stirred up by Duke Robert, and by an exiled nobleman Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury ). Finally, Henry invaded Normandy and in the Battle of Tinchebray (September 28 , 1106 ) destroyed organized opposition to his takeover of Normandy and imprisoned his ineffectual older brother for his lifetime. Meulan and his brother Warwick were apparently supporters of Henry during this entire period, and Meulan was rewarded with the earldom of Leicester in 1103 . By 1107, Meulan was in possession of substantial lands in three domains. In 1111, he was able to revenge himself on the attack on his seat Meulan by Louis VI of France . He avenged himself by harrying Paris .

Countess of Surrey
Elizabeth, Countess of Meulan apparently tired of her aging husband at some point during the marriage. The historian Planche says (1874) that the Countess was seduced by or fell in love with a younger nobleman, William de Warenne (c. 1071 -11 May 1138 ) himself the thwarted suitor of Edith of Scotland , Queen consort of Henry I of England. Warenne, whose mother Gundred has been alleged (in modern times) to be the Conqueror's daughter and stepdaughter by some genealogists, was said to want a royal bride, and Elizabeth fitted his requirements, even though she was also another man's wife.

In 1115, the Countess was apparently carried off or abducted by Warenne, which abduction apparently concealed a long-standing affair. There was some kind of separation or divorce between Meulan and his wife, which however did not permit her to marry her lover. The elderly Count of Meulan died, supposedly of chagrin and mortification in being thus publicly humiliated, in the Abbey of Preaux, Normandy on 5 June 1118 , leaving his properties to his two elder sons whom he had carefully educated.

Elizabeth married, secondly, William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey , sometime after the death of her first husband. By him, it is alleged, she already had several children (all born during her marriage to Meulan). She also had at least one daughter born while she was living out of wedlock with Warenne (1115-1118). It is unclear whether this daughter was Ada de Warenne, wife of Henry of Scotland or Gundrede de Warenne, wife of Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick (her half-brothers' first cousin).

The later life of Elizabeth de Vermandois is not known. Her sons by her first marriage appear to have a good relationship with their half-brother William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey although on opposing sides for much of the wars between Stephen and Matilda . Her eldest son Waleran, Count of Meulan was active in supporting the disinherited heir William Clito , son of Robert Curthose until captured by King Henry. He was not released until Clito's death without issue in 1128. Her second son Robert inherited his father's English estates and the earldom of Leicester and married the heiress of the Fitzosbern counts of Breteuil. Her daughter Isabel however became a king's concubine or mistress at a young age; it is unclear whether her mother's own life or her eldest brother's political and personal travails in this period played any part in this decision. Before her mother died, Isabel had become wife of Gilbert de Clare , later (1147) Earl of Pembroke, so had adopted a more conventional life like her mother.

There are no known biographies of Elizabeth de Vermandois, nor any known fictional treatments of her life.

Children and descendants
During her first marriage (1096-1115) to Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (d 5 June 1118), Elizabeth had 3 sons (including twin elder sons) and 6 daughters:
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 ) whose fate is unknown. She was betrothed as an infant to Aumari, nephew of William, Count of Evreux, but the marriage never took place. She probably died young, or entered a convent.[2]
Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (born 1104 ) married and left issue.
Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (born 1104 ) married and left issue (his granddaughter Hawisa or Isabella of Gloucester was the unfortunate first wife of King John .
Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford (born c. 1106 ) lost his earldom, left issue
Adeline de Beaumont (b ca 1107), married two times:
Hugh IV, 4th Lord of Montfort-sur-Risle to whom she was married firstly by her brother Waleran;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)
Aubree (or Alberee) de Beaumont (b ca 1109), married by her brother Waleran to Hugh II of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais (possibly son of Hugh I of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais and his wife Mabille de Montgomerie, 2nd daughter of Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury )
Maud de Beaumont (b ca 1111), married by her brother Waleran to William Lovel, or Louvel or Lupel, son of Ascelin Goel, Lord of Ivri.
Isabel de Beaumont (b Aft. 1102), a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke by whom she was mother of Richard Strongbow , who invaded Ireland 1170 ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland (this marriage is not conclusively proven)
In her second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.
Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh;
Ralph de Warenne (dsp)
Gundrada de Warenne , (Gundred) who married first
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick and had issue; second (as his 2nd wife)
William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Warenne and Surrey and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen's garrison from Warwick Castle; and they had issue.

Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.

The second earl had married Isabella, daughter of Hugh, Count of Vermandois, widow of Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester. The arms of Warenne "checky or and azure" were adopted from the Vermandois coat after this marriage.

The original Vermandois arms were "checky or and sable" but there was no black tincture in early medieval heraldry until sable was discovered, being the crushed fur of this animal. A very deep indigo was used instead which faded into blue so the Vermandois arms becams "checky argent and or".
The Vermandois arms were inherited by the earls of Warenne and Surrey, the Newburgh earls of Warwick, the Beauchamp earls of Warwick and Worcester and the Clifford earls of Cumberland.

Isabel married Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan,228 312 313 son of Roger de Beaumont, Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemer and Adeline, of Meulan, between 1096 and 1101. The marriage ended in divorce. Robert was born about 1049 in Pont-Audemer, Beaumont, Normandy, France, died on 5 Jun 1118 in Leicestershire, England about age 69, and was buried in Preaux, Normandy, France. Another name for Robert was Robert de Meulan.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 53-24 has m. 1096. Wikipedia has m. abt. 1101.

Noted events in their marriage were:

• Betrothal: to Robert de Meulan, 1096.

Research Notes: First husband of Isabel de Vermandois.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 50-24 (Isabel de Vermandois) has "b. abt 1049, d. 5 Jun 1118, Lord of Beaumont, Pont-Audemer and Brionne, Count of Meulan, cr. 1st Earl of Leicester, Companion of William the Conqueror at Hastings 1066, son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline (or Adelise), dau. of Waleran, Count of Meulan..."

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester

Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan (1049 - June 5 , 1118 ) was a powerful English and French nobleman, revered as one of the wisest men of his age. Chroniclers speak highly of his eloquence, his learning, and three kings of England valued his counsel.
He accompanied William the Conqueror to England in 1066 , where his service earned him more than 91 lordships and manors. When his mother died in 1081 , Robert inherited the title of Count of Meulan in Normandy , also the title of Viscount Ivry and Lord of Norton. He did homage to Philip I of France for these estates and sat as French Peer in the Parliament held at Poissy .

At the Battle of Hastings Robert was appointed leader of the infantry on the right wing of the army.

He and his brother Henry were members of the Royal hunting party in the New Forest , when William Rufus received his mysterious death wound, 2 August 1100 . He then pledged alligience to William Rufus' brother, Henry I of England , who created him Earl of Leicester in 1107.

On the death of William Rufus, William, Count of Evreux and Ralph de Conches made an incursion into Robert's Norman estates, on the pretence that they had suffered injury through some advice that Robert had given to the King; their raid was very successful for they collected a vast booty.
According to Henry of Huntingdon , Robert died of shame after "a certain earl carried off the lady he had espoused, either by some intrigue or by force and stratagem." His wife Isabella remarried in 1118 to William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey .


Family and children
He was the eldest son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline of Meulan , daughter of Waleran III, Count de Meulan , and an older brother of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick .

In 1096 he married (Isabel) Elizabeth de Vermandois , daughter of Hugh Magnus and a scion of the French royal family. Their children were:
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 )
Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (born 1104 )
Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (born 1104 )
Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford (born c. 1106 )
Adeline de Beaumont, married two times:
Hugh IV of Montfort-sur-Risle ;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)
Aubree de Beaumont, married Hugh II of Château-neuf-Thimerais.
Maud de Beaumont, married William Lovel. (b. c. 1102)
Isabel de Beaumont, a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland

Sources
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 50-24, 50-25, 53-24, 53-25, 66-25, 114-29, 140-24, 184-4, 215-24, 215-25
Edward T. Beaumont, J.P. The Beaumonts in History. A.D. 850-1850. Oxford.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 199)

Isabel next married William II de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey,100 461 462 son of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey and Gundred, Countess of Surrey, after 1118. William was born about 1065 in <Sussex, England>, died on 11 May 1138 in <England> about age 73, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England. Other names for William were William Earl of Warren and Surrey, William Earl Warenne, and William Earl of Warenne.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey
William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey (died 1138 ), was the son of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey and his first wife Gundred . He is more often referred to as Earl Warenne or Earl of Warenne than as Earl of Surrey.

Sometime around 1093 he tried to marry Matilda (or Edith) , daughter of king Malcolm III of Scotland . She instead married Henry I of England , and this may be the cause of William's great dislike of Henry I, which was to be his apparent motivator in the following years.
He accompanied Robert Curthose in his 1101 invasion of England , and afterwards lost his English lands and titles and was exiled to Normandy . There he complained to Curthose that he expended great effort on the duke's behalf and had in return lost most of his possessions. Curthose's return to England in 1103 was apparently made to convince his brother to restore William's earldom. This was successful, though Curthose had to give up all he had received after the 1101 invasion, and subsequently
William was loyal to king Henry.

To further insure William's loyalty Henry considered marrying him to one of his many illegitimate daughters. He was however dissuaded by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, for any of the daughters would have been within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity . The precise nature of the consanguinous relationship Anselm had in mind has been much debated, but it is most likely he was referring to common descent from the father of duchess Gunnor.

William was one of the commanders on Henry's side (against Robert Curthose) at the Battle of Tinchebray in 1106. Afterwards, with his loyalty thus proven, he became more prominent in Henry's court.

In 1110, Curthose's son William Clito escaped along with Helias of Saint-Saens , and afterwards Warenne received the forfeited Saint-Saens lands, which were very near his own in upper Normandy. By this maneuver king Henry further assured his loyalty, for the successful return of Clito would mean at the very least Warenne's loss of this new territory.
He fought at the Battle of Bremule in 1119, and was at Henry's deathbed in 1135.

Family
In 1118 William acquired the royal-blooded bride he desired when married Elizabeth de Vermandois . She was a daughter of count Hugh of Vermandois , a son of Henry I of France , and was the widow of Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester .
By Elizabeth he had three sons and two daughters:
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey ;
Reginald de Warenne , who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh ;
Ralph de Warenne
Gundrada de Warenne , who married first Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick , and second William, lord of Kendal , and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen 's garrison from Warwick Castle ;
Ada de Warenne , who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon

References
C. Warren Hollister, "[The Taming of a Turbulent Earl: Henry I and William of Warenne ]", Historical Reflections 3 (1976) 83-91
C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (2001)
The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, ed. M. Chibnall, vol. 2, p. 264 (Oxford, 1990).

**********
From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

In her second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.
Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh;
Ralph de Warenne (dsp)
Gundrada de Warenne , (Gundred) who married first
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick and had issue; second (as his 2nd wife)
William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Warenne and Surrey and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen's garrison from Warwick Castle; and they had issue.
Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 306 M    i. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 228 422 423 was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. (Relationship to Father: Step, Relationship to Mother: Biological)

+ 307 F    ii. Gundred de Warenne 310 463 was born about 1117 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England, died after 1166 in Warwickshire, England, and was buried in Kelso, Roxburgh, Scotland.

+ 308 M    iii. William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne 464 was born in 1118 and died in 1148 at age 30.

+ 309 F    iv. Ada de Warenne 266 462 465 died about 1178.

   310 M    v. Reginald de Warenne .

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh;

   311 M    vi. Ralph de Warenne .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois

235. Renaud II de Nevers, Count of Nevers and Auxerre 361 362 was born about 1047 in <Nevers, Nievre>, France and died on 5 Aug 1089 about age 42. Another name for Renaud was Renaud Comte de Nevers.

Renaud married Ida, de Forez,361 466 daughter of Artald III, Count of Lyon and Forez and Unknown,. Ida was born about 1051 in <Le Forez, Provence>, France and died in 1085 about age 34. Another name for Ida was Hawide de Forez.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 312 F    i. Ermengarde, de Nevers 361 467 was born about 1073 in <Courtenay, Loiret>, France and died in 1095 in France about age 22.

236. Gertrude, of Flanders 341 was born about 1070 and died in 1117 about age 47.

Gertrude married Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine,191 246 son of Gerard IV, Count of Alsace, Duke of Upper Lorraine and Hedwig, of Namur,. Thierry died in 1115. Other names for Thierry were Dietrich II Duke of Lorraine and Theodoric II "the Valiant" Duke of Lorraine.

Research Notes: Second husband of Gertrude of Flanders.

From Wikipedia - Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine :

Theodoric II (died 1115), called the Valiant, was the duke of Lorraine from 1070 to his death. He was the son and successor of Gerhard and Hedwige de Namur. He is sometimes numbered Theodoric I if the dukes of the House of Ardennes , who ruled in Upper Lorraine from 959 to 1033, are ignored in favour of the dukes of Lower Lorraine as predecessors of the later dukes of Lorraine.

In fact, Sophia, the daughter of Duke Frederick II of the House of Ardennes, who had inherited the counties of Bar and Montbéliard , had a husband named Louis , who contested the succession. In order to receive the support of his brother, he gave him the county of Vaudémont and convened an assembly of nobles, who elected him duke over Louis. Soon Louis was dead, but his son, Theodoric II of Bar , claimed the succession anyway. However, Emperor Henry IV confirmed Theodoric the Valiant in the duchy. Probably for this reason, Theodoric remained faithful to the emperors throughout his rule. He fought the Saxons while they were at war with the Emperor between 1070 and 1078 and he opposed the popes Gregory VII and Urban II when they were in conflict with the Emperor.

In 1095, he planned to take up the Cross (i.e., go on Crusade , specifically the First ), but his ill health provoked him to drop out, nevertheless convincing his barons to go east. Thereafter, he took little part in imperial affairs, preferring not to intervene between Henry IV and his son Henry , or against Lothair of Supplinburg , duke of Saxony .

Family and children
His first wife was Hedwige (d. 1085 or 1090), daughter of Frederick, count of Formbach , they married around 1075.

They had the following issue:
Simon , his successor in Lorraine
Gertrude (d. 1144), married Floris II of Holland

His second wife was Gertrude (1080-1117), daughter of Robert I of Flanders and Gertrude of Saxony .

They had the following issue:
Theodoric (1100-1168), lord of Bitche and count of Flanders (1128-1168)
Henry I (d. 1165), bishop of Toul
Ida, married Sigefroy (d. 1104), count of Burghausen
Ermengarde, married Bernard de Brancion
Gisela, married Frederick, count of Saarbrücken

(Duplicate Line. See Person 163)

237. Adela, of Normandy 365 366 was born between 1062 and 1067 and died about 8 Mar 1137. Other names for Adela were Adela of England and Adela of Blois.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Adela of Normandy :

Adela of Normandy also known as Adela of Blois and Adela of England "and also Adela Alice Princess of England" (c. 1062 or 1067 - 8 March 1137?) was, by marriage, Countess of Blois , Chartres , and Meaux . She was a daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders . She was also the mother of Stephen, King of England and Henry of Blois , Bishop of Winchester .

Her birthdate is generally believed to have been between 1060 and 1064; however, there is some evidence she was born after her father's accession to the English throne in 1066. She was the favourite sister of King Henry I of England ; they were probably the youngest of the Conqueror's children. She was a high-spirited and educated woman, with a knowledge of Latin .

She married Stephen Henry , son and heir to the count of Blois , sometime between 1080 and 1084, probably in 1083. Stephen inherited Blois, Chartres and Meaux in 1089, and owned over 300 properties, making him one of the wealthiest men of his day. He was a pious and revered leader who managed huge areas of France which inherited from his father and added to by his sharp administrations. He was, essentially a king in his own right. Stephen-Henry joined the First Crusade , along with his brother-in-law Robert Curthose . Stephen's letters to Adela form a uniquely intimate insight into the experiences of the Crusade's leaders. The Count of Blois returned to France in 1100 bringing with him several cartloads of maps, jewels and other treasures, which he deposited at Chartres. He was, however, under an obligation to the pope for agreements made years earlier and returned to Antioch to participate in the crusade of 1101 . He was ultimately killed in an ill advised charge at the Battle of Ramla . Rumors of his cowardice and defection under fire are untrue and unfounded and have been proven to be propaganda generated by later biased historians. Stephen-Henry was often referred to as "le Sage," and was a great patron of Troubadours and writers.

Adela and Stephen's children are listed here as follows. Their birth order is uncertain.
Guillaume (William)(d. 1150), Count of Chartres married Agnes of Sulli (d. aft 1104) and had issue.
Theobald II, aka Thibaud IV Count of Champagne
Odo of Blois, aka Humbert. died young.
Stephen of Blois {King of England}.
Lucia-Mahaut , married Richard d'Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester . Both drowned on 25 November 1120.
Agnes of Blois, married Hugh de Puiset and were parents to Hugh de Puiset .
Eléonore of Blois (d. 1147) married Raoul I of Vermandois (d.1152) & had issue they were divorced in 1142.
Alix of Blois (d. 1145) married Renaud (d.1134)III of Joigni & had Issue
Lithuise of Blois (d. 1118) married Milo I of Montlhéry (Divorced 1115)
Philip (d. 1100) Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne
Henry of Blois b.1101- d. 1171 (oblate child raised at Cherite sur Loire (Cluny Abbey) 1103.

Adela was regent for her husband during his extended absence as a leader of the First Crusade (1095-1098), and when he returned in disgrace it was at least in part at her urging that he returned to the east to fulfil his vow of seeing Jerusalem .[citation needed ] She was again regent in 1101, continuing after her husband's death on this second crusading expedition in 1102, for their children were still minors. Orderic Vitalis praises her as a "wise and spirited woman" who ably governed her husband's estates in his absences and after his death.

She employed tutors to educate her elder sons, and had her youngest son Henry pledged to the Church at Cluny . Adela quarrelled with her eldest son Guillaume, "deficient in intelligence as well as degenerate", and had his younger brother Theobald replace him as heir. Her son Stephen left Blois in 1111 to join his uncle's court in England.

Adela retired to Marcigny in 1120, secure in the status of her children. Later that same year, her daughter Lucia-Mahaut , was drowned in the wreck of the White Ship alongside her husband. She lived long enough to see her son Stephen seize the English throne, and took pride in the ascension of her youngest child Henry Blois to the bishophric of Winchester, but died soon after on 8 March 1135 in Marsilly, Charente, Poitou-Charentes, France.

Adela married Stephen, of Blois, Count of Blois 468 469 about 1080. Stephen was born about 1045 and died on 19 May 1102 in Ramla, (Israel) about age 57. Other names for Stephen were Stephen II of Blois and Stephen II Henry Count of Blois.

Death Notes: Killed in the battle of Ramla.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Stephen II, Count of Blois L

Stephen II Henry (c. 1045 - 19 May 1102 ), (in French , Étienne Henri), Count of Blois and Count of Chartres , was the son of Theobald III , count of Blois , and Garsinde du Maine. He married Adela of Normandy , a daughter of William the Conqueror around 1080 in Chartres .

Count Stephen was one of the leaders of the First Crusade , often writing enthusiastic letters to Adela about the crusade 's progress. He returned home in 1098 during the lengthy siege of Antioch , without fulfilling his crusading vow to forge a way to Jerusalem . He was pressured by Adela into making a second pilgrimage, and joined the minor crusade of 1101 in the company of others who had also returned home prematurely. In 1102, Stephen was killed in the Battle of Ramla at the age of fifty-seven.

Family and children
Stephen and Adela's children were:
William, Count of Sully (d.1150), Count of Chartres married Agnes of Sulli (d. aft 1104) and had issue.
Theobald II, Count of Champagne
Odo, died young.
Stephen, King of England
Lucia-Mahaut , married Richard d'Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester . Both drowned on 25 November 1120 .
Agnes, married Hugh III of Le Puiset
Eléonore (d. 1147) married Raoul I of Vermandois (d. 1152) and had issue; they were divorced in 1142.
Alix (d. 1145) married Renaud III of Joigni (d. 1134) and had issue
Lithuise (d. 1118) married Milo de Brai , Viscount of Troyes (divorced 1115)
Henry, Bishop of Winchester
Humbert, died young.

Lithuise
, who married Milon of Troyes , viscount of Troyes , was possibly his sister and not his daughter, judging from the dates of her children.

He had an illegitimate daughter Emma, who was the mother of William of York , archbishop of York .[1]

Noted events in his life were:

• Leader of the First Crusade:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 313 M    i. Stephen, of Blois, King of England 470 471 was born about 1096 in Blois, Loire-et-Cher, France, died on 25 Oct 1154 in Dover Priory, Dover, England about age 58, and was buried in Faversham Abbey.

+ 314 F    ii. Lithuaise .472

238. Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England 367 368 was born between May 1068 and May 1069 in <Selby, Yorkshire>, England and died on 1 Dec 1135 in St. Denis-le-Fermont, France. Other names for Henry were Henry I King of England and Henry I Beauclerc King of England.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots line 124-25 has b. 1070.

Research Notes: Fourth son of William the Conqueror.

From Wikipedia - Henry I of England :

Henry I (c. 1068/1069 - 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror . He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose , to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the administrative and legislative machinery of the time.

Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties , which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged Magna Carta , which subjected the King to law.

The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury . He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship . His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda , but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy .

Early life
Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069, probably in Selby in Yorkshire . His mother, Queen Matilda , was descended from Alfred the Great (but not through the main West Saxon Royal line). Queen Matilda named the infant Prince Henry, after her uncle, Henry I of France . As the youngest son of the family, he was almost certainly expected to become a Bishop and was given rather more extensive schooling than was usual for a young nobleman of that time. The Chronicler William of Malmesbury asserts that Henry once remarked that an illiterate King was a crowned ass. He was certainly the first Norman ruler to be fluent in the English language .

William I's second son Richard was killed in a hunting accident in 1081, so William bequeathed his dominions to his three surviving sons in the following manner:
Robert received the Duchy of Normandy and became Duke Robert II
William Rufus received the Kingdom of England and became King William II
Henry Beauclerc received 5,000 pounds in silver

The Chronicler Orderic Vitalis reports that the old King had declared to Henry: "You in your own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater than both your brothers in wealth and power."

Henry tried to play his brothers off against each other but eventually, wary of his devious manoeuvring, they acted together and signed an Accession Treaty. This sought to bar Prince Henry from both Thrones by stipulating that if either King William or Duke Robert died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reunited under the surviving brother.

Seizing the throne of England

When, on 2 August 1100 , William II was killed by an arrow in yet another hunting accident in the New Forest, Duke Robert had not yet returned from the First Crusade . His absence allowed Prince Henry to seize the Royal Treasury at Winchester, Hampshire , where he buried his dead brother. There are suspicions that, on hearing that Robert was returning alive from his crusade with a new bride, Henry decided to act and arranged the murder of William by the French Vexin Walter Tirel .[1] Thus he succeeded to the throne of England, guaranteeing his succession in defiance of William and Robert's earlier agreement. Henry was accepted as King by the leading Barons and was crowned three days later on 5 August at Westminster Abbey . He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appeasement: he issued a Charter of Liberties which is considered a forerunner of the Magna Carta .

First marriage

On 11 November 1100 Henry married Edith , daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling and the great-granddaughter of Edward the Confessor 's paternal half-brother Edmund Ironside , the marriage united the Norman line with the old English line of Kings. The marriage greatly displeased the Norman Barons, however, and as a concession to their sensibilities Edith changed her name to Matilda upon becoming Queen. The other side of this coin, however, was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace.

The chronicler William of Malmesbury described Henry thus: "He was of middle stature, greater than the small, but exceeded by the very tall; his hair was black and set back upon the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy."

Conquest of Normandy
In the following year, 1101, Robert Curthose , Henry's eldest brother, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. In the Treaty of Alton , Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King of England and return peacefully to Normandy , upon receipt of an annual sum of 2000 silver marks, which Henry proceeded to pay.

In 1105, to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and the drain on his fiscal resources from the annual payment, Henry led an expeditionary force across the English Channel .

Battle of Tinchebray
On the morning of 28 September 1106, exactly 40 years after William had made his way to England, the decisive battle between his two surviving sons, Robert Curthose and Henry Beauclerc, took place in the small village of Tinchebray. This combat was totally unexpected and unprepared. Henry and his army were marching south from Barfleur on their way to Domfront and Robert was marching with his army from Falaise on their way to Mortain. They met at the crossroads at Tinchebray and the running battle which ensued was spread out over several kilometres. The site where most of the fighting took place is the village playing field today. Towards evening Robert tried to retreat but was captured by Henry's men at a place three kilometres (just under two miles) north of Tinchebray where a farm named "Prise" (taken) stands today on the D22 road. The tombstones of three knights are nearby on the same road.

King of England and Ruler of Normandy
After Henry had defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray he imprisoned Robert, initially in the Tower of London , subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Cardiff. One day whilst out riding Robert attempted to escape from Cardiff but his horse was bogged down in a swamp and he was recaptured. To prevent further escapes Henry had Robert's eyes burnt out. Henry appropriated the Duchy of Normandy as a possession of the Kingdom of England and reunited his father's dominions. Even after taking control of the Duchy of Normandy he didn't take the title of Duke, he chose to control it as the King of England.

In 1113, Henry attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by betrothing his eldest son, William Adelin , to the daughter of Fulk of Jerusalem (also known as Fulk V), Count of Anjou, then a serious enemy. They were married in 1119. Eight years later, after William's untimely death, a much more momentous union was made between Henry's daughter, (the former Empress) Matilda and Fulk's son Geoffrey Plantagenet , which eventually resulted in the union of the two Realms under the Plantagenet Kings.


Activities as a King

Henry's need for finance to consolidate his position led to an increase in the activities of centralized government. As King, Henry carried out social and judicial reforms, including:
issuing the Charter of Liberties
restoring the laws of Edward the Confessor .

Between 1103 and 1107 Henry was involved in a dispute with Anselm , the Archbishop of Canterbury , and Pope Paschal II in the investiture controversy , which was settled in the Concordat of London in 1107. It was a compromise. In England, a distinction was made in the King's chancery between the secular and ecclesiastical powers of the prelates. Employing the distinction, Henry gave up his right to invest his bishops and abbots, but reserved the custom of requiring them to come and do homage for the "temporalities " (the landed properties tied to the episcopate), directly from his hand, after the bishop had sworn homage and feudal vassalage in the ceremony called commendatio, the commendation ceremony , like any secular vassal.

Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a treacherous burgher named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known from then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 1119, Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constable of Ivry , exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Harnec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutilate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parley at Breteuil, only for Juliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was captured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window into the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled with his daughter and son-in-law.

Legitimate children
He had two children by Matilda (Edith), who died on 1 May 1118 at the palace of Westminster. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Matilda . (c. February 1102 - 10 September 1167 ). She married firstly Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor , and secondly, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou , having issue by the second.
William Adelin , (5 August 1103 - 25 November 1120 ). He married Matilda (d.1154), daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou .

Second marriage
On 29 January 1121 he married Adeliza , daughter of Godfrey I of Leuven , Duke of Lower Lotharingia and Landgrave of Brabant , but there were no children from this marriage. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unprecedented step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Matilda , widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor , as his heir.

Death and legacy

Henry visited Normandy in 1135 to see his young grandsons, the children of Matilda and Geoffrey. He took great delight in his grandchildren, but soon quarrelled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes led him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned.

Henry died on 1 December 1135 of food poisoning from eating "a surfeit of lampreys " (of which he was excessively fond) at Saint-Denis-en-Lyons (now Lyons-la-Forêt ) in Normandy. His remains were sewn into the hide of a bull to preserve them on the journey, and then taken back to England and were buried at Reading Abbey , which he had founded fourteen years before. The Abbey was destroyed during the Protestant Reformation . No trace of his tomb has survived, the probable site being covered by St James' School. Nearby is a small plaque and a large memorial cross stands in the adjoining Forbury Gardens .

Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter as their Queen, her gender and her remarriage into the House of Anjou , an enemy of the Normans, allowed Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois , to come to England and claim the throne with popular support.

The struggle between the former Empress and Stephen resulted in a long civil war known as the Anarchy . The dispute was eventually settled by Stephen's naming of Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet , as his heir in 1153.

Illegitimate children
King Henry is famed for holding the record for the largest number of acknowledged illegitimate children born to any English king, with the number being around 20 or 25. He had many mistresses, and identifying which mistress is the mother of which child is difficult. His illegitimate offspring for whom there is documentation are:
Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester . Often, said to have been a son of Sybil Corbet.
Maud FitzRoy, married Conan III, Duke of Brittany
Constance FitzRoy, married Richard de Beaumont
Mabel FitzRoy, married William III Gouet
Aline FitzRoy, married Matthieu I of Montmorency
Gilbert FitzRoy, died after 1142. His mother may have been a sister of Walter de Gand.
Emma, born c. 1138; married Gui de Laval, Lord Laval. [Uncertain, born 2 years after Henry died.][2]

With Edith
Matilda, married in 1103 Count Rotrou II of Perche. She perished 25 Nov 1120 in the wreck of the White Ship . She left two daughters; Philippa who married Helie of Anjou (son of Fulk V) and Felice.

With Gieva de Tracy
William de Tracy

With Ansfride
Ansfride was born c. 1070. She was the wife of Anskill of Seacourt, at Wytham in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire ).
Juliane de Fontevrault (born c. 1090); married Eustace de Pacy in 1103. She tried to shoot her father with a crossbow after King Henry allowed her two young daughters to be blinded.
Fulk FitzRoy (born c. 1092); a monk at Abingdon .
Richard of Lincoln (c. 1094 - 25 November 1120 ); perished in the wreck of the White Ship .

With Sybil Corbet
Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester in Warwickshire . She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert 'the Chamberlain' of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also known as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Rainald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family.
Sybilla de Normandy , married Alexander I of Scotland .
William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died after 1187.
Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall .
Gundred of England (1114-46), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, son of Joscelin de la Pomerai.
Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b. 1040 in Normandy, France d. 1110 in Barnstaple, Devon, England)son of Turgisus de Tracy. They married in 1075. They had four children 1)Turgisus II de Tracy b. 1066, 2) Henry de Tracy b. 1068, 3) Gieva de Tracy b. 1068 d. 1100, 4)Henry of Barnstaple Tracy b. 1070 d.1170.

With Edith FitzForne
Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton, (1093-1172) married Dame Maud d'Avranches du Sap. They had one daughter, Mary, who married Renaud, Sire of Courtenay (son of Miles, Sire of Courtenay and Ermengarde of Nevers).
Adeliza FitzEdith. Appears in charters with her brother Robert.

With Princess Nest
Nest ferch Rhys was born about 1073 at Dinefwr Castle , Carmarthenshire , the daughter of Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth and his wife, Gwladys ferch Rhywallon. She married, in 1095, to Gerald de Windsor (aka Geraldus FitzWalter) son of Walter FitzOther, Constable of Windsor Castle and Keeper of the Forests of Berkshire . She had several other liaisons - including one with Stephen of Cardigan, Constable of Cardigan (1136) - and subsequently other illegitimate children. The date of her death is unknown.
Henry FitzRoy , 1103-1158.

With Isabel de Beaumont
Isabel (Elizabeth) de Beaumont (after 1102 - after 1172), daughter of Robert de Beaumont , sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke , in 1130. She was also known as Isabella de Meulan.
Isabel Hedwig of England
Matilda FitzRoy , abbess of Montvilliers, also known as Montpiller

Noted events in his life were:

• King of England: 1100-1135.

Henry married Matilda, of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm III Canmore, King of Scots and Saint Margaret, of Scotland, on 11 Nov 1100 in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England. Matilda was born in 1079 in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland and died on 1 May 1118 in Westminster Palace, London, England at age 39. Other names for Matilda were Edith of Scotland and Maud of Scotland.

Birth Notes: Place name may be Dermfermline.

Research Notes: Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 1-22

From Wikipedia - Matilda of Scotland :

Matilda of Scotland
[1] (born Edith; c. 1080 - 1 May 1118) was the first wife and queen consort of Henry I .

Matilda was born around 1080 in Dunfermline , the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret . She was christened Edith, and Robert Curthose stood as godfather at her christening - the English queen Matilda of Flanders was also present at the font and may have been her godmother.
When she was about six years old, Matilda (or Edith as she was then probably still called) and her sister Mary were sent to Romsey , where their aunt Cristina was abbess. During her stay at Romsey and Wilton , The Scottish princess was much sought-after as a bride; she turned down proposals from both William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey , and Alan Rufus , Lord of Richmond. Hermann of Tournai even claims that William II Rufus considered marrying her. She was out of the monastery by 1093, when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Bishop of Salisbury ordering that the daughter of the king of Scotland be returned to the monastery that she had left.

After the death of William II Rufus in August 1100, his brother Henry quickly seized the royal treasury and the royal crown. His next task was to marry, and Henry's choice fell on Matilda. Because Matilda had spent most of her life in a nunnery, there was some controversy over whether or not she had been veiled as a nun and would thus be ineligible for marriage. Henry sought permission for the marriage from Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , who returned to England in September 1100 after a long exile. Professing himself unwilling to decide so weighty a matter on his own, Anselm called a council of bishops in order to determine the legality of the proposed marriage. Matilda testified to the archbishop and the assembled bishops of the realm that she had never taken holy vows. She insisted that her parents had sent her and her sister to England for educational purposes, and that her aunt Cristina had veiled her only to protect her "from the lust of the Normans ." Matilda claimed she had pulled the veil off and stamped on it, and her aunt beat and scolded her most horribly for this. The council concluded that Matilda had never been a nun, nor had her parents intended that she become one, and gave their permission for the marriage.
Matilda and Henry seem to have known one another for some time before their marriage - William of Malmesbury states that Henry had "long been attached" to her, and Orderic Vitalis says that Henry had "long adored" Edith's character. Through her mother she was descended from Edmund Ironside and thus Alfred the Great and the old line of the kings of Wessex; this was very important as Henry wanted to help make himself more popular with the English people and Matilda represented the old English dynasty. In their children the Norman and Anglo-Saxon dynasties would be united. Another benefit of the marriage was that England and Scotland became politically closer; three of her brothers served as kings of Scotland and were unusually friendly to England during this period.

After Matilda and Henry were married on 11 November 1100 at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , she was crowned as "Matilda", a fashionable Norman name. She gave birth to a daughter, Matilda, in February 1102, and a son, William, in November 1103. As queen, she maintained her court primarily at Westminster , but accompanied her husband in his travels all across England, and, circa 1106-1107, probably visited Normandy with him. She also served in a vice-regal capacity when Henry was away from court. Her court was filled with musicians and poets; she commissioned a monk, probably Thurgot , to write a biography of her mother, Saint Margaret . She was an active queen, and like her mother was renowned for her devotion to religion and the poor. William of Malmesbury describes her as attending church barefoot at Lent , and washing the feet and kissing the hands of the sick. She also administered extensive dower properties and was known as a patron of the arts, especially music.

After Matilda died on 1 May 1118 at Westminster Palace , she was buried at Westminster Abbey . The death of her only son and Henry's failure to produce a legitimate son from his second marriage led to the succession crisis of The Anarchy .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 315 F    i. EmpressMatilda, Countess of Anjou 473 474 was born about 7 Feb 1102 and died on 10 Sep 1167 about age 65.

   316 M    ii. William Adelin, Duke of Normandy 475 was born in 1103 and died on 25 Nov 1120 at age 17. Other names for William were William Ætheling Duke of Normandy and William III Duke of Normandy.

Death Notes: Died in the White Ship tragedy.

Henry next married someone.

His child was:

+ 317 F    i. Maud, Princess of England 334 was born about 1091 in England.

Henry had a relationship with Adeliza, of Louvain,407 daughter of Godefroi de Louvain, Duc de Basse-Lorraine and Ida, of Chiny and Namur, in 1120. This couple did not marry. Adeliza was born about 1103 and was buried on 23 Apr 1151 in Abbey of Affligem. Another name for Adeliza was Adela of Louvain. They had no children.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Henry I

Henry next had a relationship with Sybilla Corbet, of Alcester.368 This couple did not marry. Sybilla was born in 1077 in Alcester, Warwickshire, England and died after 1157.

Research Notes: May not have been the mother of Robert de Caen.

From Wikipedia - Henry I of England :

With Sybil Corbet
Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester in Warwickshire . She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert 'the Chamberlain' of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also known as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Rainald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family.

Sybilla de Normandy , married Alexander I of Scotland .
William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died after 1187.
Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall .
Gundred of England (1114-46), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, son of Joscelin de la Pomerai.
Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b. 1040 in Normandy, France d. 1110 in Barnstaple, Devon, England)son of Turgisus de Tracy. They married in 1075. They had four children 1)Turgisus II de Tracy b. 1066, 2) Henry de Tracy b. 1068, 3) Gieva de Tracy b. 1068 d. 1100, 4)Henry of Barnstaple Tracy b. 1070 d.1170.


Their child was:

+ 318 M    i. Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester 476 477 478 was born about 1090 in <Caen, Normandy, France>, died on 31 Oct 1147 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, England about age 57, and was buried in St. James Priory, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.

Henry next had a relationship with Elizabeth de, Beaumont,479 daughter of Robert I de Beaumont and Unknown,. This couple did not marry.

Their child was:

+ 319 F    i. Elizabeth, Princess of England 92 480 was born about 1095 in <Talby, Yorkshire, England>.

239. Henry I, Duke of Bavaria 371 was born in 1074 and died on 13 Dec 1126 at age 52.

Henry married Wulfhilda, of Saxony,481 daughter of Magnus, Duke of Saxony and Sophia, Betw 1095 and 1100. Wulfhilda was born about 1075 and died on 29 Dec 1126 about age 51.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 320 F    i. Judith, of Bavaria was born in 1100 and died in 1130 at age 30.

241. Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy 372 373 was born about 1058 and died on 23 Mar 1103 in Cilicia about age 45. Other names for Eudes were Eudes I "the Red" of Burgundy and Eudes I Borel of Burgundy.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy :

Eudes I, surnamed Borel and called the Red, (1058-23 March 1103 ) was Duke of Burgundy between 1079 and 1103. Eudes was the second son of Henry of Burgundy and grandson of Robert I . He became the duke following the abdication of his older brother, Hugh I, who retired to become a Benedictine monk. Eudes married Sibylla of Burgundy (1065 - 1101), daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy .

They had:
Florine of Burgundy 1083-1097
Helie of Burgundy 1080-1141 wife of Bertrand of Toulouse and William III of Ponthieu
Hugh II of Burgundy
Henry d.1131

An interesting incident is reported of this robber baron by an eyewitness, Eadmer , biographer of Anselm of Canterbury . While Saint Anselm was progressing through Eudes's territory on his way to Rome in 1097, the bandit, expecting great treasure in the archbishop's retinue, prepared to ambush and loot it. Coming upon the prelate's train, the duke asked for the archbishop, whom they had not found. Anselm promptly came forward and took the duke by surprise, saying "My lord duke, suffer me to embrace thee." The flabbergasted duke immediately allowed the bishop to embrace him and offered himself as Anselm's humble servant.

He was a participant in the ill-fated Crusade of 1101 .

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Burgundy: 1079-1103.

Eudes married Sibylle, of Burgundy-Ivrea,300 daughter of Guillaume I de Bourgogne and Stephanie, de Longwy, in 1080. Sibylle died after 1103. Another name for Sibylle was Matilda of Burgundy-Ivrea.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 192)

243. Beatrice, of Burgundy 374 was born about 1063 and died after 1110.

Beatrice married Guy III de Vignory, Seigneur de Vignory,482 son of Guy II "le Rouge" de Vignory and Hildegarde de Bar-sur-Aube, after 1082. Guy died 1125 or 1126.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 1125 and d. 1126


The child from this marriage was:

+ 321 F    i. Adélarde de Vignory 483 died after 1140.


245. Henry, of Burgundy, Count of Portugal 71 375 376 was born in 1069 in <Bourgogne, Champagne>, France and died on 1 Nov 1112 at age 43. Other names for Henry were Henri of Burgundy, Count of Portugal, Henrique of Burgundy, Count of Portugal, Henry I de Bourgogne, and Henry I Count of Portugal.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry, Count of Portugal :

Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal (1066 -1112 ) was Count of Portugal from 1093 to his death. He was the son of Henry of Burgundy , heir of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy , and brother of Hugh I, Duke of Burgundy and Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy . His name is Henri in modern French , Henricus in Latin , Enrique in modern Spanish and Henrique in modern Portuguese . He was a distant cousin of Raymond of Burgundy and Pope Callistus II .
As a younger son, Henry had little chances of acquiring fortune and titles by inheritance, thus he joined the Reconquista against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula . He helped king Alfonso VI of Castile and León conquer modern Galicia and the north of Portugal and in reward he married Alfonso's daughter Theresa, Countess of Portugal in 1093 , receiving the County of Portugal , then a fiefdom of the Kingdom of León , as a dowry .

From Teresa, Henry had three sons and three daughters. The only son to survive childhood was Afonso Henriques , who became the second Count of Portugal in 1112. However, the young man Afonso was energetic and expanded his dominions at the expense of Muslims . In 1139 , he declared himself King of Portugal after reneging the subjugation to León, in open confrontation with his mother. Two daughters also survived childhood, Urraca and Sancha. Urraca Henriques married a Bermudo Peres de Trava, Count of Trastamara. Sancha Henriques married a nobleman, Sancho Nunes de Celanova.

Henry married Theresa, of Leon and Castile,71 daughter of Alfonso VI "the Brave", of Castile, King of Castile and Leon and Ximena Nunia de Guzman, in 1093. Theresa was born about 1070 in <Toledo, Castile>, Spain and died on 1 Nov 1130 about age 60. Another name for Theresa was Teresa Alfonsez of Léon and Castile.

Research Notes: Natural daughter of Alkfonso VI by his mistress Ximena Nunia de Guzman.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 322 M    i. Afonso I, King of Portugal 484 485 was born on 25 Jul 1109 in Viseu, Viseu, Portugal, died on 6 Dec 1185 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal at age 76, and was buried in Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

247. Urraca, of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon 25 379 380 was born about 1082 in <Burgos, Castile>, Spain and died on 8 Mar 1126 in Saldana, Palencia, Spain about age 44. Other names for Urraca were Urraca of Léon, Urraca I Queen of Léon and Castile, and Urraca Alfonsez of Castile and Léon.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Urraca of León and Castile :

Urraca of León (1078 - March 8 , 1126 ) was Queen of León and Castile from 1109 to her death. She was the first woman ever to reign in a western European monarchy. Urraca was the daughter of Alfonso VI of León by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy . She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Uclés (1108) .
In childhood, she was betrothed to and later married Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). The widow Urraca was now ruler of Galicia, and as She her father's only surviving legitimate child, she could claim to be heiress of the reign of Castile. King Alfonso VI of León selected the king of Navarre and Aragon, Alfonso I of Aragon as her husband. They had hoped for an alliance that would safeguard the kingdom, since Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. However, the marriage proved barren and turned exceedingly bitter. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir , Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

Urraca and Alfonso of Aragon were also second cousins, and Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo , objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguineous . Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón . Their inability to produce a child created a rift, and Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. The royal couple were soon separated. By October of 1110 or 1111, her supporters fought a battle against Alfonso's forces at Candespina , in which her premier nobleman and former aspirant to her hand, count Gómez González , was killed. A further defeat was inflicted at Viadangos , at which Pedro Froilaz de Traba was captured. Their marriage was annulled in 1114. Urraca never remarried, though she took as lover another powerful nobleman, count Pedro González de Lara.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry , the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon . He alternatively allied with Alfonso I of Aragon , then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.
According to the Chronicon Compostellanum , Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The supposed father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. However the author of the chronicles was openly hostile to the adulterous queen, and the historian Reilly notes that a pregnancy was unlikely at the queen's age of 48. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII .

Illegitimate children
Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover, Pedro González de Lara. She recognized their son, Fernando Perez Furtado , in 1123.

Noted events in her life were:

• Queen of Léon and Castile: 1109-1126.

Urraca married Raymond, of Burgundy, Count of Amous,296 297 son of Guillaume I de Bourgogne and Stephanie, de Longwy, about 1087 in Toledo, Castile, Spain. Raymond was born about 1060 in <Dijon>, France and died on 26 Mar 1107 in Grajal do Campos, Léon, Spain about age 47. Other names for Raymond were Raimundo of Burgundy and Raymond de Bourgogne.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1065

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. September 1107. FamilySearch has d. 24 Mar 1107.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Raymond of Burgundy :

Raymond of Burgundy (Spanish and Portuguese : Raimundo) was the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy and was Count of Amous . He came to the Iberian Peninsula for the first time during the period 1086-1087 with Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy . He came for the second time (1090) to marry Urraca of Castile , eventual heiress of Alfonso VI of Castile , King of León and Castile .
He came with his cousin Henry of Burgundy , who married the other daughter of Alfonso VI, Teresa of León (or Portugal ). By his marriage Raymond received the County of Galicia , the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra . The last two were later offered to Henry of Burgundy, father of the first Portuguese King Afonso I Henriques of Portugal .

He was succeeded by his son:
Alfonso VII of Castile and Leon (1104/1105-1157)

(Duplicate Line. See Person 189)

248. Aelis de Dammartin 71 was born about 1084 in Dammartin-en-Goele, Seine-et-Marne, France.

Aelis married Aubrey, de Mello,71 son of Gilbert, Baron of Mello and Unknown, about 1104. Aubrey was born about 1080 in <Mello, Oise>, France. Another name for Aubrey was Aubrey de Mello.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 323 M    i. Alberic I, Count of Dammartin 71 was born about 1110 in <Dammartin, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died in 1183 about age 73.

249. Otto II, Count of Chiny died on 28 Mar 1125.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-23 (Adelaide of Namur)

Otto married Adelaide, of Namur,344 daughter of Albert III, Count of Namur and Ida, of Saxony,. Adelaide was born in 1068 and died in 1124 at age 56.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Otto II, Count of Chiny

(Duplicate Line. See Person 219)

250. Maud, de Perche was born in 1105 and died on 28 May 1143 at age 38. Another name for Maud was Mathilde de Perche.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A-24.

Maud married Raymond I, Viscount of Turenne, son of Boson I, Viscount of Turenne and Gerberge,. Raymond died about 1122. Another name for Raymond was Raimond I de Turenne.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A- (Maud de Perche)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 324 F    i. Marguerite, de Turenne .

251. Margaret de Perche 382 died after 1156. Another name for Margaret was Marguerite de Perche.

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1156.

Margaret married Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick,314 315 son of Roger de Beaumont, Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemer and Adeline, of Meulan, before 1100. Henry was born about 1046, died on 20 Jun 1123 about age 77, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France. Other names for Henry were Henry de Newburgh and Henry de Neubourg.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 1119 (Line 151-24, Margaret de Perche); Wikipedia has d. 20 Jun 1123.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick :

Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick (? - 20 June 1123 ) was a Norman nobleman. He is also known as Henry de Neubourg or Henry de Newburgh, from the castle of Newburg near Louviers , in Normandy where he was born.

Henry was the younger son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline of Meulan , daughter of Waleran III, Count de Meulan . He inherited the modest lordship of La Neubourg, in central Normandy, but acquired a much greater holding in England, when, in reward for help in suppressing the Rebellion of 1088 , William II of England made him Earl of Warwick .

His name is included in the roll of the knights who came over with the William the Conqueror , but he does not appear to have been present at the Battle of Hastings . He spent the greater part of his life in Normandy , his name is not found in the Domesday Book . He took a leading role in reconciling the Conqueror with his eldest son Robert Curthose in 1081 and he stood high in the Conqueror's favour. He was the companion and friend of Henry I , and when in 1100 a division took place amongst the barons who had gathered together to choose a successor to William II, it was mainly owing to his advice that Henry was selected and when in the following year most of the barons were openly or secretly disloyal and favoured the attempt of Duke Robert to gain the Crown, he and his brother were amongst the few that remained faithful to the King.

He had many honours conferred upon him, in 1068 he was made Constable of Warwick Castle and shortly afterwards King William gave it to him together with the borough and manor. The Castle was enlarged and strengthened during the long succession of powerful lords, and it eventually became one of the most renowned of English fortresses and it remains even to-day the glory of the midland shires. The Bear and Ragged Staff was the badge of Guy the great opponent of the Danes, and Henry on his elevation to the Earldom in 1076 by William I, assumed it, and it has ever since been used by successive Earls. Odericus tells us that "he earned this honour by his valour and loyalty" and Wace speaks of him as "a brave man". He was made a Councillor by the King in 1079 and a Baron of the Exchequer in Normandy 12 April 1080 .

In 1099 he fought against the Welsh and built a castle at Abertawy , near Swansea , which was unsuccessfully attacked by the Welsh in 1113 ; he also captured the Gower Peninsula in the south of Glamorganshire . He built other castles at Penrhys , Llandhidian and Swansea in ll20 , together with the others at Oystermouth and Aberllychor , the only remains of the latter are a mound and a keep.

Some time between 1106 and 1116 he was granted the lordship of Gower in Wales .

Henry was by disposition quiet and retiring, and was overshadowed by his elder brother Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester , reputedly one of the most brilliant men in England.

He died 20 June 1123 and was buried in the Abbey at Preaux .

Family and children
He married before 1100 Marguerite, daughter of Geoffrey II of Perche and Beatrix of Montdidier , and had children:
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick , who succeeded him as earl;
Henry de Neubourg, probably inherited Dorset and Devon estates.
Robert de Neubourg , who inherited Henry's Norman lands, and was Chief Justiciar of Normandy;
Rotrou (died 27 November 1183 ), who was Bishop of Évreux and then Archbishop of Rouen , and who was Chief Justiciar and Steward of Normandy.
Geoffroy.

Noted events in his life were:

• 1st Earl of Warwick: 1090.

• Granted: Lordship of Gower in Wales, 1107.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 200)

252. Juliana, of Mortagne and Perche .383 Another name for Juliana was Juliana du Perche.

Juliana married Gilbert, de l'Aigle, Seigneur de l'Aigle in Normandy,486 487 son of Richer, de l'Aigle and Judith,. Another name for Gilbert was Gilbert de l'Aigle Seigneur de l'Aigle.

Noted events in his life were:

• Listed in Domesday Book: Tenant in England, 1086.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 325 F    i. Marguerite, de l'Aigle 486 487 died on 25 May 1141.

253. Adelaide de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis 293 386 387 was born about 1058 in <Northamptonshire, England> and died in <England>. Other names for Adelaide were Alice de Claremont, Adeliza de Clermont, and Adeliza de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. by 1072, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019558.htm has b. 1058.

Adelaide married Gilbert FitzRichard, de Clare,488 489 490 491 son of Richard I FitzGilbert, of Clare and Tonbridge and Rohese Giffard, about 1083. Gilbert was born about 1065 in <Clare, Suffolk>, England and died about 1115 in <England> about age 50. Other names for Gilbert were Gilbert FitzRichard de Clare and Gilbert Fitz Richard Earl of Clare and Lord of Tonbridge.

Marriage Notes: FamilySearch has m. bef. 1076 in England. Thepeerage.com has m. abt 1083.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019557.htm has b. 1065

Death Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019557.htm has d. 1114

Research Notes: Lord of Clare, Tonbridge, and Cardigan, Wales; or Earl of Clare, Lord of Tonbridge and Cardigan.

From Wikipedia - Gilbert Fitz Richard :

Gilbert Fitz Richard (1065-1115) was son and heir of Richard Fitz Gilbert , earl of Clare, and heiress Rohese Giffard. He succeeded to his father's possessions in England in 1090; his brother, Roger Fitz Richard, inherited his father's lands in Normandy . Earl Gilbert's inheritance made him one of the wealthiest magnates in early twelfth-century England.

Gilbert may have been present at the suspicious death of William II in the New Forest in 1100. He was granted lands and the Lordship of Cardigan by Henry I , including Cardigan Castle . He and his wife Adeliza had nine children, two of whom became peers of the realm . He founded the Cluniac priory at Stoke-by-Clare, Suffolk.


Noted events in his life were:

• Lord of Clare, Tonbridge and Cardigan:

• Founded: Priory of Clare, 1090, Stoke-by-Clare, Suffolk, England. Cluniac priory

Children from this marriage were:

+ 326 F    i. Adeliza de Clare 492 493 494 was born between 1066 and 1080 in <Essex, England> and died about 1163 in <Clare, Suffolk, England>.

+ 327 M    ii. Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford 109 495 496 497 was born between 1084 and 1090 in <Hertford, Hertfordshire>, England, was christened in Clare, Suffolk, England, died on 15 Apr 1136 in [near Abergavenny], Monmouthshire, England, and was buried in Gloucester.

+ 328 F    iii. Rohese FitzRichard 491 was born about 1090 in <Clare, Suffolk>, England and died in 1149 in England about age 59.

   329 M    iv. Baldwin FitzGilbert de Clare, Lord of Bourne, Deeping and Skellingthorpe 421 498 was born about 1092 and died in 1154 about age 62.

Research Notes: Lord of Bourne, Deeping and Skellingthorpe, co. Lincoln, founder of Bourne Abbey

   330 M    v. Gilbert FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke 293 420 421 was born about 1100 and died on 6 Jan 1148 about age 48. Another name for Gilbert was Gilbert de Clare 1st Earl of Pembroke.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke also went by the nick-name of Gilbert 'Strongbow'. He was also known as Gilbert FitzGilbert.2 He was created 1st Earl of Pembroke [England] circa 1138.

Gilbert married Isabel de Beaumont,419 daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan and Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester,. Isabel was born between 1100 and 1107 and died after 1172. Another name for Isabel was Isabella of Meulan.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Isabella of Meulan was born between 1102 and 1107.1 She was the daughter of Robert de Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois.2 She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke, son of Gilbert fitz Richard and Adeliza de Clermont . She died after 1172.2
As a result of her marriage, Isabella of Meulan was styled as Countess of Pembroke.
-----------

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Isabel de Beaumont (b Aft. 1102), a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke by whom she was mother of Richard Strongbow , who invaded Ireland 1170 ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland (this marriage is not conclusively proven)

254. Ermentrude de Clermont 388 was born about 1066 in <Clermont, Beauvais, France>.

Noted events in her life were:

• Countess of Chester:

Ermentrude married Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester,332 333 son of Richard le Goz, Viscomte d'Avranches and Emma de Conteville,. Hugh was born about 1047 in Avranches, Normandy, France, died on 27 Jul 1101 about age 54, and was buried in Chapter House of Chester Cathedral. Other names for Hugh were Hugh Lupus d'Avranches, Hugh "Lupus" d'Avranches 1st Earl of Chester, and Hugh "the Fat" d'Avranches 1st Earl of Chester.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
In 1066 he contributed 60 ships to the invasion of England, but did not fight at the Battle of Hastings.2,5 He was created 1st Earl of Chester [England] in 1071.1 He succeeded to the title of Vicomte d'Avranches after 1082.2 He founded the Abbey of St. Sever in Normandy and St. Werburg at Chester.2 On 23 July 1101 a monk.


----------

From Wikipedia - Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester :

Hugh d'Avranches (died 27 July 1101), called the Fat or the Wolf (Latin : Lupus, Welsh : Flaidd) was the first Earl of Chester and one of the great magnates of early Norman England .

Early career
Hugh was the son of Richard Goz, Viscount of Avranches , in the far southwest of Normandy , and inherited from his father a large estate, not just in the Avranchin but scattered throughout western Normandy.
Hugh became an important councillor of William, Duke of Normandy . He contributed sixty ships to the invasion of England , but did not fight at Hastings , instead being one of those trusted to stay behind and govern Normandy.

Earl of Chester
After William became king of England, Hugh was given the command of Tutbury Castle Staffordshire but in 1070 he was promoted to become Earl of Chester , with palatine powers in view of Cheshire 's situation on the Welsh border . Tutbury with its surrounding lands was passed to Henry de Ferrers . [1]

Hugh spent much of his time fighting savagely with his neighbours in Wales . Together with his cousin Robert of Rhuddlan he subdued a good part of northern Wales. Initially Robert of Rhuddlan held north-east Wales as a vassal of Hugh. However in 1081 Gruffydd ap Cynan King of Kingdom of Gwynedd was captured by treachery at a meeting near Corwen . Gruffydd was imprisoned by Earl Hugh in his castle at Chester, but it was Robert who took over his kingdom, holding it directly from the king. When Robert was killed by a Welsh raiding party in 1088 Hugh took over these lands, becoming ruler of most of North Wales, but he lost Anglesey and much of the rest of Gwynedd in the Welsh revolt of 1094, led by Gruffydd ap Cynan , who had escaped from captivity.

In time Hugh became so fat he could hardly walk; he is often referred to as "the Fat". The Welsh, for his brutality, called him Flaidd ("the Wolf").

Norwegian invasion
In the summer of 1098 Hugh joined with Hugh of Montgomery, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury in an attempt to recover his losses in Gwynedd. Gruffydd ap Cynan retreated to Anglesey, but then was forced to flee to Ireland when a fleet he had hired from the Danish settlement in Ireland changed sides. The situation was changed by the arrival of a Norwegian fleet under the command of King Magnus III of Norway , also known as Magnus Barefoot, who attacked the Norman forces near the eastern end of the Menai Straits . Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury was killed by an arrow said to have been shot by Magnus himself. The Normans were obliged to evacuate Anglesey, and the following year Gruffydd returned from Ireland to take possession again. Hugh apparently made an agreement with him and did not again try to recover these lands.

Marriage and succession
Hugh married Ermentrude of Claremont , by whom he had one son, Richard , who succeeded him. Richard married Matilda of Blois , daughter of Stephen, Count of Blois and Adela, a daughter of William the Conqueror . Both Richard and Matilda died in the White Ship disaster (1120), and Hugh was then succeeded by his nephew Ranulph le Meschin, Earl of Chester . Hugh was buried beneath the stained glass windows in the Chapter House of Chester Cathedral .

Noted events in his life were:

• Created: Earl of Chester, 1070.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 208)

255. Renaud II, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis 154 389 390 was born about 1108 in Clermont, Oise, France and died about 1162 about age 54. Another name for Renaud was Renaud de Clermont.

Research Notes: Second husband of Clémence de Bar-le-Duc. Fathered at least 7 children.

Renaud married Clémence de Bar-le-Duc, Countess of Dammartin,154 445 daughter of Renaud I, Count of Mousson, Count of Bar-le-Duc and Gisele, of Vaudemont, about 1140. Clémence was born about 1110 in <Dammartin, Île-de-France>, France and died after 20 Jan 1183. Another name for Clémence was Clemence de Bar.

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1183.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 331 F    i. Mathilda, of Clermont, Ponthieu & Dammartin 154 499 500 was born about 1138 in <Pontieu, Ain>, France and died after Oct 1200.

256. Alix de Rameru, Dame of Rameru .392

Alix married Erard I, Count of Brienne,501 son of Gautier I and Eustace, of Bar-sur-Seine,. Erard died in 1115.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 332 F    i. Félicité de Brienne 501 died on 21 Jul 1178.

258. Alfonso VII, King of Castile and Léon 25 393 394 was born on 1 Mar 1105 in Toledo, Castile, Spain, died on 21 Aug 1157 in La Fresneda, Teruel, Aragon, Spain at age 52, and was buried in Catedral De Toledo, Toledo, Castile. Other names for Alfonso were Alfonso Raimundez, Alfonso VII of Léon and Castile, Alfonso VII Emperor of Spain, and Alfonso VII "Pierre-Raimund" King of Castile and Leon and Galicia.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. in La Fresneda, Teruel, Aragon. Wikipedia (?) has Sierra Morena.

Research Notes: Second husband of Berenguela of Barcelona.

From Wikipedia - Alfonso VII of León and Castile :
Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 - 21 August 1157 ), called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains " in 1135. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy , the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania .

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Hispania over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón ) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler . He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143. He was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru .

Succession to three kingdoms
In 1111, Diego Gelmírez , Bishop of Compostela , and the count of Traba crowned Alfonso King of Galicia in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela . He was but a child at the time, but his mother had already (1109) succeeded to the united throne of León-Castile-Galicia and desired to assure her son's prospects and groom him for his eventual succession. By 1125 he had inherited the formerly Muslim Kingdom of Toledo . On 10 March 1126 , after the death of his mother, he was crowned in León and immediately began the recovery of the Kingdom of Castile , which was then under the domination of Alfonso the Battler. By the Peace of Támara of 1127, the Battler recognised Alfonso VII of Castile. The territory in the far east of his dominion, however, had gained much independence during the rule of his mother and experienced many rebellions. After his recognition in Castile, Alfonso fought to curb the autonomy of the local barons.

When Alfonso the Battler, King of Navarre and Aragón , died without descendants in 1134, he willed his kingdom to the military orders . The aristocracy of both kingdoms did not accept this and García Ramírez , Count of Monzón was elected in Navarre while Alfonso pretended to the throne of Aragón. The nobles chose another candidate in the dead king's brother, Ramiro II . Alfonso responded by occupying La Rioja , conquering Zaragoza , and governing both realms in unison. From this point, the arms of Zaragoza began to appear in those of León.

In several skirmishes, he defeated the joint Navarro-Aragonese army and put the kingdoms to vassalage. He had the strong support of the lords north of the Pyrenees , who held lands as far as the River Rhône . In the end, however, the combined forces of the Navarre and Aragón were too much for his control. At this time, he helped Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona , in his wars with the other Catalan counties to unite the old Marca Hispanica .

Imperial rule
A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign who held León. Sancho the Great considered the city the imperiale culmen and minted coins with the inscription Imperator totius Hispaniae after being crowned in it. Such a sovereign was considered the most direct representative of the Visigothic kings, who had been themselves the representatives of the Roman Empire . But though appearing in charters, and claimed by Alfonso VI of León and Alfonso the Battler , the title had been little more than a flourish of rhetoric.

In 1135, Alfonso was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in the Cathedral of León . By this, he probably wished to assert his authority over the entire peninsula and his absolute leadership of the Reconquista . He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity which Hispania had never possessed since the fall of the Visigothic kingdom. The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together. The weakness of Aragon enabled him to make his superiority effective, although Afonso I of Portugal never recognised him as liege , thereby affirming Portugal's independence. In 1143, he himself recognised this status quo and consented to the marriage of Petronila of Aragon with Ramon Berenguer IV , a union which combined Aragon and Catalonia into the Crown of Aragon .

Family
In November 1128, he married Berenguela , daughter of Ramon Berenguer III. She died in 1149. Their children were:
Sancho III of Castile (1134-1158)
Ramon, living 1136, died in infancy
Ferdinand II of León (1137-1188)
Constance (c.1138-1160), married Louis VII of France
Sancha (c.1139-1179), married Sancho VI of Navarre
García (c.1142-1145/6)
Alfonso (c.1144-by 1149)
In 1152, Alfonso married Richeza of Poland , the daughter of Ladislaus II the Exile . They had:
Ferdinand, (1153-1157)
Sancha (1155-1208), the wife of Alfonso II of Aragón .

Alfonso also had two mistresses, having children by both. By an Asturian noblewoman named Guntroda Pérez , he had an illegitimate daughter, Urraca (1132-1164), who married García Ramírez of Navarre , the mother retiring to a convent in 1133. Later in his reign, he formed a liaison with Urraca Fernández, widow of count Rodrigo Martínez and daughter of Fernando García of Hita, an apparent grandson of García Sánchez III of Navarre , having a daughter Stephanie 'the Unfortunate' (1148-1180), who was killed by her jealous husband, Fernan Ruiz de Castro.

Noted events in his life were:

• King of Galicia: 1111-1157, Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.

• King of León and Castile: 10 Mar 1126-21 Aug 1157.

• Emperor of All the Spains: 1135-1157, Cathedral of Léon.

Alfonso married Berenguela, of Barcelona,71 502 daughter of Raymond III Berenger, Count of Barcelona and Dulce Aldonza Milhaud, in Nov 1128. Berenguela was born about 1116 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 3 Feb 1149 in Palencia, Léon, Spain about age 33. Another name for Berenguela was Berenguela Raimundo de Barcelona.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 2 Feb 1148/1149


Children from this marriage were:

+ 333 M    i. Sancho III, of Castile 503 504 was born in 1134 and died on 30 Aug 1158 at age 24.

+ 334 M    ii. Fernando II, King of Léon 25 505 506 was born in 1137 in Toledo, Castile, Spain and died on 22 Jan 1188 in Benavente, Zamora, Castile, Spain at age 51.

   335 F    iii. Sancha was born in 1137 and died in 1179 at age 42.

   336 F    iv. Constance was born in 1141 and died in 1160 at age 19.

259. Renaud I, Count of Mousson, Count of Bar-le-Duc 154 396 was born about 1077 in Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, France and died on 10 Mar 1149 about age 72. Other names for Renaud were Reinald I Count of Mousson, Count of Bar-le-Duc and Renaud I kEEP Comte de Bar.

Renaud married Gisele, of Vaudemont,154 247 daughter of Gerard, of Lorraine, Count of Vaudemont and Helwide, Countess of Egisheim,. Gisele was born about 1090 in Vaudemont, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France and died after 1141. Another name for Gisele was Gisele de Vaudemont.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 218)

260. Adelaide, of Savoy 397 was born about 1092 and died on 1 Aug 1154 about age 62.

Death Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 274A-25 has d. 18 Nov. 1154.

Research Notes: Second wife of Louis VI, m. April or May 1115.

Adelaide married Louis VI "the Fat", King of France Apr or May 1115 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Louis was born in 1081 and died on 1 Aug 1137 in Chiteau Bethizy, Paris at age 56.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 101-24

Research Notes: King of France 1108-1137, Crusader.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 117-24 and 101-24.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 337 M    i. Peter, of France, Count of Montargis and Courtenay 507 was born about 1125 and died between 1179 and 1183 in Palestine.

261. Amadeus III, Count of Savoy, Maurienne and Turin 398 was born about 1095 in <Savoie>, France and died on 30 Aug 1148 in Cyprus about age 53. Another name for Amadeus was Amadeo III Count of Savoy.

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 1 Apr 1149

Amadeus married Mathilde, Comtesse d'Albon,71 508 daughter of Guigues VIII, Comte d'Albon and Mathilde, in 1123. Mathilde was born about 1116 in <Albon>, France and died after Jan 1145. Other names for Mathilde were Mahaud d'Albon and Maud Countess of Albon.

Marriage Notes: FamilySearch has m. 1120

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 274B-25 (Amadeus III)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 338 F    i. Maud, of Savoy 25 509 510 was born in 1125 in <Chambéry, Savoie>, France, died on 4 Nov 1158 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal at age 33, and was buried in Igreja Santa Cruz, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

262. Hélie, of Burgundy 399 400 was born about 1080 and died on 28 Feb 1141 in Abbey of Perseigne about age 61. Other names for Hélie were Alix of Burgundy and Ela of Burgundy.

Death Notes: May have died on 28 Feb 1142.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Helie of Burgundy :

Helie of Burgundy (c.1080 - 28 February 1141 ) was the daughter of Eudes I and Sibylla of Burgundy.

In June 1095, she married Bertrand of Toulouse , as his second wife. The two had one son, Pons of Tripoli (c.1098-1137).
Bertrand succeeded his father as Count of Toulouse in 1105, and in 1108, he set out for Outremer to claim his father's rights as Count of Tripoli . Helie accompanied him on this expedition, which resulted in the capture of Tripoli in 1109; shortly after, their nephew, William-Jordan died of wounds, giving Bertrand an undisputed claim to Tripoli.

Bertrand died in 1112, and Pons succeeded him in Tripoli. Helie returned to France, where she married William III of Ponthieu in 1115. They had twelve children, including two named Robert, two named William, and two named Enguerrand:
Guy II of Ponthieu (d. 1147)
William (d. aft. 1166)
Robert
Robert de Garennes (d. aft. 1171), a monk
William
Enguerrand
Enguerrand
Mabile
John I, Count of Alençon (d. 1191)
Clemence (d. bef. 1189), married Juhel, Sire de Mayenne
Philippa (d. bef. 1149)
Ela (d. 10 October 1174 ), married first William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey , and second Patrick of Salisbury, 1st Earl of Salisbury

Helie died on 28 February 1141 , in the Abbey de Perseigne.

Hélie married William III Talvas, Count of Alençon & Ponthieu,511 512 son of Robert II de Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury and Agnes, about 1115. William was born about 1095 and died on 30 Jun 1172 about age 77. Another name for William was William III of Ponthieu.

Death Notes: May have been 20 June 1172 or 30 June 1171.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William III, Count of Ponthieu :

William III of Ponthieu (c. 1095-20 June 1172), son of Robert II of Bellême and Agnes of Ponthieu . He is also called William (II; III) Talvas.

He assumed the county of Ponthieu some time before 1111, upon the death of his mother. His father escaped capture at the battle of Tinchebrai (1106); but later, as envoy for King Louis of France , he went to the English court and was arrested by King Henry of England and was never released from prison. William was naturally driven by this to oppose King Henry, and his allegiance to count Geoffrey of Anjou caused Henry to seize certain of William's castles in Normandy.

Family
His wife was Helie of Burgundy , daughter of Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy . The Gesta Normannorum Ducum says that they had five children, three sons and two daughters: Guy II is called "the eldest son", but the editors doubt this; he assumed the county of Ponthieu during his father Talvas' lifetime, but preceded him in death (Guy II died 1147; William Talvas died 1171); his daughters married Juhel, son of Walter of Mayenne , and William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 339 M    i. Guy II, of Ponthieu 513 was born about 1120 and died in 1147 about age 27.

+ 340 F    ii. Ela Talvas, of Alençon and Ponthieu 361 514 515 was born about 1124 in <Alençon, Normandy>, France, died on 10 Oct 1174 in Bradenstoke Priory, Bradenstoke, Wiltshire, England about age 50, and was buried on 4 Dec 1174.

Hélie next married Bertrand, Count of Toulouse 511 in 1095. Bertrand died in 1112.

263. William de Boulogne 71 402 was born about 1080 in <Buckinghamshire>, England and died about 1159 about age 79.

Research Notes: From Ancestral Roots, Line 158A-23 (Godfrey), p. 153:

"The child left by 'Godfrey' in England was William de Boulogne, bearer of one of the oldest English surnames, for William was neither Count of Boulogne nor from Boulogne. He should appear with some frequency in the English records, for his son, Faramus, held extensive estates in widely separated parts of England (Somerset, Surrey, Essex, Oxford, Buckinghamshire, Suffolk, probably Kent and Northumberland). William appears as a witness to a document of 1106 and in a couple of later documents. Perhaps he is a still-unrecognized William Fitz-Geoffrey of other documents."

Noted events in his life were:

• Adult: by 1106.

William married someone.

His child was:

+ 341 M    i. Faramus de Boulogne 71 was born about 1105 in <Buckinghamshire>, England and died about 1184 about age 79.

264. Matilda, of Boulogne 404 405 was born about 1105 in Boulogne, France, died on 3 Jul 1151 in Hedingham Castle about age 46, and was buried in Faversham Abbey. Other names for Matilda were Matilda I of Boulogne and Maud of Boulogne.

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. 3 May 1152.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Matilda of Boulogne :

Matilda I or Maud (1105? - 3 May, 1152), was suo jure Countess of Boulogne . She was also wife of King Stephen of England and Queen of England .

History
She was born in Boulogne , France , the daughter of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and his wife Mary of Scotland, daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Matilda was first cousin of her husband's rival, Empress Matilda . Through her maternal grandmother, Matilda was descended from the pre-Conquest English kings.

In 1125, Matilda married Stephen of Blois , Count of Mortain, who possessed a large honour in England. When Matilda's father abdicated and retired to a monastery the same year, this was joined with Boulogne and the similarly large English honour Matilda inherited. On Eustace III's death, Matilda and her husband became joint rulers of Boulogne. Two children, a son and a daughter, were born to the Countess and Count of Boulogne during the reign of King Henry I , who had granted Stephen and Matilda a residence in London. [1] The son was named Baldwin, after Matilda's uncle, King Baldwin I of Jerusalem . [2] The daughter was named Matilda. Baldwin died in early childhood and the young Matilda is thought to have died during childhood too, although some scholars state that she lived long enough to be espoused to the count of Milan. [3]

On the death of Henry I of England in 1135, Stephen rushed to England, taking advantage of Boulogne's control of the closest seaports, and was crowned king, beating his rival, the Empress Matilda . Matilda was heavily pregnant at that time and crossed the Channel after gaving birth to a son, Eustace , who would one day succeed her as Count of Boulogne. Matilda was crowned queen at Easter - March 22, 1136. [4]

In the civil war that followed, known as the Anarchy , Matilda proved to be her husband's strongest supporter. After he was captured at the Battle of Lincoln she rallied the king's partisans, and raised an army with the help of William of Ypres . Empress Matilda was besieging Stephen's brother Henry of Blois , but she, in turn, besieged the Empress, driving her away and capturing the Empress's brother, Robert of Gloucester .

Around 1125, her father died and she succeeded as Countess of Boulogne. She ruled this area jointly with her husband until 1150, when she reigned alone until 1151, when the County was given to her eldest son Eustace, then her surviving son William inherited it, and then her daughter Marie.

Matilda died of a fever at Hedingham Castle , Essex , England and is buried at Faversham Abbey , which was founded by her and her husband. [5]

Issue
Stephen and Matilda had three sons:
Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne
Baldwin of Boulogne (d. before 1135)
William of Blois , Count of Mortain and Boulogne and Earl of Surrey
They also had two daughters:
Matilda of Boulogne
Marie of Boulogne

Matilda married Stephen, of Blois, King of England,470 471 son of Stephen, of Blois, Count of Blois and Adela, of Normandy, about 1119. Stephen was born about 1096 in Blois, Loire-et-Cher, France, died on 25 Oct 1154 in Dover Priory, Dover, England about age 58, and was buried in Faversham Abbey. Another name for Stephen was Stephen of England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Stephen of England :

Stephen often known as Stephen of Blois (c. 1096 - 25 October 1154) was a grandson of William the Conqueror . He was the last Norman King of England , from 1135 to his death, and also the Count of Boulogne jure uxoris . His reign was marked by civil war with his rival the Empress Matilda and general chaos, known as The Anarchy . He was succeeded by Matilda's son, Henry II , the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet kings.

Early life
Stephen was born at Blois in France, son of Stephen , Count of Blois , and Adela of England, (daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders ). One of ten children, his surviving brothers were Count Theobald II of Champagne , Henry of Blois , Bishop of Winchester , and William of Sully . He also had four sisters, including Eléonore of Blois .

Stephen was sent to be raised at the English court of his uncle, King Henry I , in 1106. He became Count of Mortain in about 1115, and married Matilda , daughter of the Count of Boulogne , in about 1125, who became Countess of Boulogne. Their marriage was a happy one and his wife was an important supporter during the struggle for the English crown. Stephen became joint ruler of Boulogne in 1128.

Reign

King of England
There were several principal contenders for the succession to Henry I . The least popular was the Empress Matilda , Henry I's only legitimate surviving child, not simply because she was a woman, but because her husband Geoffrey, Count of Anjou was an enemy of the Normans . The other contenders were Robert, Earl of Gloucester , illegitimate son of Henry I, Stephen, and Stephen's older brother, Theobald, Count of Blois . However, Theobald did not want the kingdom, at least not enough to fight for it.[1] Before his death in 1135, Henry I named his daughter Matilda his heir and made the barons of England swear allegiance to her. Stephen was the first baron to do so. However, upon King Henry's death, Stephen claimed the throne, saying Henry had changed his mind on his deathbed and named Stephen as his heir. Once crowned, Stephen gained the support of the majority of the barons as well as Pope Innocent II and the first few years of his reign were peaceful, notwithstanding insurgences by the Welsh, King David I of Scotland , and Baldwin de Redvers.

The Anarchy: War with Matilda
By 1139, Stephen had lost much support and the country sank into a civil war , commonly called The Anarchy . Stephen faced the forces of Empress Matilda at several locations including the Battle of Beverston Castle and the Battle of Lincoln . Bad omens haunted him before the Battle of Lincoln where Stephen faced Matilda's illegitimate brother Robert and Ranulph, Earl of Chester . According to chroniclers, Stephen fought bravely but was captured by a knight named William de Cahaignes (a relative of Ranulph, ancestor of the Keynes family ). Stephen was defeated and brought before his cousin Matilda. He was imprisoned at Bristol .

Stephen's wife rallied support amongst the people from London and the barons. Matilda was, in turn, forced out of London. With the capture of her most able lieutenant, her half-brother the Earl of Gloucester, she was obliged to trade Stephen for him, and Stephen was restored to the throne in November the same year.

In December 1142, the Empress was besieged at Oxford , but managed to escape, dressed in white, across the snow to Wallingford Castle , held by her supporter Brien FitzCount .

In 1147, Empress Matilda's teenage son, the future King Henry II of England , decided to assist in the war effort by raising a small army of mercenaries and invading England. Rumours of this army's size terrified Stephen's retainers, although in truth the force was very small. Having been defeated twice in battle, and with no money to pay his mercenaries, young Henry appealed to his uncle Robert for aid but was turned away. Desperately, and in secret, the boy asked Stephen for help. According to the Gesta Stephani , "On receiving the message, the king...hearkened to the young man..." and bestowed upon him money and other support.

Reconciliation and death
Stephen maintained his precarious hold on the throne for the remainder of his lifetime. However, after a military standoff at Wallingford with Henry, and following the death of his son and heir, Eustace , in 1153, he was persuaded to reach a compromise with Matilda (known as the Treaty of Wallingford or Winchester), whereby Stephen's son William of Blois would be passed over for the English throne, and instead Matilda's son Henry would succeed Stephen.

Stephen died in Dover , at Dover Priory , and was buried in Faversham Abbey , which he had founded with Countess Matilda in 1148.

Besides Eustace, Stephen and Queen Matilda had two other sons, Baldwin (d. before 1135), and William of Blois (Count of Mortain and Boulogne, and Earl of Surrey or Warenne). They also had two daughters, Matilda and Marie of Boulogne . In addition to these children, Stephen fathered at least three illegitimate children , one of whom, Gervase, became Abbot of Westminster .

English royal descendants
Philippa of Hainault , the wife of Edward III , was a descendant of Stephen, and he was thus ancestor of all subsequent kings of England.[3]

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Mortain: 1115-1154.

• King of England: 1135-1154.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 342 F    i. Marie, of Blois, Countess of Boulogne 516 was born in 1136 and died in 1182 at age 46.

265. Adeliza, of Louvain 407 was born about 1103 and was buried on 23 Apr 1151 in Abbey of Affligem. Another name for Adeliza was Adela of Louvain.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Henry I

Adeliza had a relationship with Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England,367 368 son of William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, King of England and Matilda, of Flanders, in 1120. This couple did not marry. Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069 in <Selby, Yorkshire>, England and died on 1 Dec 1135 in St. Denis-le-Fermont, France. Other names for Henry were Henry I King of England and Henry I Beauclerc King of England. They had no children.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots line 124-25 has b. 1070.

Research Notes: Fourth son of William the Conqueror.

From Wikipedia - Henry I of England :

Henry I (c. 1068/1069 - 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror . He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose , to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the administrative and legislative machinery of the time.

Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties , which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged Magna Carta , which subjected the King to law.

The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury . He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship . His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda , but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy .

Early life
Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069, probably in Selby in Yorkshire . His mother, Queen Matilda , was descended from Alfred the Great (but not through the main West Saxon Royal line). Queen Matilda named the infant Prince Henry, after her uncle, Henry I of France . As the youngest son of the family, he was almost certainly expected to become a Bishop and was given rather more extensive schooling than was usual for a young nobleman of that time. The Chronicler William of Malmesbury asserts that Henry once remarked that an illiterate King was a crowned ass. He was certainly the first Norman ruler to be fluent in the English language .

William I's second son Richard was killed in a hunting accident in 1081, so William bequeathed his dominions to his three surviving sons in the following manner:
Robert received the Duchy of Normandy and became Duke Robert II
William Rufus received the Kingdom of England and became King William II
Henry Beauclerc received 5,000 pounds in silver

The Chronicler Orderic Vitalis reports that the old King had declared to Henry: "You in your own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater than both your brothers in wealth and power."

Henry tried to play his brothers off against each other but eventually, wary of his devious manoeuvring, they acted together and signed an Accession Treaty. This sought to bar Prince Henry from both Thrones by stipulating that if either King William or Duke Robert died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reunited under the surviving brother.

Seizing the throne of England

When, on 2 August 1100 , William II was killed by an arrow in yet another hunting accident in the New Forest, Duke Robert had not yet returned from the First Crusade . His absence allowed Prince Henry to seize the Royal Treasury at Winchester, Hampshire , where he buried his dead brother. There are suspicions that, on hearing that Robert was returning alive from his crusade with a new bride, Henry decided to act and arranged the murder of William by the French Vexin Walter Tirel .[1] Thus he succeeded to the throne of England, guaranteeing his succession in defiance of William and Robert's earlier agreement. Henry was accepted as King by the leading Barons and was crowned three days later on 5 August at Westminster Abbey . He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appeasement: he issued a Charter of Liberties which is considered a forerunner of the Magna Carta .

First marriage

On 11 November 1100 Henry married Edith , daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling and the great-granddaughter of Edward the Confessor 's paternal half-brother Edmund Ironside , the marriage united the Norman line with the old English line of Kings. The marriage greatly displeased the Norman Barons, however, and as a concession to their sensibilities Edith changed her name to Matilda upon becoming Queen. The other side of this coin, however, was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace.

The chronicler William of Malmesbury described Henry thus: "He was of middle stature, greater than the small, but exceeded by the very tall; his hair was black and set back upon the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy."

Conquest of Normandy
In the following year, 1101, Robert Curthose , Henry's eldest brother, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. In the Treaty of Alton , Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King of England and return peacefully to Normandy , upon receipt of an annual sum of 2000 silver marks, which Henry proceeded to pay.

In 1105, to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and the drain on his fiscal resources from the annual payment, Henry led an expeditionary force across the English Channel .

Battle of Tinchebray
On the morning of 28 September 1106, exactly 40 years after William had made his way to England, the decisive battle between his two surviving sons, Robert Curthose and Henry Beauclerc, took place in the small village of Tinchebray. This combat was totally unexpected and unprepared. Henry and his army were marching south from Barfleur on their way to Domfront and Robert was marching with his army from Falaise on their way to Mortain. They met at the crossroads at Tinchebray and the running battle which ensued was spread out over several kilometres. The site where most of the fighting took place is the village playing field today. Towards evening Robert tried to retreat but was captured by Henry's men at a place three kilometres (just under two miles) north of Tinchebray where a farm named "Prise" (taken) stands today on the D22 road. The tombstones of three knights are nearby on the same road.

King of England and Ruler of Normandy
After Henry had defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray he imprisoned Robert, initially in the Tower of London , subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Cardiff. One day whilst out riding Robert attempted to escape from Cardiff but his horse was bogged down in a swamp and he was recaptured. To prevent further escapes Henry had Robert's eyes burnt out. Henry appropriated the Duchy of Normandy as a possession of the Kingdom of England and reunited his father's dominions. Even after taking control of the Duchy of Normandy he didn't take the title of Duke, he chose to control it as the King of England.

In 1113, Henry attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by betrothing his eldest son, William Adelin , to the daughter of Fulk of Jerusalem (also known as Fulk V), Count of Anjou, then a serious enemy. They were married in 1119. Eight years later, after William's untimely death, a much more momentous union was made between Henry's daughter, (the former Empress) Matilda and Fulk's son Geoffrey Plantagenet , which eventually resulted in the union of the two Realms under the Plantagenet Kings.


Activities as a King

Henry's need for finance to consolidate his position led to an increase in the activities of centralized government. As King, Henry carried out social and judicial reforms, including:
issuing the Charter of Liberties
restoring the laws of Edward the Confessor .

Between 1103 and 1107 Henry was involved in a dispute with Anselm , the Archbishop of Canterbury , and Pope Paschal II in the investiture controversy , which was settled in the Concordat of London in 1107. It was a compromise. In England, a distinction was made in the King's chancery between the secular and ecclesiastical powers of the prelates. Employing the distinction, Henry gave up his right to invest his bishops and abbots, but reserved the custom of requiring them to come and do homage for the "temporalities " (the landed properties tied to the episcopate), directly from his hand, after the bishop had sworn homage and feudal vassalage in the ceremony called commendatio, the commendation ceremony , like any secular vassal.

Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a treacherous burgher named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known from then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 1119, Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constable of Ivry , exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Harnec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutilate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parley at Breteuil, only for Juliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was captured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window into the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled with his daughter and son-in-law.

Legitimate children
He had two children by Matilda (Edith), who died on 1 May 1118 at the palace of Westminster. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Matilda . (c. February 1102 - 10 September 1167 ). She married firstly Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor , and secondly, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou , having issue by the second.
William Adelin , (5 August 1103 - 25 November 1120 ). He married Matilda (d.1154), daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou .

Second marriage
On 29 January 1121 he married Adeliza , daughter of Godfrey I of Leuven , Duke of Lower Lotharingia and Landgrave of Brabant , but there were no children from this marriage. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unprecedented step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Matilda , widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor , as his heir.

Death and legacy

Henry visited Normandy in 1135 to see his young grandsons, the children of Matilda and Geoffrey. He took great delight in his grandchildren, but soon quarrelled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes led him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned.

Henry died on 1 December 1135 of food poisoning from eating "a surfeit of lampreys " (of which he was excessively fond) at Saint-Denis-en-Lyons (now Lyons-la-Forêt ) in Normandy. His remains were sewn into the hide of a bull to preserve them on the journey, and then taken back to England and were buried at Reading Abbey , which he had founded fourteen years before. The Abbey was destroyed during the Protestant Reformation . No trace of his tomb has survived, the probable site being covered by St James' School. Nearby is a small plaque and a large memorial cross stands in the adjoining Forbury Gardens .

Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter as their Queen, her gender and her remarriage into the House of Anjou , an enemy of the Normans, allowed Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois , to come to England and claim the throne with popular support.

The struggle between the former Empress and Stephen resulted in a long civil war known as the Anarchy . The dispute was eventually settled by Stephen's naming of Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet , as his heir in 1153.

Illegitimate children
King Henry is famed for holding the record for the largest number of acknowledged illegitimate children born to any English king, with the number being around 20 or 25. He had many mistresses, and identifying which mistress is the mother of which child is difficult. His illegitimate offspring for whom there is documentation are:
Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester . Often, said to have been a son of Sybil Corbet.
Maud FitzRoy, married Conan III, Duke of Brittany
Constance FitzRoy, married Richard de Beaumont
Mabel FitzRoy, married William III Gouet
Aline FitzRoy, married Matthieu I of Montmorency
Gilbert FitzRoy, died after 1142. His mother may have been a sister of Walter de Gand.
Emma, born c. 1138; married Gui de Laval, Lord Laval. [Uncertain, born 2 years after Henry died.][2]

With Edith
Matilda, married in 1103 Count Rotrou II of Perche. She perished 25 Nov 1120 in the wreck of the White Ship . She left two daughters; Philippa who married Helie of Anjou (son of Fulk V) and Felice.

With Gieva de Tracy
William de Tracy

With Ansfride
Ansfride was born c. 1070. She was the wife of Anskill of Seacourt, at Wytham in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire ).
Juliane de Fontevrault (born c. 1090); married Eustace de Pacy in 1103. She tried to shoot her father with a crossbow after King Henry allowed her two young daughters to be blinded.
Fulk FitzRoy (born c. 1092); a monk at Abingdon .
Richard of Lincoln (c. 1094 - 25 November 1120 ); perished in the wreck of the White Ship .

With Sybil Corbet
Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester in Warwickshire . She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert 'the Chamberlain' of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also known as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Rainald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family.
Sybilla de Normandy , married Alexander I of Scotland .
William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died after 1187.
Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall .
Gundred of England (1114-46), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, son of Joscelin de la Pomerai.
Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b. 1040 in Normandy, France d. 1110 in Barnstaple, Devon, England)son of Turgisus de Tracy. They married in 1075. They had four children 1)Turgisus II de Tracy b. 1066, 2) Henry de Tracy b. 1068, 3) Gieva de Tracy b. 1068 d. 1100, 4)Henry of Barnstaple Tracy b. 1070 d.1170.

With Edith FitzForne
Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton, (1093-1172) married Dame Maud d'Avranches du Sap. They had one daughter, Mary, who married Renaud, Sire of Courtenay (son of Miles, Sire of Courtenay and Ermengarde of Nevers).
Adeliza FitzEdith. Appears in charters with her brother Robert.

With Princess Nest
Nest ferch Rhys was born about 1073 at Dinefwr Castle , Carmarthenshire , the daughter of Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth and his wife, Gwladys ferch Rhywallon. She married, in 1095, to Gerald de Windsor (aka Geraldus FitzWalter) son of Walter FitzOther, Constable of Windsor Castle and Keeper of the Forests of Berkshire . She had several other liaisons - including one with Stephen of Cardigan, Constable of Cardigan (1136) - and subsequently other illegitimate children. The date of her death is unknown.
Henry FitzRoy , 1103-1158.

With Isabel de Beaumont
Isabel (Elizabeth) de Beaumont (after 1102 - after 1172), daughter of Robert de Beaumont , sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke , in 1130. She was also known as Isabella de Meulan.
Isabel Hedwig of England
Matilda FitzRoy , abbess of Montvilliers, also known as Montpiller

Noted events in his life were:

• King of England: 1100-1135.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 238)

Adeliza married William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel,517 518 son of William d'Aubigny Pincerna, of Buckenham Castle and Maud Bigod, in 1138. William was born about 1109 and died on 25 Sep 1176 about age 67. Another name for William was William d' Aubigny 1st Earl of Arundel.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has 12 Oct 1176. That may be burial date.

Research Notes: 1st Earl of Arundel, 1141-1176

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-25 (Adeliza of Louvain)

From Wikipedia - William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel :

William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel (c. 1109 - September 25 , 1176 ) was son of William d'Aubigny Pincerna (Master Butler of the Royal household) of Buckenham Castle and Maud Bigod , daughter of Roger Bigod .


Marriage to the King's Widow
The younger William was an important member of Henry I of England 's household. After Henry's death he married the widow Queen consort Adeliza in 1138, and became Lord of Arundel in her right.

Titles
He was loyal to Stephen of England , who made him first Earl of Lincoln and then Earl of Arundel (more precisely, Earl of Sussex ).
In 1143 as Earl of Lincoln he made two charters confirming a donation of land around Arundel in Sussex to the abbey of Affligem in Brabant (representing his wife Adeliza of Louvain ), with William's brother Olivier present.

Mediator
He fought loyally for King Stephen , but in 1153 helped arrange the truce between Stephen and Henry Plantagenet , known as the Treaty of Wallingford , which brought an end to The Anarchy .
When the latter ascended the throne as Henry II , he confirmed William's Earldom and gave him direct possession of Arundel Castle (instead of the possession in right of his wife he had previously had). She had died in 1151. He remained loyal to the king during the 1173 revolt of Henry the Young King , and helped defeat the rebellion.

Issue
He and Adeliza were parents to William d'Aubigny, 2nd Earl of Arundel and grandparents to William d'Aubigny, 3rd Earl of Arundel .

Sources
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines 1-22, 18A-22, 139-26, 194-25, 149-26.
Remfry, P.M., Buckenham Castles, 1066 to 1649 (ISBN 1-899376-28-3 )


The child from this marriage was:

+ 343 M    i. William d'Aubigny, 2nd Earl of Arundel and Sussex 519 520 died on 24 Dec 1193.

266. Godfrey II, Count of Leuven, Landgrave of Brabant 408 409 was born about 1110 and died on 13 Jun 1142 about age 32. Another name for Godfrey was Godfrey VII.

Research Notes: Count of Leuven and Brussels, Landgrave of Brabant and Margrave of Antwerp. Also Duke of Lower Lorraine (as Godfrey VII).

From Wikipedia - Godfrey II of Leuven :

Godfrey II (c.1110 - 13 June 1142 ) was the count of Leuven , landgrave of Brabant by inheritance from 23 January 1139 . He was the son of Godfrey I and Ida of Chiny. He was also the duke of Lower Lorraine (as Godfrey VII), and as such also margrave of Antwerp , by appointment in 1139 after the death of Duke Waleran .

He was first associated with his father in 1136 , when he first carried the ducal title. This was confirmed by Conrad III of Germany , who had married the sister of Godfrey's wife. Waleran left a son, Henry II of Limburg , who asserted his father's ducal rights. Godfrey and Henry entered into a war in which the latter was decisively and quickly destroyed. Godfrey did not long enjoy his victory. He was killed by a disease of the liver two years thence.

He was buried in St. Peter's Church in Leuven .

He married Luitgarde, daughter of Berengar I of Sulzbach and sister of Gertrude, wife of Conrad III of Germany , and Bertha , wife of Manuel I Comnenus , the emperor of Byzantium . He was succeeded by his son Godfrey III in both the counties and the duchy.

Source (obsolete): Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Line 155-24.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Louvain:

Godfrey married Luitgarde, of Sulzbach, daughter of Berengar I, Count of Sulzbach and Unknown, in 1139. Other names for Luitgarde were Lutgard of Sulzbach and Lutgarde of Sulzbach.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 344 M    i. Godfrey III, Count of Louvain, Duke of Lorraine 521 522 was born in 1142 and died on 21 Aug 1190 at age 48.

270. Joscelin, de Louvain 43 345 was born about 1121 in <Louvain>, Belgium, died before 1180 in Egmanton, Nottinghamshire, England, and was buried before 29 Sep 1180. Other names for Joscelin were Joscelin of Leuven, Joscelin de Lorraine, Joscelin "Barbatus" de Louvain, Joscelyn de Louvain, Joscelin de Louvain de Percy, and Joscelyn Percy.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Joscelin of Leuven :

Joscelin of Leuven [1] (1121-1180) was a Brabantian nobleman who married an English heiress, Agnes de Percy , and settled in England. He took the name Percy.
He was given lands at Petworth , by William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel . William had married Adeliza of Louvain , Joscelin's half-sister, and widow of Henry I of England .[2]

Family
He was a son of Godfrey I of Leuven and Clementia of Burgundy .
Joscelin and Agnes had at least seven children[3]:
Henry de Percy
Richard de Percy , (d.1244), who was a Magna Carta surety
Joscelin
Radulph, went to France
Eleanor
Maud (b. c. 1164), married John de Daiville [4]
Lucy
The Percy estate was divided between William, son of Henry, and Richard.

Joscelin married Agnes de Percy,43 345 523 daughter of William de Percy, 4th Baron Percy and Alice de Clare, about 1154 in Egmanton, Nottinghamshire, England. Agnes was born about 1134 in <Whitby>, Yorkshire, England and died about 1205 about age 71.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 345 M    i. Henry de Percy, 5th Baron Percy 43 524 was born about 1156 in <Whitby>, Yorkshire, England, died before 29 Sep 1198, and was buried in St. Lo, Rouen, France.

   346 M    ii. Richard de Percy 345 died in 1244.

Noted events in his life were:

• Magna Charta Surety:

276. Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor 413 414 was born on 11 Nov 1050 in Goslar, Lower Saxony, Germany, died on 7 Aug 1106 in Liège, (Belgium) at age 55, and was buried in Aug 1111 in Speyer Cathedral, Speyer, [Rhineland-Palatinate, ] Germany. Another name for Henry was Heinrich IV Holy Roman Emperor.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor :

Henry IV (November 11 , 1050 -August 7 , 1106 ) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105 . He was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by the Investiture Controversy with the Papacy and several civil wars with pretenders to his throne in Italy and Germany.


Biography

Regency
Henry was the eldest son of the Emperor Henry III , by his second wife Agnes de Poitou , and was probably born at the royal palace at Goslar . His christening was delayed until the following Easter so that Abbot Hugh of Cluny could be one of his godparents. But even before that, at his Christmas court Henry III induced the attending nobles to promise fidelity to his son. Three years later, still anxious to ensure the succession, Henry III had a larger assembly of nobles elect the young Henry as his successor, and then, on July 17 , 1054 , had him elected as king by Herman II , Archbishop of Cologne at Trebur . The coronation was held in Aachen in 1054 . When Henry III unexpectedly died in 1056 , the accession of the six-year-old Henry IV was not opposed by his vassals. The dowager Empress Agnes acted as regent, and, according to the will of the dead emperor, the German pope Victor II was named as her counsellor. The latter's death in 1057 soon showed the political ineptitude of Agnes, and the powerful influence held over her by German magnates and Imperial functionaries.
Agnes assigned the Duchy of Bavaria , given by her husband to Henry IV, to Otto of Nordheim . This deprived the young king of a solid base of power. Likewise, her decision to assign the Duchies of Swabia and Carinthia to Rudolf of Rheinfelden (who married her daughter) and Berthold of Zähringen , respectively, would prove mistakes, as both later rebelled against the king. Unlike Henry III, Agnes proved incapable of influencing the election of the new popes, Stephen IX and Nicholas II . The Papal alliance with the Normans of southern Italy, formed to counter the communal resistance in Rome, resulted in the deterioration of relations with the German King, as well as Nicholas' interference in the election of German bishops. Agnes also granted local magnates extensive territorial privileges that eroded the King's material power.

In 1062 the young king was kidnapped during a conspiracy of German nobles led by archbishop Anno II of Cologne . Henry, who was at Kaiserwerth, was persuaded to board a boat lying in the Rhine; it was immediately unmoored and the king sprang into the stream, but was rescued by one of the conspirators and carried to Cologne. Agnes retired to a convent, the government subsequently placed in the hands of Anno. His first move was to recognize the Pope Alexander II in his conflict with the antipope Honorius II , who had been initially recognized by Agnes but was subsequently left without support.

Anno's rule proved unpopular. The education and training of Henry were supervised by Anno, who was called his magister, while Adalbert of Hamburg , archbishop of Bremen , was styled Henry's patronus. Henry's education seems to have been neglected, and his willful and headstrong nature developed under the conditions of these early years. The malleable Adalbert of Hamburg soon became the confidant of the ruthless Henry. Eventually, during an absence of Anno from Germany, Henry managed to obtain the control of his civil duties, leaving Anno only with the ecclesiastical ones.

First years of rule and Saxon War
In March 1065 Henry was declared of age. The whole of his future reign was apparently marked by efforts to consolidate Imperial power. In reality, however, it was a careful balancing act between maintaining the loyalty of the nobility and the support of the pope.

In 1066 , one year after his enthroning at the age of fifteen, he expelled Adalbert of Hamburg, who had profited off his position for personal enrichment, from the Crown Council. Henry also adopted urgent military measures against the Slav pagans, who had recently invaded Germany and besieged Hamburg.

In June 1066 Henry married Bertha of Maurienne , daughter of Count Otto of Savoy , to whom he had been betrothed in 1055 . In the same year he assembled an army to fight, at the request of the Pope, the Italo-Normans of southern Italy. Henry's troops had reached Augsburg when he received news that Godfrey of Tuscany , husband of the powerful Matilda of Canossa , marchioness of Tuscany , had already attacked the Normans. Therefore the expedition was halted.
In 1068 , driven by his impetuous character and his infidelities, Henry attempted to divorce Bertha[1]. His peroration at a council in Mainz was however rejected by the Papal legate Pier Damiani , who hinted that any further insistence towards divorce would lead the new pope, Alexander II , to deny his coronation. Henry obeyed and his wife returned to Court, but he was convinced that the Papal opposition aimed only at overthrowing lay power within the Empire, in favour of an ecclesiastical hierarchy.

In the late 1060s Henry set up with strong determination to reduce any opposition and to enlarge the national boundaries. He led expeditions against the Liutici and the margrave of a district east of Saxony; and soon afterwards he had to quench the rebellions with Rudolf of Swabia and Berthold of Carinthia. Much more serious was Henry's struggle with Otto of Nordheim, duke of Bavaria. This prince, who occupied an influential position in Germany and was one of the protagonists of Henry's early kidnapping, was accused in 1070 by a certain Egino of being privy to a plot to murder the king. It was decided that a trial by battle should take place at Goslar , but when the demand of Otto for a safe conduct for himself and his followers, to and from the place of meeting, was refused, he declined to appear. He was thereupon declared deposed in Bavaria, and his Saxon estates were plundered. He obtained sufficient support, however, to carry on a struggle with the king in Saxony and Thuringia until 1071 , when he submitted at Halberstadt . Henry aroused the hostility of the Thuringians by supporting Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz , in his efforts to exact tithes from them; but still more formidable was the enmity of the Saxons, who had several causes of complaint against the king. He was the son of one enemy, Henry III, and the friend of another, Adalbert of Bremen. He had ordered a restoration of all crown lands in Saxony and had built forts among this people, while the country was ravaged to supply the needs of his courtiers, and its duke Magnus was a prisoner in his hands. All classes were united against him, and when the struggle broke out in 1073 the Thuringians joined the Saxons. The war, which lasted with slight intermissions until 1088 , exercised a most potent influence upon Henry's fortunes elsewhere.

Investiture Controversy
Main article: Investiture Controversy
Initially in need of support for his expeditions in Saxony and Thuringia, Henry adhered to the Papal decrees in religious matters. His apparent weakness, however, had the side effect of spurring the ambitions of Gregory VII , a reformist monk elected as pontiff in 1073, for Papal hegemony.

The tension between Empire and Church culminated in the councils of 1074-1075, which constituted a substantial attempt to delegitimate Henry III's policy. Among other measures, they denied to secular rulers the right to place members of the clergy in office; this had dramatic effects in Germany, where bishops were often powerful feudatories who, in this way, were able to free themselves from imperial authority. Aside from the reacquisition of all lost privileges by the ecclesiasticals, the council's decision deprived the imperial crown of rights to almost half its lands, with grievous consequences for national unity, especially in peripheral areas like the Kingdom of Italy .

Suddenly hostile to Gregory, Henry did not relent from his positions: after his defeat of Otto of Nordheim, he continued to interfere in Italian and German episcopal life, naming bishops at his will and declaring papal provisions illegitimate. In 1075 Gregory excommunicated some members of the Imperial Court, and threatened to do the same with Henry himself. Further, in a synod held in February of that year, Gregory clearly established the supreme power of the Catholic Church, with the Empire subjected to it. Henry replied with a counter-synod of his own.

The beginning of the conflict known as the Investiture Controversy can be assigned to Christmas night of 1075: Gregory was kidnapped and imprisoned by Cencio I Frangipane , a Roman noble, while officiating at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Later freed by Roman people, Gregory accused Henry of having been behind the attempt. In the same year, the emperor had defeated a rebellion of Saxons in the First Battle of Langensalza , and was therefore free to accept the challenge.

At Worms, on January 24 , 1076 , a synod of bishops and princes summoned by Henry declared Gregory VII deposed. Hildebrand replied by excommunicating the emperor and all the bishops named by him on February 22 , 1076 . In October of that year a diet of the German princes in Tribur attempted to find a settlement for the conflict, conceding Henry a year to repent from his actions, before the ratification of the excommunication that the pope was to sign in Swabia some months later. Henry did not repent, and, counting on the hostility showed by the Lombard clergy against Gregory, decided to move to Italy. He spent Christmas of that year in Besançon and, together with his wife and his son, he crossed the Alps with help of the Bishop of Turin and reached Pavia .

Gregory, on his way to the diet of Augsburg , and hearing that Henry was approaching, took refuge in the castle of Canossa (near Reggio Emilia ), belonging to Matilda. Henry's troops were nearby.

Henry's intent, however, was apparently to perform the penance required to lift his excommunication and ensure his continued rule. The choice of an Italian location for the act of repentance, instead of Augsburg, was not accidental: it aimed to consolidate the Imperial power in an area partly hostile to the Pope; to lead in person the prosecution of events; and to oppose the pact signed by German feudataries and the Pope in Tribur with the strong German party that had deposed Gregory at Worms, through the concrete presence of his army.


He stood in the snow outside the gates of the castle of Canossa for three days, from January 25 to January 27 , 1077 , begging the pope to rescind the sentence (popularly portrayed as without shoes, taking no food or shelter, and wearing a hairshirt - see Walk of Canossa ). The Pope lifted the excommunication, imposing a vow to comply with certain conditions, which Henry soon violated.

Civil war and recovery
Rudolf of Rheinfeld , a two-time brother-in-law of Henry, took advantage of the momentary weakness of the Emperor by having himself declared antiking by a council of Saxon, Bavarian, and Carinthian princes in March of 1077 in Forchheim . Rudolf promised to respect the electoral concept of the monarchy and declared his willingness to be subservient to the pope.

Despite these difficulties, Henry's situation in Germany improved in the following years. When Rudolf was crowned at Mainz in May 1077, the population revolted and forced him to flee to Saxony, where he was deprived of his territories (later he was also stripped of Swabia). After the inconclusive battle of Mellrichstadt (August 7 , 1077 ) and the defeat of Flarchheim (27 January 1080 ) Gregory instead launched a second anathema against Henry in March 1080 . However, the evidence that Gregory's hate had such a personal connotation led much of Germany to re-embrace Henry's cause.

On October 14 , 1080 the armies of the two rival kings met at the Elster River , in the plain of Leipzig . Rudolf was mortally wounded and died soon afterwards, and the rebellion against Henry lost momentum. Another antiking , Henry of Luxembourg , was fought successfully by Frederick of Swabia , Rudolf's successor in Swabia who had married Henry's daughter Agnes . Henry convoked a synod of the highest German clergy in Bamberg and Brixen (June, 1080). Here Henry had Gregory (dubbed "The False Monk") again deposed and replaced by the primate of Ravenna , Guibert (the antipope Clement III ).

Second voyage to Italy
Henry entered in Pavia and was crowned here as King of Italy, receiving the Iron Crown . He also assigned a series of privileges to the Italian cities who had supported him, and marched against the hated Matilda, declaring her deposed for lese majesty and confiscating her possessions. Then he moved to Rome, which he besieged first in 1081 : he was however compelled to retire to Tuscany, where he granted privileges to various cities, and obtained monetary assistance (360,000 gold pieces)[2] from a new ally, the eastern emperor, Alexios I Komnenos , who aimed to thwart the Norman's aims against his empire. A second and equally unsuccessful attack on Rome was followed by a war of devastation in northern Italy with the adherents of Matilda; and towards the end of 1082 the king made a third attack on Rome. After a siege of seven months the Leonine city fell into his hands. A treaty was concluded with the Romans, who agreed that the quarrel between king and pope should be decided by a synod, and secretly bound themselves to induce Gregory to crown Henry as emperor, or to choose another pope. Gregory, however, shut up in Castel Sant'Angelo , would hear of no compromise; the synod was a failure, as Henry prevented the attendance of many of the pope's supporters; and the king, in pursuance of his treaty with Alexios, marched against the Normans. The Romans soon fell away from their allegiance to the pope; and, recalled to the city, Henry entered Rome in March 1084, after which Gregory was declared deposed and Clement was recognized by the Romans. On 31 March 1084 Henry was crowned emperor by Clement, and received the patrician authority. His next step was to attack the fortresses still in the hands of Gregory. The pope was saved by the advance of Robert Guiscard , duke of Apulia, who left the siege of Durazzo and marched towards Rome: Henry left the city and Gregory could be freed. The latter however died soon later at Salerno (1085), not before a last letter in which he exhorted the whole Christianity to a crusade against the emperor.

Feeling secure of his success in Italy, Henry returned to Germany.

The Emperor spent 1084 in a show of power in Germany, where the reforming instances had still ground due to the predication of Otto of Ostia, advancing up to Magdeburg in Saxony . He also declared the Peace of God in all the Imperial territories to quench any sedition. On March 8 , 1088 Otto of Ostia was elected pope as Victor III : with the Norman support, he excommunicated Henry and Clement III, who was defined "a beast sprung out from the earth to wage war against the Saints of God". He also formed a large coalition against the Holy Roman Empire, including, aside from the Normans, the Rus of Kiev , the Lombard communes of Milan , Cremona , Lodi and Piacenza and Matilda of Canossa, who had she remarried to Welf II of Bavaria , therefore creating a concentration of power too formidable to be neglected by the emperor.

Internecine wars and death
In 1088 Henry of Luxembourg died and Egbert II, Margrave of Meissen , a longtime enemy of the emperor's, proclaimed himself the antiking's successor. Henry had him condemned by a Saxon diet and then a national one at Quedlinburg and Regensburg respectively, but was defeated by Egbert when a relief army came to the margrave's rescue during the siege of Gleichen . Egbert was murdered two years later (1090 ) and his ineffectual insurrection and royal pretensions fell apart.

Henry then launched his third punitive expedition in Italy. After some initial success against the lands of Canossa, his defeat in 1092 caused the rebellion of the Lombard communes. The insurrection extended when Matilda managed to turn against him his elder son, Conrad , who was crowned King of Italy at Monza in 1093 . The Emperor therefore found himself cut off from Germany. He could return there only in 1097 : in Germany his power wall still at its height, as Welf V of Bavaria separated from Matilda and Bavaria gave back to Welf IV .

Henry reacted by deposing Conrad at the diet of Mainz in April 1098, and designating his younger son Henry (future Henry V) as successor, under the oath sworn that he would never follow his brother's example.


The situation in the Empire remained chaotic, worsened by the further excommunication against Henry launched by the new pope Paschal II , a follower of Gregory VII's reformation ideals elected in the August of 1099. But this time the emperor, meeting with some success in his efforts to restore order, could afford to ignore the papal bana. A successful campaign in Flanders was followed in 1103 by a diet at Mainz, where serious efforts were made to restore peace, and Henry IV himself promised to go on crusade. But this plan was shattered by the revolt of his son Henry in 1104 , who, encouraged by the adherents of the pope, declared he owed no allegiance to an excommunicated father. Saxony and Thuringia were soon in arms, the bishops held mainly to the younger Henry, while the emperor was supported by the towns. A desultory warfare was unfavourable, however, to the emperor, who was taken as prisoner at an alleged reconciliation meeting at Koblenz . At a diet held in Mainz in December, Henry IV was forced to resign to his crown, being subsequently imprisoned in the castle of Böckelheim . Here he was also obliged that he had unjustly persecuted Gregory VII and to have illegally named Clement III.

When these conditions became known in Germany, a vivid movement of dissension spread. In 1106 the loyal party set up a large army to fight Henry V and Paschal. Henry IV managed to escape to Cologne from his jail, finding a considerable support in the lower Rhineland . He also entered into negotiations with England , France and Denmark .

Henry was also able to defeat his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, on March 2 , 1106 . He however died soon afterwards after nine days of illness, while he was guest of his friend Othbert, Bishop of Liège . He was 56.
His body was buried by the bishop of Liege with suitable ceremony, but by command of the papal legate it was unearthed, taken to Speyer and placed in the at that time unconsecrated chapel of Saint Afra that was build on the side of the Imperial Cathedral . After being released from the sentence of excommunication, the remains were buried in the Speyer cathedral in August 1111 .

Evaluation
Henry IV was known for licentious behaviour in his early years, being described as careless and self-willed. In his later life, he displayed much diplomatic ability. His abasement at Canossa can be regarded as a move of policy to weaken the pope's position at the cost of a personal humiliation to himself. He was always regarded as a friend of the lower orders, was capable of generosity and gratitude, and showed considerable military skill.

Marriages
Henry's wife Bertha died on December 27 , 1087 . She was also buried at the Speyer Cathedral . Their children were:
Agnes of Germany (born 1072 ), married Frederick I von Staufen , Duke of Swabia .
Conrad (February 12 , 1074 -July 27 , 1101 )
Adelaide, died in infancy
Henry, died in infancy
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
In 1089 Henry married Eupraxia of Kiev , a daughter of Vsevolod I, Prince of Kiev , and sister to his son Vladimir II Monomakh , prince of Kievan Rus . She assumed the name "Adelaide" upon her coronation. In 1094 she joined the rebellion against Henry, accusing him of holding her prisoner, forcing her to participate in orgies, and attempting a black mass on her naked body.


Notes
^
Bertha in the meantime had retired to the Abbey of Lorscheim .
^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, 21

Noted events in his life were:

• Crowned: King of Germany, 1056.

• Crowned: Holy Roman Emperor, 31 Mar 1084, Rome, (Italy).

• Abdicated: as Holy Roman Emperor, 1105. Forced to abdicate

Henry married Bertha, of Savoy,525 526 daughter of Eudes I, Count of Maurienne and Savoy and Alix, Duchess of Turin, on 13 Jul 1066 in Trebur, (Groß-Gerau, Hesse, Germany). Bertha was born on 21 Sep 1051, died on 27 Dec 1087 in Mainz, Germany at age 36, and was buried in Speyer Cathedral, Speyer, [Rhineland-Palatinate, ] Germany. Another name for Bertha was Bertha of Turin.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Bertha of Savoy :

Bertha of Savoy, also called Bertha of Turin (21 September 1051 - 27 December 1087 in Mainz) was the first wife of Emperor Henry IV , and was German Queen and Holy Roman Empress. She is buried in the cathedral of Speyer.

Life
Bertha of Savoy was a daughter of Otto of Savoy (also called Eudes and Odo) and Adelaide of Susa . Her maternal grandparents were Ulric Manfred II of Turin and Bertha of the Obertenghi .
As children, during the lifetime of Emperor Henry III , Bertha and Henry IV were betrothed on 25 December 1055 in Zürich . The wedding took place on 13 July 1066 in Trebur . While Bertha was apparently in love with Henry from the outset, Henry initially viewed his wife with aversion. Although she was apparently a pretty young woman, the Saxon chronicler Bruno, an avowed opponent of Henry IV, reported on the Emperor's continual unfaithfulness: "He had two or three Kebsweiber (concubines ) at the same time, in addition [to his wife], yet he was not content. If he heard that someone had a young and pretty daughter or wife, he instructed that she be supplied to him by force. (...) His beautiful and noble wife Bertha (...) was in such a manner hated by him that he never saw her after the wedding any more than necessary, since he had not celebrated the wedding out of free will."
In 1069, Henry began procedures for a divorce, supplying what was for the time an unusually honest reason for the divorce: "The king explained publicly (before the princes), that his relationship with his wife was not good; for a long time he had deceived others, but now he did not want to do so any longer. He could not accuse her of anything that justified a divorce, but he was not capable of carrying out conjugal relations with her any longer. He asked them for the sake of God to remove him from the bonds of a marriage closed under bad signs ... so that the way to a luckier marriage might be opened. And nobody knowing any objection to raise, and his wife being an obstacle to a second marriage ceremony, he then swore that she was as he received her, unstained and her virginity intact." (Bruno of Merseburg)
The German episcopacy dared not submit to the King's demands, and called on Pope Alexander II for assistance. He sent Petrus Damiani as his Legate to the Synod in Frankfurt, and rejected the divorce. Henry then apparently submitted to his fate, his first daughter by Bertha being born in the year after the divorce attempt.
Bertha also accompanied her husband on his dangerous journey to Canossa , carrying her three-year-old son Conrad. She remained with her husband between 25-28 January 1077 in freezing cold weather before the walls of the castle, in order to reach the solution to Henry's dispute with the Pope. Together with Henry, Bertha later also journeyed to Rome , and on 31 March 1084 was crowned Empress.
On 27 December 1087, Bertha died in Mainz.

Children
From her marriage with Henry there were eventually five children:
Adelheid (1070-4 June 1079)
Henry (1071-2 August 1071)
Agnes of Germany (1072/73-24 September 1143 )
Conrad (12 February 1074 -27 July 1101 ), later Roman-German King and King of Italy
Henry V (8 January 1086 -23 May 1125 ), later Roman-German King and Holy Roman Emperor

Sources
Bruno von Merseburg: Brunonis Saxonicum bellum. Brunos Sachsenkrieg. - Übersetzt v. Franz-Josef Schmale. - In: Quellen zur Geschichte Kaiser Heinrichs IV. - Darmstadt, 1968. - (= Ausgewählte Quellen zur deutschen Geschichte des Mittelalters. Freiherr vom Stein-Gedächtnisausgabe ; 12). - S. 191-405.
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines 45-23, 274-22, 274-23.

Noted events in her life were:

• Betrothal: to Henry IV, 25 Dec 1055, Zürich, (Switzerland).

• Crowned: Holy Roman Empress, 31 Mar 1084, Rome, (Italy).

Children from this marriage were:

   347 F    i. Adelheid 526 was born in 1070 and died on 4 Jun 1079 at age 9. Another name for Adelheid was Adelaide.

   348 M    ii. Henry was born in 1071 and died on 2 Aug 1071.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Bertha of Savoy

+ 349 F    iii. Agnes, of Germany 527 was born in 1072 and died on 24 Sep 1143 at age 71.

   350 M    iv. Conrad, King of Italy was born on 12 Feb 1074 and died on 27 Jul 1101 at age 27.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Bertha of Savoy

   351 M    v. Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor was born on 8 Jan 1086 and died on 23 May 1125 at age 39.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Bertha of Savoy

Henry married Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou,473 474 daughter of Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England and Matilda, of Scotland, on 7 Jan 1114 in Worms, (Rhine-Palatinate, Germany). Matilda was born about 7 Feb 1102 and died on 10 Sep 1167 about age 65. Other names for Matilda were Mathilda of England, Empress Maud Countess of Anjou, and Maude of England.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots Line 1-23 has b. abt. 1102-1104; Line 118-25 has b. 1104.
Some other source has b. Feb 1101

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Empress Matilda :

Empress Matilda, also known as Matilda of England or Maude (c. 7 February 1102 - 10 September 1167) was the daughter and heir of King Henry I of England . Matilda and her younger brother, William Adelin , were the only legitimate children of King Henry. Her brother died young in the White ship disaster , leaving Matilda as the last heir from the paternal line of her grandfather William the Conqueror .

As a child, Matilda was betrothed and later married to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . From her marriage to Henry, she acquired the title Empress. The couple had no known children. When widowed, she was married to the much younger Geoffrey of Anjou , by whom she became the mother of three sons, the eldest of whom became King Henry II of England .

Matilda was the first female ruler of the Kingdom of England . However the length of her effective rule was quite brief - a few months in 1141 - and she was never crowned and failed to consolidate her rule (legally and politically). Because of this she is normally excluded from lists of English monarchs, and her rival (and cousin) Stephen of Blois is routinely listed as monarch for the period 1135-1154. Their warring rivalry for the throne led to years of unrest and civil war in England that have been called The Anarchy . She did secure her inheritance of the Duchy of Normandy - through the military feats of her husband Geoffrey - and she campaigned unstintingly for her oldest son's inheritance, living to see him ascend the throne in 1154.

(In Latin texts Matilda was sometimes called Maude . This is a modernised spelling of the Norman-French form of her name, Mahaut.)

Early life
Matilda was the firstborn of two children to Henry I of England and his wife Matilda of Scotland (also known as Edith). Her maternal grandparents were Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Margaret was daughter of Edward the Exile and granddaughter of Edmund II of England . (Most historians believe Matilda was born at Winchester , but one, John Fletcher (1990), argues for the possibility of the royal palace at Sutton Courtenay in Oxfordshire .)

First marriage: Holy Roman Empress
When she was seven years old, Matilda was betrothed to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor ; at nine, she was sent to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) to begin training for the life of Empress consort . The royal couple were married at Worms on January 7, 1114, and Matilda accompanied her husband on tours to Rome and Tuscany . After time, the young wife of the Emperor acted as regent , mainly in Italy, in his absence[1]. Emperor Henry died in 1125. The imperial couple had no surviving offspring, but Herman of Tournai states that Matilda bore a son who lived only a short while.

Despite being popularly known by the title "Empress " from her first marriage, Matilda's right to the title was dubious. She was never crowned Holy Roman Empress by a legitimate Pope - which ceremony was normally required to achieve the title; indeed, in later years she encouraged chroniclers to believe she had been crowned by the Pope. Contemporary, she was called German Queen by her husband's bishops, while her formal title was recorded as "Queen of the Romans". Still, "Empress" was arguably an appropriate courtesy title for the wife of an Emperor who had been crowned by the Pope.

In 1120 her brother William Adelin was drowned in the disastrous wreck of the White Ship , which left Matilda as the only legitimate child of her father King Henry . Like Matilda, her cousin Stephen of Blois was a grandchild of William (the Conqueror) of Normandy ; but her paternal line made her senior in right of succession to his maternal line.

Second marriage: Countess of Anjou
Matilda returned to England a young widow, age 23, and dowager "Empress" - a status of considerable pride to her. There Henry named her his heir to both the English throne and his Duchy of Normandy . Henry saw to it that the Anglo-Norman barons (including Stephen of Blois ) were sworn (several times) to accept Matilda as ruler if Henry died without a male heir.

Henry then arranged a second marriage for Matilda; as he aimed to achieve peace between the fractious barons of Normandy and Anjou. On 17 June 1128, Matilda, aged 26, was married to Geoffrey of Anjou , aged 15, who also was Count of Maine and heir apparent to (his father) the Count of Anjou - which title he soon acquired, and by which Matilda became Countess of Anjou. It was a title she rarely used. Geoffrey called himself "Plantagenet " from the broom flower (planta genista) he adopted as his personal emblem. So Plantagenet became the dynastic name of that powerful line of English kings who descended from Matilda and Geoffrey.

Matilda's marriage with Geoffrey was troubled; there were frequent long separations, but they had three sons and she survived him. The eldest son, Henry , was born on 5 March 1133. In 1134, she nearly died in childbirth, following the birth of her second son, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes . A third son, William X, Count of Poitou , was born in 1136.

When her father died in Normandy, on 1 December 1135, Matilda was with her husband, in Anjou ; and, crucially, too far away from events rapidly unfolding in England and Normandy. Stephen of Blois rushed to England upon learning of Henry's death; in London he moved quickly to grasp the crown of England from its appointed heir.

But Matilda was game to contest Stephen in both realms; she and her husband Geoffrey entered Normandy and began military campaigns to claim her inheritance. Progress was uneven at first, but she persevered; even so, it was not until 1139 that Matilda felt secure enough in Normandy to turn her attentions to invading England and fighting Stephen directly.
In Normandy, Geoffrey secured all fiefdoms west and south of the Seine by 1143; in January 1144, he crossed the Seine and took Rouen without resistance. He assumed the title Duke of Normandy , and Matilda became Duchess of Normandy. Geoffrey and Matilda held the duchy conjointly until 1149, then ceded it to their son, Henry, which event was soon ratified by King Louis VII of France .

Struggle for throne of England
On the death of her father, Henry I, in 1135, Matilda expected to succeed to the throne of England , but her cousin, Stephen of Blois , a nephew of Henry I, usurped the throne with the support of most of the barons, breaking the oath he had previously made to defend her rights. The civil war which followed was bitter and prolonged, with neither side gaining the ascendancy for long, but it was not until 1139 that Matilda could command the military strength necessary to challenge Stephen within his own realm. Stephen's wife, the Countess of Boulogne who was also named Matilda , was the Empress's maternal cousin. During the war, Matilda's most loyal and capable supporter was her illegitimate half-brother, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester .

Matilda's greatest triumph came in April 1141, when her forces defeated and captured King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln . He was made a prisoner and effectively deposed.

Her advantage lasted only a few months. When she marched on London , the city was ready to welcome her and support her coronation . She used the title of Lady of the English and planned to assume the title of queen upon coronation (the custom which was followed by her grandsons, Richard and John ).[2] However, she refused the citizens' request to have their taxes halved and, because of her own arrogance [2], she found the gates of London shut and the civil war reignited on 24 June 1141. By November, Stephen was free, having been exchanged for the captured Robert of Gloucester, and a year later, the tables were turned when Matilda was besieged at Oxford but escaped to Wallingford , supposedly by fleeing across the snow-covered land in a white cape. In 1141 she had escaped Devizes in a similarly clever manner, by disguising herself as a corpse and being carried out for burial. In 1148, Matilda and Henry returned to Normandy , following the death of Robert of Gloucester, and the reconquest of that county by her husband. Upon their arrival, Geoffrey turned Normandy over to his son, and retired to his own county of Anjou .

Later life
Matilda's first son, Henry , was showing signs of becoming a successful leader. Although the civil war had been decided in Stephen's favour, his reign was troubled. In 1153, the death of his son Eustace, combined with the arrival of a military expedition led by Henry, led him to acknowledge the latter as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford .

Matilda retired to Rouen in Normandy during her last years, where she maintained her own court and presided over the government of the duchy in the absence of Henry. She intervened in the quarrels between her eldest son Henry and her second son Geoffrey, but peace between the brothers was brief. Geoffrey rebelled against Henry twice before his sudden death in 1158. Relations between Henry and his youngest brother, William X, Count of Poitou , were more cordial, and William was given vast estates in England. Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the Countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Matilda's court at Rouen. William, who was his mother's favourite child, died there in January 1164, reportedly of disappointment and sorrow. She attempted to mediate in the quarrel between her son Henry and Becket, but was unsuccessful.

Although she gave up hope of being crowned in 1141, her name always preceded that of her son Henry, even after he became king. Matilda died at Notre Dame du Pré near Rouen and was buried in the Abbey church of Bec-Hellouin, Normandy. Her body was transferred to the Rouen Cathedral in 1847; her epitaph reads: "Great by Birth, Greater by Marriage, Greatest in her Offspring: Here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry."

278. Beatrice de Gand 417 418 was born about 1062 in Castellane, Basse Alps, France. Other names for Beatrice were Beatrix Castellane of Ghent, Beatrix of Gand, Beatrice Castellane, and Beatrix Gand.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1040 in Bourboucy, France.

Beatrice married Aubrey I de Vere,310 528 529 son of Alphonso, Count of Ghesnes and Unknown, about 1060 in France. Aubrey was born about 1060 in France and died about 1088 in England about age 28. Other names for Aubrey were Aubrey I De Vere and Alberic de Vere.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019545.htm has b. 1030 in Hedingham, Essex, England.

Research Notes: Held manors in Essex, Suffolk, Middlesex and Cambridge, Castle Hedingham being the chief seat.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 352 F    i. Rohese de Vere 530 531 was born about 1103 in <Hedingham>, Essex, England and died in 1166 in Chicksands Prior, Bedfordshire, England about age 63.

+ 353 M    ii. Aubrey II de Vere, of Great Addington & Drayton 43 532 533 534 was born about 1080 in <Hedingham, Essex, England>, died on 15 May 1141 in London, Middlesex, England about age 61, and was buried in Colne Priory, Earls Colne, Essex, England.

281. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 228 422 423 was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. Another name for Robert was Robert "Bossu" de Beaumont 2nd Earl of Leicester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois -
Younger twin of Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan. Nicknamed Robert Bossu (the Humpback).

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester :

Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 - 5 April 1168 ) was Justiciar of England 1155-1168.
The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French ).

Early Life and Education
Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois . He was the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont . There is no knowing whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they probably were in fact identical.

The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William earl of Warenne or Surrey . They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy , to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119 , when the king incited them to debate philosophy with the cardinals . Both twins were literate, and Abingdon Abbey later claimed to have been Robert's school, but though this is possible, its account is not entirely trustworthy. A surviving treatise on astronomy (British Library ms Royal E xxv) carries a dedication "to Earl Robert of Leicester, that man of affairs and profound learning, most accomplished in matters of law" who can only be this Robert. On his death he left his own psalter to the abbey he founded at Leicester, which was still in its library in the late fifteenth century. The existence of this indicates that like many noblemen of his day, Robert followed the canonical hours in his chapel.

Career at the Norman Court
In 1120 Robert was declared of age and inherited most of his father's lands in England, while his twin brother took the French lands. However in 1121 , royal favour brought Robert the great Norman honors of Breteuil and Pacy-sur-Eure , with his marriage to Amice de Montfort , daughter of a Breton intruder the king had forced on the honor after the forfeiture of the Breteuil family in 1119 . Robert spent a good deal of his time and resources over the next decade integrating the troublesome and independent barons of Breteuil into the greater complex of his estates. He did not join in his brother's great Norman rebellion against King Henry I in 1123 -. He appears fitfully at the royal court despite his brother's imprisonment until 1129 . Thereafter the twins were frequently to be found together at Henry I's court.

Robert held lands throughout the country. In the 1120s and 1130s he tried to rationalise his estates in Leicestershire. Leicestershire estates of the See of Lincoln and the Earl of Chester were seized by force. This enhanced the integrity of Robert's block of estates in the central midlands, bounded by Nuneaton , Loughborough , Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough .

In 1135 , the twins were present at King Henry's deathbed. Robert's actions in the succession period are unknown, but he clearly supported his brother's decision to join the court of the new king Stephen before Easter 1136 . During the first two years of the reign Robert is found in Normandy fighting rival claimants for his honor of Breteuil. Military action allowed him to add the castle of Pont St-Pierre to his Norman estates in June 1136 at the expense of one of his rivals. From the end of 1137 Robert and his brother were increasingly caught up in the politics of the court of King Stephen in England, where Waleran secured an ascendancy which lasted till the beginning of 1141. Robert participated in his brother's political coup against the king's justiciar, Roger of Salisbury (the Bishop of Salisbury ).

...
Family and children
He married after 1120 Amice de Montfort , daughter of Ralph, senior of Gael or Montfort . They had four children:
Hawise, who married William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester ;
Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester ;
Isabel, who married with:
Simon II of St Liz, 4th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton ;
Gervase Paynel of Dudley.
Margaret, who married Ralph V de Toeni

Literary references
He is a minor character in The Holy Thief, one of the Brother Cadfael series by Ellis Peters .

Notes
^ a b c Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 69

References
D. Crouch, The Beaumont Twins: the Roots and Branches of Power in the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1986).
D. Crouch, The Reign of King Stephen, 1135-1154 (London, 2000).
E. King, "Mountsorrel and its region in King Stephen's Reign", Huntington Library Quarterly, 44 (1980), 1-10.
Leicester Abbey, ed. J. Storey, J. Bourne and R. Buckley (Leicester, 2006).
Powicke, F. Maurice and E. B. Fryde Handbook of British Chronology 2nd. ed. London:Royal Historical Society 1961
British Library ms Royal E xxv.

Noted events in his life were:

• Knighted: 1122.

• Justiciar of England: 1155-1168.

Robert married Amice de Gael de Montfort,228 423 535 daughter of Ralph de Gael de Montfort and Unknown, after 1120. Amice was born about 1108 and died 31 Aug 1168 or 1169 about age 60. Other names for Amice were Amice de Gael, Amicia, and Amice de Montfort.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 354 M    i. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester 228 536 537 was born about 1121 in Beaumont, France and died on 31 Aug 1190 in Durazzo, West Albania about age 69.

+ 355 F    ii. Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester died on 24 Apr 1197.

   356 F    iii. Isabel de Beaumont .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

   357 F    iv. Margaret de Beaumont .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

282. Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 424 425 was born in 1104 in <Meulan, Île-de-France>, France, died on 10 Apr 1166 in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France at age 62, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois
Younger twin. Twin brother was Robert de Beaumont (aka Robert Bossu).

Waleran married Agnes de Montfort,424 daughter of Amaury de Montfort and Agnes de Garlende, about 1141 in Normandy, France. Agnes was born about 1123 in <Montfort-de-Risle, Eure>, France and died on 15 Dec 1181 about age 58. Another name for Agnes was Elizabeth de Montfort.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 358 M    i. Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 424 was born about 1140 in Meulan, Normandy, France and died in Oct 1207 in Palestine about age 67.

287. Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick 426 427 was born about 1102 and died on 12 Jun 1153 about age 51.

Research Notes: Elder son of Henry de Beaumont.

From Wikipedia - Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick :

Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick (1102 - 12 June 1153 ), was the elder son of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick and Marguerite, daughter of Geoffrey II of Perche and Beatrix of Montdidier . He was also known as Roger de Newburg.

He was generally considered to have been a devout and pious man; a chronicle of the period, the Gesta Regis Stephani , speaks of him as a "man of gentle disposition". The borough of Warwick remembers him as the founder of the Hospital of S. Michael for lepers which he endowed with the tithes of Wedgnock , and other property; he also endowed the House of the Templars beyond the bridge. In the reign of Stephen he founded a priory dedicated to S. Kenned at Llangennilth, Co. Glamorgan and he attached it as a cell to the Abbey of S. Taurinus at Evreux in Normandy .


Family and children
He married 1130 Gundred de Warenne, daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Elizabeth de Vermandois and had children:
William de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Warwick .
Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick (1153 - 12 December 1204).
Henry de Beaumont, was Dean of Salisbury in 1205.
Agnes de Beaumont, married Geoffrey de Clinton, Chamberlain to the King and son of Geoffrey de Clinton , the founder of Kenilworth Castle and Priory.
Margaret de Beaumont.
Gundred de Beaumont (c.1135-1200), married:
Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk ;
Roger de Glanville.

Noted events in his life were:

• Crusader:

Roger married Gundred de Warenne,310 463 daughter of William II de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester, before 1130. Gundred was born about 1117 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England, died after 1166 in Warwickshire, England, and was buried in Kelso, Roxburgh, Scotland. Another name for Gundred was Gundrada de Warenne.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey:

Gundrada de Warenne , who married first Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick , and second William, lord of Kendal , and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen 's garrison from Warwick Castle ;

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1166.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 359 M    i. Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick 538 539 was born before 1153 and died on 24 Dec 1204.

288. Robert de Mascy 429 was born after 1098 and died after 1124.

Research Notes: From A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland, Part II, p. 986 "MASSEY."

SIR WILLIAM MASSEY, Knt., 16 HENRY III, son of WILLIAM MASSEY, of Tatton, grandson of ROBERT MASSEY, of Sale, and great-grandson of ROBERT MASSEY, living anno 1124, who was son of HAMON MASSEY, 1st Baron of Dunham Massey, temp. WILLIAM the Conqueror, m. Margaret, dau. and co-heir of Humphrey Rosthorne, of Rosthorne, and was father of

SIR RICHARD MASSEY, Knt., sheriff of Cheshire, 6 EDWARD I, ancestor of the MASSEYS of Denfield, whose representative,

WILLIAM MASSEY, of Denfield and Moss, co. Chester, aged 63 at the Heralds' Visitation of that co. in 1663; m. Dorothy, dau. of George Cotton, of Combermere, co. Chester, and dying in 1682, was s. by his son and heir, "

Noted events in his life were:

• Living: 1124.

Robert married someone.

His child was:

+ 360 M    i. Robert Massey, of Sale .

289. Hamon II Massey 430 was born about 1100 in Cheadle, Cheshire, England and died about 1140 in Dunham Massey, Bucklow, Cheshire, England about age 40.

Research Notes: From A History of Altrincham and Bowdon, p. 9:

"The second Hamon had issue Hamon, a son and heir, and Robert Massey, from whom sprang the Masseys of Sale. This is probably the Hamon Massey who is noticed in one of the ancient chronicles as having held the Castle of Dunham against Henry II. in 1173, during the rebellion of which Hugh Earl of Chester was principal leader. He gave the lands of Bramhall, or Bromale, to Matthew de Bromale by charter..."

Hamon married Eleanor Beaumont about 1124 in Dunham Massey, Bucklow, Cheshire, England. Eleanor was born about 1100 in Cheshire, England.

Research Notes: FamilySearch? Rootsweb? AFN: 18GS-7K2


Children from this marriage were:

   361 M    i. John Massey was born about 1127 in Dunham Massey, Bucklow, Cheshire, England.

Research Notes: From History of Altrincham and Bowdon, p. 10:
"[The third Hamon] is said to have given to his brother John Massey all the land of Moreton."

+ 362 M    ii. Hamon III Massey 542 543 was born about 1129 in Dunham Massey, Bucklow, Cheshire, England and died about 1216 in Dunham Massey, Bucklow, Cheshire, England about age 87.

   363 M    iii. Robert Massey was born about 1130 in Dunham Massey, Bucklow, Cheshire, England.

292. Ranulf le Meschin, 3rd Earl of Chester 334 434 435 436 437 was born about 1070 in <Briquessart, Livry, France>, died on 17 Jan 1129 in Chester, Cheshire, England about age 59, and was buried in St Werburgh, Chester, Cheshire, England. Other names for Ranulf were Ranulph III le Meschin de Briquessart 3rd Earl of Chester, Ranulph le Meschin 1st Earl of Chester, Ranulf de Meschines Lord of Cumberland, and Vicomte of Bayeux in Normandy.

Death Notes: Death date may be 27 Jan 1128/29.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Ranulph le Meschin, 1st Earl of Chester gained the title of Vicomte de Bayeux [Normandy].3 He was also known as Ranulph de Briquessart.3 He succeeded to the title of Vicomte d'Avranches [Normandy] on 25 November 1120.3 He was created 1st Earl of Chester [England] in 1121.3 He was Commander of the Royal forces in Normandy in 1124.


-----

From Wikipedia - Ranulf le Meschin, 3rd Earl of Chester :

Ranulf le Meschin, Ranulf de Briquessart or Ranulf I [Ranulph, Ralph] (died 1129) was a late 11th- and early 12th-century Norman magnate based in northern and central England. Originating in Bessin in Normandy, Ranulf made his career in England thanks to his kinship with Hugh d'Avranches , the earl of Chester, the patronage of kings William II Rufus and Henry I Beauclerc , and his marriage to Lucy , heiress of the Bolingbroke-Spalding estates in Lincolnshire.

Ranulf fought in Normandy on behalf of Henry I, and served the English king as a kind of semi-independent governor in the far north-west, Cumberland and Westmorland , before attaining the palatine county of Chester on the Anglo-Welsh marches in 1120. He held this position for the remainder of his life, and passed the title on to his son.

Family and origins
Ranulf was the son of Ranulf de Briquessart , viscount of the Bessin, and likely for this reason the former Ranulf was styled le Meschin, "the younger".[2] His mother was Matilda, daughter of Richard, viscount of the Avranchin . We know from an entry in the Durham Liber Vitae , c. 1098 x 1120, that he had an older brother named Richard (who died in youth), and a younger brother named William.[3] He had a sister called Agnes, who later married Robert de Grandmesnil (died 1136).[2]

Ranulf's earliest appearance in extant historical records was 24 April 1089 , the date of a charter of Robert Curthose , Duke of Normandy , to Bayeux Cathedral .[2] Ranulf, as "Ranulf son of Ranulf the viscount", was one of the charter's witnesses.[2] He appeared again in the sources, c. 1093/4, as a witness to the foundation charter of Chester Abbey , granted by his uncle Hugh d'Avranches , palantine count ("earl") of Chester.[2] Between 1098 and 1101, probably in 1098, Ranulf became a major English landowner in his own right when he became the third husband of Lucy , heiress of the honour of Bolingbroke in Lincolnshire.[4] This acquisition also brought him the lordship of Appleby in Cumberland , previously held by Lucy's second husband Ivo Taillebois .[2]

Lord of Cumberland and Westmorland

A charter issued in 1124 by David I , King of the Scots , to Robert I de Brus granting the latter the lordship of Annandale recorded that Ranulf was remembered as holding lordship of Carlisle and Cumberland, holding with the same semi-regal rights by which Robert was to hold Annandale .[2] A source from 1212 attests that the jurors of Cumberland remembered Ranulf as quondam dominus Cumberland ("sometime Lord of Cumberland").[5] Ranulf possessed the power and in some respects the dignity of a semi-independent earl in the region, though he lacked the formal status of being called such. A contemporary illustration of this authority is one charter in the records of Wetheral Priory , which recorded Ranulf addressing his own sheriff, "Richer" (probably Richard de Boivill).[6]

Ivo Taillebois, when he married Ranulf's future wife Lucy, had acquired her Lincolnshire lands; sometime after 1086 he acquired authority in Westmorland and Kendal . Adjacent lands in Lancashire and Westmorland, previously controlled by Earl Tostig Godwinson , were probably carved up in the 1080s by the king, between Roger the Poitevin and Ivo, a territorial division at least partially responsible for the later boundaries between the two counties.[7] Norman lordship in the heartland of Cumberland dates to around 1092, the year King William Rufus seized the region from its previous ruler, Dolfin.[8] There is inconclusive evidence that this happened around the same time as William II's expedition to Carlisle, and that settlers from Ivo's Lincolnshire lands came into Cumberland as a result.[9]

When Ranulf acquired Ivo's authority, or an extended version of it, is not clear. Between 1094 and 1098 Lucy was married to Roger fitz Gerold de Roumare, so it is possible that this marriage was the king's way of transferring authority in the region to Roger fitz Gerold.[10] The "traditional view", and that held by the historian William Kapelle , was that Ranulf's authority in the region did not come about until 1106 or after, as a reward for Ranulf's participation in the Battle of Tinchebrai .[11] Another historian, Richard Sharpe , has recently attacked this view and argued that it probably came in or soon after 1098. Sharpe believed that Lucy was the main mechanism by which this authority changed hands here, and pointed out that Ranulf had been married to Lucy years before Tinchebrai, and that, moreover, Ranulf can be found months before Tinchebrai taking evidence from county jurors at York (which may have been responsible for parts of this partially-shired region at this point).[12]

Firm dates for Ranulf's authority in the region do however come only from 1106 and after, well into the reign of Henry I .[2] It was in 1106 that Ranulf founded a Benedictine monastic house at Wetheral , Wetheral Priory.[2] The record of the jurors of Cumberland dating to 1212 claimed that Ranulf created two baronies in the region, Burgh-by-Sands for Robert de Trevers, Ranulf's brother-in-law, and Liddel for Turgis Brandos.[13] He appears to have attempted to give Gilsland to his brother William, though its lord, "Gille", held out; later the lordship of Allerdale (also called Egremont or Copeland ) was given to William.[14] Kirklinton may have been given to Richard de Boivill, Ranulf's sheriff.[2]

Earl of Chester

Marriage to the a great heiress came only with royal patronage, which in turn came only through having royal respect and trust. Ranulf was however not recorded often at the court of Henry I, and did not form part of the king's closest group of administrative advisers.[15] He was however one of the king's military companions, and served under Henry as an officer of the royal household when the latter was on campaign; Ranulf was in fact one of his three commanders at the Battle of Tinchebrai, where he led the vanguard of Henry's army, and was often in Normandy when the king's interests were threatened there.[16] He is found serving as a royal justice in both 1106 and 1116. Later in his career, 1123-4, he commanded the king's garrison at Évreux during the war with William Clito , and in March 1124 he assisted in the capture of Waleran, Count of Meulan .[2]

The death of Richard , count-palatine of Chester in the White Ship Disaster of 1120 near Barfleur , paved the way for Ranulf's elevation to comital rank.[2] Merely four days before the disaster, Ranulf and his cousin Richard had witnessed a charter together at Cerisy .[2] Henry recognized Ranulf as Richard's successor to the county of Chester.[2] Ranulf's accession may have involved him giving up many of his other lands, including much of his wife's Lincolnshire lands and his land in Cumbria, though direct evidence for this beyond convenient timing is lacking.[17] Richard Sharpe suggested that Ranulf may have had to sell much land in order to pay the king for the palatine-county of Chester, though it could not have covered the whole fee, as Ranulf's son Ranulf de Gernon , when he succeeded his father to Chester in 1129, owed the king £1000 "from his father's debt for the land of Earl Hugh".[18]

Ranulf died in January 1129, and was buried in Chester Abbey.[2] He was survived by his wife and countess, Lucy, and succeeded by his son Ranulf de Gernon.[2] A daughter, Alicia, married Richard de Clare , a lord in the Anglo-Welsh marches.[2]

Noted events in his life were:

• Earl of Chester: 1120-1129. following the death of his first cousin, Hugh d'Avranches, Earl of Chester

• Commander of the Royal Forces in Normandy: 1124.

Ranulf married Lucy, of Bolingbroke,322 544 545 daughter of Thorold, Sheriff of Lincoln and < > Malet, about 1098. Lucy was born about 1070 in <Spalding, Lincolnshire>, England and died about 1136 about age 66. Another name for Lucy was Lucia.

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. abt 1138

Research Notes: Husbands:
Ivo de Tailbois
Roger Fitz Gerold
Ranulph III le Meschin, de Briquessart

From Wikipedia - Lucy of Bolingbroke :

Lucy (died c. 1138), sometimes called Lucy of Bolingbroke[1] was an Anglo-Norman heiress in central England and, later in life, countess-consort of Chester . Probably related to the old English earls of Mercia , she came to possess extensive lands in Lincolnshire which she passed on to her husbands and sons. She was a notable religious patron, founding or co-founding two small religious houses and endowing several with lands and churches.

Ancestry
A charter of Crowland Abbey , now thought to be spurious, described Thorold of Bucknall, perhaps the same as her probable father Thorold of Lincoln, as a brother of Godgifu (Godiva), wife of Leofric, Earl of Mercia .[2] The same charter contradicted itself on the matter, proceeding to style Godgifu's son (by Leofric), Ælfgar, as Thorold's cognatus (cousin).[3] Another later source, from Coventry Abbey , made Lucy the sister of Earls Edwin and Morcar Leofricsson , while two other unreliable sources, the Chronicle of Abbot Ingmund of Crowland and the Peterbrough Chronicle also make Lucy the daughter of Earl Ælfgar.[3] Keats-Rohan's explanation for these accounts is that they were ill-informed and were confusing Lucy with her ancestor, William Malet's mother, who was in some manner related to the family of Godgifu.[3]


Although there is much confusion about Lucy's ancestry in earlier writings, recent historians tend to believe that she was the daughter of Thorold, sheriff of Lincoln , by a daughter of William Malet (died 1071).[4] She inherited a huge group of estates centred on Spalding in Lincolnshire , probably inherited from both the Lincoln and the Malet family.[5] This group of estates have come to be called the "Honour of Bolingbroke ".[6]

Marriages
The heiress Lucy was married to three different husbands, all of whom died in her lifetime. The first of these was to Ivo Taillebois , a marriage which took place "around 1083".[7] Ivo took over her lands as husband, and seems in addition to have been granted estates and extensive authority in Westmorland and Cumberland .[8] Ivo died in 1094.[9]


The second marriage was to one Roger de Roumare or Roger fitz Gerold, with whom she had one son, William de Roumare (future Earl of Lincoln ), who inherited some of her land.[10] The latter was the ancestor of the de Roumare family of Westmorland.[11] Roger died in either 1097 or 1098.[12]
Sometime after this, though before 1101, she was married to Ranulf le Meschin , her last and longest marriage.[13] A son Ranulf de Gernon , succeeded his father to the earldom of Chester (which Ranulf acquired in 1121) and a daughter, Alice, married Richard de Clare .[6]


Upon her death, most of the Lincolnshire lands she inherited passed to her younger son William de Roumare, while the rest passed to Ranulf II of Chester (forty versus twenty knights' fees).[14] The 1130 pipe roll informs us that Lucy had paid King Henry I 500 marks after her last husband's death for the right not to have to remarry.[15] She died around 1138.[6]

Religious patronage
Lucy, as widowed countess, founded the convent of Stixwould in 1135, becoming, in the words of one historian, "one of the few aristocratic women of the late eleventh and twelfth centuryes to achieve the role of independent lay founder".[16] Her religious patronage however centered on Spalding Priory , a religious house for which her own family was the primary patron. This house (a monastic cell of Crowland) was founded, or re-founded, in 1085 by Lucy and her first husband Ivo Taillebois.[16]


Later, she was responsible for many endowments, for instance in the 1120s she and her third husband Earl Ranulf granted the priory the churches of Minting, Belchford and Scamblesby.[16] In 1135, Lucy, now widowed for the last time, granted the priory her own manor of Spalding for the permanent use of the monks.[16] The records indicate that Lucy went to great effort to ensure that, after her own death, her sons would honour and uphold her gifts.[17]

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1130.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 364 F    i. Adelize de Gernon 109 496 546 was born about 1094 in <Hertford, Hertfordshire>, England and died in 1128 about age 34.

+ 365 M    ii. Ranulf IV, de Gernon, 4th Earl of Chester 334 547 548 was born about 1100 in Gernon Castle, Normandy, France, died on 16 Dec 1153 about age 53, and was buried in St. Werburg's, Chester, Cheshire, England.

293. William le Meschin, Lord of Skipton-in-Craven, Yorkshire 334 438 439 was born about 1100 in <Gernon Castle, Normandy, France>. Another name for William was William de Meschines.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132B-26

William married Cecily de Rumilly,334 549 daughter of Robert de Rumilly, of Molland, Devon and Unknown,. Cecily was born about 1100 in <Normandy, France>. Another name for Cecily was Cecily de Rumigny.

Research Notes: Daughter and heiress of Robert de Rumilly.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132B-26 (William le Meschin)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 366 F    i. Maud la Meschine 334 550 was born about 1126 in <Harringworth, Northumberland>, England and died after 1190.

294. Gilbert de Gaunt 92 was born about 1048 in <Alost, Flanders (Belgium)>, died in 1094 about age 46, and was buried in Bardney, Lincolnshire, England. Another name for Gilbert was Gilbert de Gand.

Gilbert married Alice de Montfort,92 daughter of Hugh de Montfort and Alice de Beauffou, about 1071 in Folkingham, Lincolnshire, England. Alice was born about 1050 in <Monfort-sur-Risle, France>. Another name for Alice was Alice de Morfort.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 367 F    i. Felia de Gaunt 92 was born about 1070 in <Folkingham>, Lincolnshire, England.

295. Raymond III Berenger, Count of Barcelona 71 was born 11 Nov 1080 or 1082 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 19 Jun 1131 at age 50. Other names for Raymond were Ramon Berenguer III and Raimund III Berenger Marquis of Barcelona.

Raymond married Dulce Aldonza Milhaud,71 551 daughter of Gilbert, Count of Gevaudan and Gerberga, of Provence, Countess of Arles,. Dulce was born about 1095 in Gevaudan, Essonne, France and died in 1190 about age 95. Another name for Dulce was Dulce de Gevaudan.

Research Notes: Third wife of Raymond III Berenger

Noted events in her life were:

• Heiress of Provence:

The child from this marriage was:

+ 368 F    i. Berenguela, of Barcelona 71 502 was born about 1116 in <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain and died on 3 Feb 1149 in Palencia, Léon, Spain about age 33.

296. Matthew, of Alsace, Count of Boulogne .442

Matthew married Marie, of Blois, Countess of Boulogne,516 daughter of Stephen, of Blois, King of England and Matilda, of Boulogne,. Marie was born in 1136 and died in 1182 at age 46. Another name for Marie was Mary of Blois.

Research Notes: Countess of Boulogne in her own right.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 369 F    i. Mathilde, of Flanders 552 died between 1210 and 1211.

298. Margaret I, of Flanders 444 died on 15 Nov 1194. Another name for Margaret was Margaret I of Alsace.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Margaret I, Countess of Flanders :

Margaret I of Alsace (died 15 November 1194 ) was countess of Flanders from 1191 to her death.

History
She was the daughter of Thierry, Count of Flanders and Sibylla of Anjou , and the heiress of her childless brother, Philip of Flanders .

Family
In 1169 she married Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut , who became her co-ruler. They had the following issue:
Isabelle of Hainaut (Valenciennes , April 1170 - 15 March 1190 , Paris ), married king Philip II of France
Baldwin VI of Hainaut (1171-1205), also count of Flanders and Latin Emperor
Yolanda of Flanders (1175-1219), married Peter of Courtenay , Latin Emperor
Philip I, Marquis of Namur (1175-1212)
Henry of Flanders (1176-1216), Latin Emperor
Sybille (1179 - 9 January 1217 ), married c. 1197 Guichard IV, Sire de Beaujeu (d. 1216). They had a daughter, Agnes of Beaujeu .
Eustace of Hainault (d. 1219), regent of the Kingdom of Thessalonica
Godfrey of Hainault

Noted events in her life were:

• Countess of Flanders: 1191-1194.

Margaret married Baldwin V, of Hainaut 553 in 1169. Baldwin was born in 1150 and died on 17 Dec 1195 at age 45. Other names for Baldwin were Baldwin I Margrave of Namur, Baldwin V Count of Hainaut, and Baldwin VIII Count of Flanders.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut :

Baldwin V of Hainaut (1150 - December 17 , 1195 ) was count of Hainaut (1171-1195), count of Flanders as Baldwin VIII (1191-1195) and margrave of Namur as Baldwin I (1189-1195).

History
He was the son of Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut . Flanders was acquired via his marriage to Margaret I of Flanders in 1169. Namur was acquired from his mother Alice of Namur .

Family
With Margaret, Baldwin had the following issue:
Isabelle of Hainaut (Valenciennes , April 1170 - March 15 , 1190 , Paris ), married king Philip II of France
Baldwin VI of Hainaut (1171-1205), also count of Flanders and Latin Emperor
Yolanda of Flanders (1175-1219), married Peter II of Courtenay , Latin Emperor
Philip I, Marquis of Namur (1175-1212)
Henry of Flanders (1176-1216), Latin Emperor
Sybille of Hainault (1179 - January 9 , 1217 ), married c. 1197 Guichard IV, Sire de Beaujeu (d. 1216)
Eustace of Hainault (d. 1219), regent of the Kingdom of Thessalonica
Godfrey of Hainault

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Hainaut: 1171-1195.

• Margrave of Namur: 1189-1195.

• Count of Flanders: 1191-1195.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 370 F    i. Yolanda, of Flanders 554 was born in 1175 and died in 1219 at age 44.

299. Clémence de Bar-le-Duc, Countess of Dammartin 154 445 was born about 1110 in <Dammartin, Île-de-France>, France and died after 20 Jan 1183. Another name for Clémence was Clemence de Bar.

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1183.

Clémence married Renaud, de Clermont.389

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis:

Clémence next married Renaud II, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,154 389 390 son of Hugh de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Marguerite de Rameru, about 1140. Renaud was born about 1108 in Clermont, Oise, France and died about 1162 about age 54. Another name for Renaud was Renaud de Clermont.

Research Notes: Second husband of Clémence de Bar-le-Duc. Fathered at least 7 children.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 255)

300. Ida, of Chiny and Namur 307 406 was born about 1083 and died between 1117 and 1122.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-24

Ida married Godefroi de Louvain, Duc de Basse-Lorraine,306 307 son of Henry II, Count of Leuven and Brussels and Adelheid, Countess of Betuwe, Betw 1100 and 1105. Godefroi was born about 1060 in <Lorraine, France>, died on 25 Jan 1139 in Affligem Abbey, Affligem, Belgium about age 79, and was buried in Church of Affligem Abbey, Affligem, Belgium. Other names for Godefroi were Godfrey I of Brabant, Godfrey I Duke of Lower Lorraine, Count of Louvain, Godfrey I of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Bearded" of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Courageous" of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Great" of Leuven, and Godfrey V or VI Duke of Lower Lorraine.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 149-24 (Ida) and 155-23 (Godfrey I) disagree re. marriage date (abt. 1105 and abt. 1100, respectively)

Research Notes: Duke of Lower Lorraine, Margrave of Antwerp, Count of Louvain

From Wikipedia - Godfrey I of Leuven :

Godfrey I (c. 1060-25 January 1139 ), called the Bearded, the Courageous, or the Great, was the landgrave of Brabant , and count of Brussels and Leuven (or Louvain) from 1095 to his death and duke of Lower Lorraine (as Godfrey V or VI) from 1106 to 1129. He was also margrave of Antwerp from 1106 to his death.

Godfrey was the son of Henry II of Leuven and a countess called Adela (origin unknown). He succeeded his brother Henry III in 1095. He first came into conflict with Otbert, Bishop of Liège , over the county of Brunengeruz that both claimed. In 1099, Emperor Henry IV allotted the county to the bishop, who entrusted it to Albert III, Count of Namur . Godfrey arbitrated a dispute between Henry III of Luxembourg and Arnold I, Count of Loon , over the appointment of the abbot of Sint-Truiden .

Godfrey was in favour with the emperor and defended his interests in Lorraine. In 1102, he stopped Robert II of Flanders , who was invading the Cambraisis . After the death of the emperor in 1106, his son and successor, Henry V , who had been in rebellion, decided to avenge himself on his father's partisans. Duke Henry of Lower Lorraine was imprisoned and his duchy confiscated and given to Godfrey. After Henry escaped from prison, he tried to retake his duchy and captured Aachen , but ultimately failed.
In 1114, during a rift between the emperor and Pope Paschal II , Godfrey led a revolt in Germany. In 1118, the emperor and the duke were reconciled. In 1119, Baldwin VII of Flanders died heirless and Flanders was contested between several claimants, of which William of Ypres had married a niece of Godfrey's second wife. Godfrey supported William, but could not enforce his claim against that of Charles the Good . Also dead in that year was Otbert. Two separate men were elected to replace him and Godfrey again sided with the loser.

By marrying his daughter Adeliza to Henry I of England , who was also the father-in-law of the emperor, he greatly increased his prestige. However, Henry V died in 1125 and Godfrey supported Conrad of Hohenstaufen , the duke of Franconia , against Lothair of Supplinburg . Lothair was elected. Lothair withdrew the duchy of Lower Lorraine and granted it to Waleran , the son of Henry, whom Henry V had deprived in 1106. Nonetheless, Godfrey maintained the margraviate of Antwerp and retained the ducal title (which would in 1183 become Duke of Brabant ).

After the assassination of Charles the Good in 1127, the Flemish succession was again in dispute. William Clito prevailed, but was soon fraught with revolts. Godfrey intervened on behalf of Thierry of Alsace , who prevailed against Clito. Godfrey continued to war against Liège and Namur .
Godfrey spent his last years in the abbey of Affligem . He died of old age on 25 January 1139 and was buried in the left aisle of the abbey church. He is sometimes said to have passed in 1140, but this is an error.

Family and children
He married Ida, daughter of Otto II of Chiny and Adelaide of Namur . They had several children:
Adeliza of Louvain (b. 1103-d. abbey of Affligem, April 23 , 1151 ) married Henry I, King of England and later William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel (1109-before 1151).
Godfrey II of Leuven (b. 1107-d. June 13 , 1142 ), Duke of Lower Lotharingia, Landgrave of Brabant, Count of Brussels and Leuven. He married Lutgardis of Sulzbach , daughter of Berenger I of Sulzbach .
Clarissa (d. 1140).
Henry (d. in the abbey of Affligem , 1141), monk.
Ida (d. 1162) married to Arnold II, count of Cleves (d. 1147).

Later, he married to Clementia of Bourgogne but had no issue.

He also had a son from an unknown mistress:
Joscelin (d. 1180); he accompanied his half-sister Adeliza to England and married Agnes, heiress of the Percy family, and took this surname. Probably the same as Gosuinus, mentioned in 1143 together with his sister Adeliza. Joscelin is an ancestor of U.S presidents Franklin Pierce and George W Bush

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Louvain:

• Duke of Lower Lorraine:

(Duplicate Line. See Person 195)

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301. Sir Nigell FitzIvo, 1st Baron of Halton 447 448 449 was born about 1042 in <Cotentin, Normandy, France> and died about 1080 about age 38. Other names for Nigell were Nigel of Cotentin and Nigell of Chester.

Birth Notes: Another source has b. abt 1065

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Barons of Halton :

1 Nigel of Cotentin
(c. 1070-1080)
He was also the hereditary Constable of Chester. In 1077 he fought against the Welsh at the Battle of Rhuddlan .[2] It is almost certain that he built a motte-and-bailey castle on Halton Hill but nothing remains of it today.[3]

Noted events in his life were:

• Hereditary Constable of Chester:

• Baron of Halton: Cir 1070-1080.

• Fought: against the Welsh at the Battle of Rhuddlan, 1077.

Nigell married someone.

His children were:

+ 371 M    i. William FitzNigell, 2nd Baron of Halton 555 556 was born in 1085 in Halton, West Riding, Yorkshire, England, died in 1153 at age 68, and was buried in Chester, Cheshire, England.

+ 372 M    ii. John FitzNigell 557 558 was born in 1090 in Knaresborough, West Riding, Yorkshire, England and died in 1138 at age 48.

302. Ranulph II, Vicomte of Bayeux in Normandy 334 432 433 was born about 1048 in <Normandy, France> and died after Apr 1089. Other names for Ranulph were Ranulf de Briquessart, Ranulf de Gernon Viscomte de Bessin, and Ranulf de Meschines Vicomte de Bayeux.

Research Notes: Adult by 1066

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132B-25
--------
From Wikipedia - Ranulf de Briquessart :

Ranulf de Briquessart[1] or Ranulf the Viscount (died c. 1089 or soon after) was an 11th century Norman magnate and viscount . Ranulf's family were connected to the House of Normandy by marriage, and, besides Odo , bishop of Bayeux , was the most powerful magnate in the Bessin region.[2] He married Margaret, daughter of Richard Goz, viscount of the Avranchin , whose son and successor Hugh d'Avranches became Earl of Chester in England c. 1070.[3]

Ranulf is probably the "Ranulf the viscount" who witnessed a charter of William , Duke of Normandy , at Caen on 17 June 1066.[4] Ranulf helped preside over a judgement in the curia of King William (as duke) in 1076 in which a disputed mill was awarded to the Abbey of Mont St. Michael .[5] On 14 July 1080 he witnessed a charter to the Abbey of Lessay (in the diocese of Coutances ), another in the same year addressed to Remigius de Fécamp bishop of Lincoln in favour of the Abbey of Préaux .[6] and one more in the same period, 1079 x 1082, to the Abbey of St Stephen of Caen .[7] His name is attached to a memorandum in 1085, and on 24 April 1089 he witnessed a confirmation of Robert Curthose , Duke of Normandy and Count of Maine to St Mary of Bayeaux, where he appears below his son in the witness list.[8]

He probably died sometime after this. His son Ranulf le Meschin became ruler of Cumberland and later Earl of Chester.[9] The Durham Liber Vitae , c. 1098 x 1120, shows that his eldest son was one Richard, who died in youth, and that he had another son named William.[10] He also had a daughter called Agnes, who later married Robert de Grandmesnil (died 1136).[9]

Noted events in his life were:

• Adult: by 1066.

• Living: 1089.

Ranulph married Maud d'Avranches,331 334 335 daughter of Richard le Goz, Viscomte d'Avranches and Emma de Conteville, about 1069 in Avranches, Normandy, France. Maud was born about 1054 in <Avranches, Normandy, France>. Other names for Maud were Margaret d'Avranches and Maud de Abrincis.

Research Notes: Sister of Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132B-25 (Ranulph II)

(Duplicate Line. See Person 209)

303. Judith, of Lens 451 452 453 was born in 1054 in <Lens, Artois>, France. Another name for Judith was Judith of Boulogne.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 130-25, also 98A-23. From note for Line 148-22 (after 22. Lambert of Boulogne): "Judith of Lens (Gen. 23 in previous editions) appears to have been Adelaide's child by her first marriage to Enguerrand II. See Judith of Lens (130-25, 98A-23) for her descendants.)

Here father was previously thought to be Lambert II, Count of Lens (e.g., in Magna Charta Barons, p. 81).

Judith married Waltheof II, Earl of Northumberland,451 453 559 son of Sigurd, Earl of Northumberland and Aelfflaed, of Bernicia, in 1070 in Artois, France. Waltheof was born in 1050, died on 31 May 1076 in Winchester, (Hampshire), England at age 26, and was buried in Chapter House of Croyland Abbey, Winchester, Hampshire, England.

Death Notes: Beheaded

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria :

Waltheof (1050 -31 May 1076 ), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls . He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I . He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character.

Early Life
He was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria . His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia , son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria . In 1054, Waltheof's brother, Osbearn, who was much older than him, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father's heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact, around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire . Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William's court until 1068.

First revolt
When Sweyn II invaded Northern England in 1069 Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York . He would again make a fresh submission to William after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens . In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton .

The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire , is now part of the city of Sheffield .

In 1072, William expelled Gospatric from the earldom of Northumbria. Gospatric was Waltheof's cousin and had taken part in the attack on York with him, but like Waltheof, had been pardoned by William. Gospatric fled into exile and William appointed Waltheof as the new earl.

Waltheof had many enemies in the north. Amongst them were members of a family who had killed Waltheof's maternal great-grandfather, Uchtred the Bold , and his grandfather Ealdred . This was part of a long-running blood feud. In 1074, Waltheof moved against the family by sending his retainers to ambush them, succeeding in killing the two eldest of four brothers.

Second revolt and death
In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. His motives for taking part in the revolt are unclear, as is the depth of his involvement. However he repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc , and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy . He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death.

He spent almost a year in confinement before being beheaded on May 31 , 1076 at St. Giles's Hill , near Winchester . He was said to have spent the months of his captivity in prayer and fasting. Many people believed in his innocence and were surprised when the execution was carried out. His body was initially thrown in a ditch, but was later retrieved and was buried in the chapter house of Croyland Abbey .

Family and children
In 1070 he married Judith of Lens , daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy , Countess of Aumale . They had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Maud , brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland , and another of whom, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny .

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose .

Noted events in his life were:

• Earl of Northampton:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 373 F    i. Maud, of Huntingdon 462 560 561 was born about 1074 and died in 1131 about age 57.

+ 374 F    ii. Alice Huntingdon 451 453 was born about 1085 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died after 1126.

304. Sybil, of Anjou 440 441 was born about 1112 in <Anjou, France> and died in 1165 about age 53. Another name for Sybil was Sibylla of Anjou.

Research Notes: Second wife of Thierry I of Lorraine (also known as Dietrich I, Count of Alsace).

From Wikipedia - Sibylla of Anjou :

Sibylla of Anjou (c. 1112-1165) was a daughter of Fulk V of Anjou and Ermengarde of Maine , and wife of William Clito and Thierry, Count of Flanders .

In 1123 Sibylla married William Clito, son of the Norman Robert Curthose and future Count of Flanders . Sibylla brought the County of Maine to this marriage, which was annulled in 1124 on grounds of consanguinity . The annulment was made by Pope Honorius II upon request from Henry I of England , William's uncle; Fulk opposed it and did not consent until Honorius excommunicated him and placed an interdict over Anjou . Sibylla then accompanied her widower father to the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem , where he married Melisende , the heiress of the kingdom, and became king himself in 1131. In 1139 she married Thierry, Count of Flanders , who had arrived on his first pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

She returned to Flanders with her new husband, and during his absence on the Second Crusade the pregnant Sibylla acted as regent of the county. Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut took the opportunity to attack Flanders, but Sibylla led a counter-attack and pillaged Hainaut . In response Baldwin ravaged Artois . The archbishop of Reims intervened and a truce was signed, but Thierry took vengeance on Baldwin when he returned in 1149.

In 1157 she travelled with Thierry on his third pilgrimage, but after arriving in Jerusalem she separated from her husband and refused to return home with him. She became a nun at the convent of St. Lazarus in Bethany , where her step-aunt, Ioveta of Bethany , was abbess. Ioveta and Sibylla supported Queen Melisende and held some influence over the church, and supported the election of Amalric of Nesle as Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem over a number of other candidates. Sibylla died in Bethany in 1165.

With Thierry she had six children:
Philip , Count of Flanders
Matthew , Count of Boulogne , married Marie of Boulogne
Margaret , Countess of Flanders and Hainaut, married Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
Gertrude
Matilda
Peter

Sybil married Thierry I, of Lorraine, Count of Flanders,342 343 son of Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine and Gertrude, of Flanders, in 1131. Thierry was born about 1099 and died on 17 Jan 1168 about age 69. Other names for Thierry were Dietrich I of Lorraine, Count of Alsace, Thierry of Alsace, and Thierry Count of Flanders.

Research Notes: Youngest son of Thierry II, Duke of Lorraine.

From Wikipedia - Thierry, Count of Flanders :

Thierry of Alsace (Dietrich) (c. 1099 - January 17 , 1168 ), in Flanders known as Diederik van den Elzas, was count of Flanders from 1128 to 1168. He was the youngest son of Duke Thierry II of Lorraine and Gertrude of Flanders (daughter of Robert I of Flanders ). With a record of four campaigns in the Levant and Africa (including participation in the Second Crusade , the failed 1157-1158 siege of the Syrian city Shaizar , and the 1164 invasion of Egypt ), he had a rare and distinguished record of commitment to crusading.

Life
After the murder of his cousin Charles the Good in 1127, Thierry claimed the county of Flanders as grandson of Robert I, but William Clito became count instead with the support of King Louis VI of France . William's politics and attitude towards the autonomy of Flanders made him unpopular, and by the end of the year Bruges , Ghent , Lille , and Saint-Omer recognized Thierry as a rival count. Thierry's supporters came from the Imperial faction of Flanders, and upon his arrival he engaged in battle against William.

Louis VI had Raymond of Martigné , the Archbishop of Reims , excommunicate him, and Louis himself then besieged Lille, but was forced to retire when Henry I of England , William's uncle, transferred his support to Thierry. However, Thierry was defeated at Tielt and Oostkamp and fled to Brugge. He was forced to flee Brugge as well, and went to Aalst , where he was soon under siege from William, Godfrey I of Leuven , and Louis VI. The city was about to be captured when William was found dead on July 27 , 1128 , leaving Thierry as the only claimant to the county.

Thierry set up his government in Ghent and was recognized by all the Flemish cities as well as King Henry, who had his Flemish lords in England swear fealty to him. Thierry himself swore homage to Louis VI after 1132, in order to gain the French king's support against Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut , who had advanced his own claim on Flanders.

In 1132 his wife, Suanhilde, died, leaving only a daughter. In 1139 then went on pilgrimage to the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem , and married Sibylla of Anjou , daughter of King Fulk of Jerusalem and widow of William Clito; a very prestigious marriage.

This was the first of Thierry's four pilgrimages to the Holy Land . While there he also led a victorious expedition against Caesarea Phillippi , and fought alongside his father-in-law in an invasion of Gilead . He soon returned to Flanders to put down a revolt in the Duchy of Lower Lotharingia , ruled at the time by Godfrey III of Leuven .

Thierry went on crusade a second time in 1147 during the Second Crusade . He led the crossing of the Maeander River in Anatolia and fought at the Battla of Attalya in 1148, and after arriving in the crusader Kingdom he participated in the Council of Acre , where the ill-fated decision to attack Damascus was made.

He participated in the Siege of Damascus , led by his wife's half-brother Baldwin III of Jerusalem , and with the support of Baldwin, Louis VII of France , and Conrad III of Germany , he lay claim to Damascus; the native crusader barons preferred one of their own nobles, Guy Brisebarre, lord of Beirut , but in any case the siege was a failure and all parties returned home.

During his absence, Baldwin IV of Hainaut invaded Flanders and pillaged Artois ; Sibylla reacted strongly and had Hainaut pillaged in response. The Archbishop of Reims intervened and a treaty was signed. When Thierry returned in 1150, he took vengeance on Baldwin IV at Bouchain , with the aid of Henry I, Count of Namur and Henry II of Leez , Bishop of Liège . In the subsequent peace negotiations, Thierry gave his daughter Marguerite in marriage to Baldwin IV's son, the future Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut .

In 1156 Thierry had his eldest son married to Elizabeth of Vermandois , daughter and heiress of Raoul I of Vermandois . In 1156 he returned to the Holy Land, this time with his wife accompanying him. He participated in Baldwin III's siege of Shaizar , but the fortress remained in Muslim hands when a dispute arose between Thierry and Raynald of Chatillon over who would possess it should it be captured. He returned to Flanders 1159 without Sibylla, who remained behind to become a nun at the convent of St. Lazarus in Bethany . Their son Philip had ruled the county in their absence, and he remained co-count after Thierry's return.

In 1164 Thierry returned once more to the Holy Land. He accompanied King Amalric I , another half-brother of Sibylla, to Antioch and Tripoli . He returned home in 1166, and adopted a date palm as his seal, with a crown of laurels on the reverse.

He died on February 4, 1168, and was buried in the Abbey of Watten , between Saint-Omer and Gravelines . His rule had been moderate and peaceful; the highly developed administration of the county in later centuries first began during these years. There had also been great economic and agricultural development, and new commercial enterprises were established; Flanders' greatest territorial expansion occurred under Thierry.

Family
His first wife, Suanhilde, died in 1132, leaving only one daughter:
Laurette of Flanders , who married four times: Iwain, Count of Aalst ; Henry II, Duke of Limburg ; Raoul I of Vermandois , Count of Vermandois ; Henry IV of Luxembourg . Laurette finally retired to a nunnery, where she died in 1170.
Thierry secondly married Sibylla of Anjou , daughter of Fulk V of Anjou and Ermengarde of Maine , and widow of William Clito . Their children were:
Philip of Flanders (died 1191)
Matthew of Alsace (died 1173), married Countess Marie of Boulogne
Margaret I of Flanders (died 1194), married Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
Gertrude of Flanders (died 1186), married Humbert III of Savoy
Matilda of Flanders, abbess of Fontevrault
Peter of Flanders (died 1176), Bishop of Cambrai

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Flanders: 1128-1168.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 217)

305. Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy 457 458 459 was born on 24 Aug 1113 in Anjou, France, died on 7 Sep 1151 at age 38, and was buried in Le Mans, France. Other names for Geoffrey were Geoffrey V Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and Geoffrey 'the Fair' Plantagenet Count of Anjou.

Research Notes: Second husband of Matilda.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871913 :
'The Fair' Count of Anjou (1129-1151); founder of the Plantagenet dynasty. Geoffey's nickname derived from his physical appearance - he was said to be tall, handsome, graceful and strong. He was also known as Geoffrey Plantagenet, appearantly from the sprig of broom (genet) he wore in his hat. In 1127, aged 14, he was married to Matilda, daughter and heiress of Henry I of England and the widow of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. They disliked each other, but maintained an uneasy political alliance and produces three sons, Henry (the future Henry II of England), Geoffrey and William. An illegitimate son, Hamelin became the Duke of Salisbury. Geoffrey spent much of his youth imposing order on his unruly vassals, including his own brother Helias II, Count of Maine, who rebelled against him in 1131; Geoffrey captured Helias and held him prisoner in Tours, Helias died soon after his release from a disease contracted in prison. In 1135 Henry I of England died, and Matilda's cousin Stephen of Blois (RIN # 1643) seized the English throne, together with Normandy, traditionally coveted by the counts of Anjou. Geoffrey laid claim to the duchy in his wife's right. Between 1135-1138 Geoffrey launched four expeditions into Normandy, none of which achieved great success. The expedition in 1137 was striken by dysentery, and forced to return swiftly to Anjou. In 1139 Matilda invaded England, seeking to press her claim to the English throne, and Geoffrey remained in Anjou to continue the war against Normandy. The Morman barons opposed Geoffrey, not through loyalty to Stephen, who had only visited Normandy once, but out of hatred of their traditional enemy, Anjou. However, Norman morale was weakened when Matilda captured Stephen at Lincoln in 1141, and many castles surrendered to Geoffrey, leaving him in control of most of the lands between Bayeux and the Seine. In 1142 he took the Avranchin and Mortain, and in 1143 moved east of the Seine, overunning the Cotentin. He was invested as Duke of Normandy in 144 after the fall of Rouen, and Arques, the last castle opposing him, capitulated in 1145, leaving him unchallenged master of Normandy. After the conquest of Normandy, Geoffrey joined Louis VII of France in the abortive Second Crusade (1147-9), returning in 1149. In 1150 he ceded Normandy to his son Henry, who also inhereted the family claim to the English throne. Geoffrey died in 1151, and was buried in Le Mans Cathedral; founder of a great dynasty of kings through his son, Henry II of England. For more on the Second Crusade, see RIN # 1618.
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 38-63,80,102,140,154

----

From Wikipedia - Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou :

Geoffrey (24 August 1113 - 7 September 1151), called the Handsome (French : le Bel) and Plantagenet, was the Count of Anjou , Touraine , and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. By his marriage to the Empress Matilda , daughter and heiress of Henry I of England , Geoffrey had a son, Henry Curtmantle , who succeeded to the English throne and founded the Plantagenet dynasty to which Geoffrey gave his nickname.

Biography
Geoffrey was the elder son of Fulk V of Anjou and Eremburga of La Flèche , heiress of Elias I of Maine . Geoffrey received his nickname for the yellow sprig of broom blossom (genêt is the French name for the genista, or broom shrub) he wore in his hat as a badge. King Henry I of England, having heard good reports on Geoffrey's talents and prowess, sent his royal legates to Anjou to negotiate a marriage between Geoffrey and his own daughter, Matilda. Consent was obtained from both parties, and on 10 June 1128 the fifteen-year-old Geoffrey was knighted in Rouen by King Henry in preparation for the wedding. Interestingly, there was no opposition to the marriage from the Church, despite the fact that Geoffrey's sister was the widow of Matilda's brother (only son of King Henry) which fact had been used to annul the marriage of another of Geoffrey's sisters to the Norman pretender William Clito .

On 17 June 1128 Geoffrey married Empress Matilda, the daughter and heiress of King Henry I of England by his first wife Edith of Scotland , and widow of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . The marriage was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, very proud of her status as an Empress (as opposed to being a mere Countess). Their marriage was a stormy one with frequent long separations, but she bore him three sons and survived him.

The year after the marriage Geoffrey's father left for Jerusalem (where he was to become king ), leaving Geoffrey behind as count of Anjou. John of Marmoutier describes Geoffrey as handsome, red-headed, jovial, and a great warrior; however, Ralph of Diceto alleges that his charm concealed his cold and selfish character.

When King Henry I died in 1135, Matilda at once entered Normandy to claim her inheritance. The border districts submitted to her, but England chose her cousin Stephen of Blois for its king, and Normandy soon followed suit. The following year, Geoffrey gave Ambrieres, Gorron, and Chatilon-sur-Colmont to Juhel de Mayenne, on condition that he help obtain the inheritance of Geoffrey's wife. In 1139 Matilda landed in England with 140 knights, where she was besieged at Arundel Castle by King Stephen. In the "Anarchy" which ensued, Stephen was captured at Lincoln in February, 1141, and imprisoned at Bristol. A legatine council of the English church held at Winchester in April 1141 declared Stephen deposed and proclaimed Matilda "Lady of the English". Stephen was subsequently released from prison and had himself recrowned on the anniversary of his first coronation.

During 1142 and 1143, Geoffrey secured all of Normandy west and south of the Seine, and, on 14 January 1144, he crossed the Seine and entered Rouen. He assumed the title of Duke of Normandy in the summer of 1144. In 1144, he founded an Augustine priory at Chateau-l'Ermitage in Anjou. Geoffrey held the duchy until 1149, when he and Matilda conjointly ceded it to their son, Henry, which cession was formally ratified by King Louis VII of France the following year.

Geoffrey also put down three baronial rebellions in Anjou, in 1129, 1135, and 1145-1151. He was often at odds with his younger brother, Elias , whom he had imprisoned until 1151. The threat of rebellion slowed his progress in Normandy, and is one reason he could not intervene in England. In 1153, the Treaty of Westminster allowed Stephen should remain King of England for life and that Henry, the son of Geoffrey and Matilda should succeed him.

Geoffrey died suddenly on September 7, 1151. According to John of Marmoutier, Geoffrey was returning from a royal council when he was stricken with fever. He arrived at Château-du-Loir , collapsed on a couch, made bequests of gifts and charities, and died. He was buried at St. Julien's Cathedral in Le Mans France. Geoffrey and Matilda's children were:
Henry II of England (1133-1189)
Geoffrey, Count of Nantes (1 June 1134 Rouen - 26 July 1158 Nantes ) died unmarried and was buried in Nantes
William X, Count of Poitou (1136-1164) died unmarried

Geoffrey also had illegitimate children by an unknown mistress (or mistresses): Hamelin ; Emme, who married Dafydd Ab Owain Gwynedd , Prince of North Wales ; and Mary, who became a nun and Abbess of Shaftesbury and who may be the poetess Marie de France . Adelaide of Angers is sometimes sourced as being the mother of Hamelin.

The first reference to Norman heraldry was in 1128, when Henry I of England knighted his son-in-law Geoffrey and granted him a badge of gold lions (or leopards ) on a blue background. (A gold lion may already have been Henry's own badge.) Henry II used two gold lions and two lions on a red background are still part of the arms of Normandy. Henry's son, Richard I , added a third lion to distinguish the arms of England.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine: 1129-1151.

• Duke of Normandy: 1144-1151.

Geoffrey married Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou,473 474 daughter of Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England and Matilda, of Scotland, on 22 May 1128 in Le Mans, France. Matilda was born about 7 Feb 1102 and died on 10 Sep 1167 about age 65. Other names for Matilda were Mathilda of England, Empress Maud Countess of Anjou, and Maude of England.

Marriage Notes: Marriage date may have been 3 April 1127 (Ancestral Roots Line 1-23). Line 118-25 (Geoffrey V) has m. 22 May 1127.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots Line 1-23 has b. abt. 1102-1104; Line 118-25 has b. 1104.
Some other source has b. Feb 1101

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Empress Matilda :

Empress Matilda, also known as Matilda of England or Maude (c. 7 February 1102 - 10 September 1167) was the daughter and heir of King Henry I of England . Matilda and her younger brother, William Adelin , were the only legitimate children of King Henry. Her brother died young in the White ship disaster , leaving Matilda as the last heir from the paternal line of her grandfather William the Conqueror .

As a child, Matilda was betrothed and later married to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . From her marriage to Henry, she acquired the title Empress. The couple had no known children. When widowed, she was married to the much younger Geoffrey of Anjou , by whom she became the mother of three sons, the eldest of whom became King Henry II of England .

Matilda was the first female ruler of the Kingdom of England . However the length of her effective rule was quite brief - a few months in 1141 - and she was never crowned and failed to consolidate her rule (legally and politically). Because of this she is normally excluded from lists of English monarchs, and her rival (and cousin) Stephen of Blois is routinely listed as monarch for the period 1135-1154. Their warring rivalry for the throne led to years of unrest and civil war in England that have been called The Anarchy . She did secure her inheritance of the Duchy of Normandy - through the military feats of her husband Geoffrey - and she campaigned unstintingly for her oldest son's inheritance, living to see him ascend the throne in 1154.

(In Latin texts Matilda was sometimes called Maude . This is a modernised spelling of the Norman-French form of her name, Mahaut.)

Early life
Matilda was the firstborn of two children to Henry I of England and his wife Matilda of Scotland (also known as Edith). Her maternal grandparents were Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Margaret was daughter of Edward the Exile and granddaughter of Edmund II of England . (Most historians believe Matilda was born at Winchester , but one, John Fletcher (1990), argues for the possibility of the royal palace at Sutton Courtenay in Oxfordshire .)

First marriage: Holy Roman Empress
When she was seven years old, Matilda was betrothed to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor ; at nine, she was sent to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) to begin training for the life of Empress consort . The royal couple were married at Worms on January 7, 1114, and Matilda accompanied her husband on tours to Rome and Tuscany . After time, the young wife of the Emperor acted as regent , mainly in Italy, in his absence[1]. Emperor Henry died in 1125. The imperial couple had no surviving offspring, but Herman of Tournai states that Matilda bore a son who lived only a short while.

Despite being popularly known by the title "Empress " from her first marriage, Matilda's right to the title was dubious. She was never crowned Holy Roman Empress by a legitimate Pope - which ceremony was normally required to achieve the title; indeed, in later years she encouraged chroniclers to believe she had been crowned by the Pope. Contemporary, she was called German Queen by her husband's bishops, while her formal title was recorded as "Queen of the Romans". Still, "Empress" was arguably an appropriate courtesy title for the wife of an Emperor who had been crowned by the Pope.

In 1120 her brother William Adelin was drowned in the disastrous wreck of the White Ship , which left Matilda as the only legitimate child of her father King Henry . Like Matilda, her cousin Stephen of Blois was a grandchild of William (the Conqueror) of Normandy ; but her paternal line made her senior in right of succession to his maternal line.

Second marriage: Countess of Anjou
Matilda returned to England a young widow, age 23, and dowager "Empress" - a status of considerable pride to her. There Henry named her his heir to both the English throne and his Duchy of Normandy . Henry saw to it that the Anglo-Norman barons (including Stephen of Blois ) were sworn (several times) to accept Matilda as ruler if Henry died without a male heir.

Henry then arranged a second marriage for Matilda; as he aimed to achieve peace between the fractious barons of Normandy and Anjou. On 17 June 1128, Matilda, aged 26, was married to Geoffrey of Anjou , aged 15, who also was Count of Maine and heir apparent to (his father) the Count of Anjou - which title he soon acquired, and by which Matilda became Countess of Anjou. It was a title she rarely used. Geoffrey called himself "Plantagenet " from the broom flower (planta genista) he adopted as his personal emblem. So Plantagenet became the dynastic name of that powerful line of English kings who descended from Matilda and Geoffrey.

Matilda's marriage with Geoffrey was troubled; there were frequent long separations, but they had three sons and she survived him. The eldest son, Henry , was born on 5 March 1133. In 1134, she nearly died in childbirth, following the birth of her second son, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes . A third son, William X, Count of Poitou , was born in 1136.

When her father died in Normandy, on 1 December 1135, Matilda was with her husband, in Anjou ; and, crucially, too far away from events rapidly unfolding in England and Normandy. Stephen of Blois rushed to England upon learning of Henry's death; in London he moved quickly to grasp the crown of England from its appointed heir.

But Matilda was game to contest Stephen in both realms; she and her husband Geoffrey entered Normandy and began military campaigns to claim her inheritance. Progress was uneven at first, but she persevered; even so, it was not until 1139 that Matilda felt secure enough in Normandy to turn her attentions to invading England and fighting Stephen directly.
In Normandy, Geoffrey secured all fiefdoms west and south of the Seine by 1143; in January 1144, he crossed the Seine and took Rouen without resistance. He assumed the title Duke of Normandy , and Matilda became Duchess of Normandy. Geoffrey and Matilda held the duchy conjointly until 1149, then ceded it to their son, Henry, which event was soon ratified by King Louis VII of France .

Struggle for throne of England
On the death of her father, Henry I, in 1135, Matilda expected to succeed to the throne of England , but her cousin, Stephen of Blois , a nephew of Henry I, usurped the throne with the support of most of the barons, breaking the oath he had previously made to defend her rights. The civil war which followed was bitter and prolonged, with neither side gaining the ascendancy for long, but it was not until 1139 that Matilda could command the military strength necessary to challenge Stephen within his own realm. Stephen's wife, the Countess of Boulogne who was also named Matilda , was the Empress's maternal cousin. During the war, Matilda's most loyal and capable supporter was her illegitimate half-brother, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester .

Matilda's greatest triumph came in April 1141, when her forces defeated and captured King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln . He was made a prisoner and effectively deposed.

Her advantage lasted only a few months. When she marched on London , the city was ready to welcome her and support her coronation . She used the title of Lady of the English and planned to assume the title of queen upon coronation (the custom which was followed by her grandsons, Richard and John ).[2] However, she refused the citizens' request to have their taxes halved and, because of her own arrogance [2], she found the gates of London shut and the civil war reignited on 24 June 1141. By November, Stephen was free, having been exchanged for the captured Robert of Gloucester, and a year later, the tables were turned when Matilda was besieged at Oxford but escaped to Wallingford , supposedly by fleeing across the snow-covered land in a white cape. In 1141 she had escaped Devizes in a similarly clever manner, by disguising herself as a corpse and being carried out for burial. In 1148, Matilda and Henry returned to Normandy , following the death of Robert of Gloucester, and the reconquest of that county by her husband. Upon their arrival, Geoffrey turned Normandy over to his son, and retired to his own county of Anjou .

Later life
Matilda's first son, Henry , was showing signs of becoming a successful leader. Although the civil war had been decided in Stephen's favour, his reign was troubled. In 1153, the death of his son Eustace, combined with the arrival of a military expedition led by Henry, led him to acknowledge the latter as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford .

Matilda retired to Rouen in Normandy during her last years, where she maintained her own court and presided over the government of the duchy in the absence of Henry. She intervened in the quarrels between her eldest son Henry and her second son Geoffrey, but peace between the brothers was brief. Geoffrey rebelled against Henry twice before his sudden death in 1158. Relations between Henry and his youngest brother, William X, Count of Poitou , were more cordial, and William was given vast estates in England. Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the Countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Matilda's court at Rouen. William, who was his mother's favourite child, died there in January 1164, reportedly of disappointment and sorrow. She attempted to mediate in the quarrel between her son Henry and Becket, but was unsuccessful.

Although she gave up hope of being crowned in 1141, her name always preceded that of her son Henry, even after he became king. Matilda died at Notre Dame du Pré near Rouen and was buried in the Abbey church of Bec-Hellouin, Normandy. Her body was transferred to the Rouen Cathedral in 1847; her epitaph reads: "Great by Birth, Greater by Marriage, Greatest in her Offspring: Here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry."


The child from this marriage was:

+ 375 M    i. Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England was born on 5 Mar 1132 in Le Mans, France, died on 6 Jul 1189 at age 57, and was buried in Fontévrault Abbey, France.

Geoffrey had a relationship with < >. This couple did not marry.

Their child was:

+ 376 M    i. Hamelin Plantagenet, 5th Earl of Surrey 562 563 564 was born about 1129, died on 7 May 1202 about age 73, and was buried in Chapter House, Lewes Priory, Surrey, England.

306. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 228 422 423 was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. Another name for Robert was Robert "Bossu" de Beaumont 2nd Earl of Leicester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois -
Younger twin of Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan. Nicknamed Robert Bossu (the Humpback).

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester :

Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 - 5 April 1168 ) was Justiciar of England 1155-1168.
The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French ).

Early Life and Education
Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois . He was the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont . There is no knowing whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they probably were in fact identical.

The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William earl of Warenne or Surrey . They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy , to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119 , when the king incited them to debate philosophy with the cardinals . Both twins were literate, and Abingdon Abbey later claimed to have been Robert's school, but though this is possible, its account is not entirely trustworthy. A surviving treatise on astronomy (British Library ms Royal E xxv) carries a dedication "to Earl Robert of Leicester, that man of affairs and profound learning, most accomplished in matters of law" who can only be this Robert. On his death he left his own psalter to the abbey he founded at Leicester, which was still in its library in the late fifteenth century. The existence of this indicates that like many noblemen of his day, Robert followed the canonical hours in his chapel.

Career at the Norman Court
In 1120 Robert was declared of age and inherited most of his father's lands in England, while his twin brother took the French lands. However in 1121 , royal favour brought Robert the great Norman honors of Breteuil and Pacy-sur-Eure , with his marriage to Amice de Montfort , daughter of a Breton intruder the king had forced on the honor after the forfeiture of the Breteuil family in 1119 . Robert spent a good deal of his time and resources over the next decade integrating the troublesome and independent barons of Breteuil into the greater complex of his estates. He did not join in his brother's great Norman rebellion against King Henry I in 1123 -. He appears fitfully at the royal court despite his brother's imprisonment until 1129 . Thereafter the twins were frequently to be found together at Henry I's court.

Robert held lands throughout the country. In the 1120s and 1130s he tried to rationalise his estates in Leicestershire. Leicestershire estates of the See of Lincoln and the Earl of Chester were seized by force. This enhanced the integrity of Robert's block of estates in the central midlands, bounded by Nuneaton , Loughborough , Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough .

In 1135 , the twins were present at King Henry's deathbed. Robert's actions in the succession period are unknown, but he clearly supported his brother's decision to join the court of the new king Stephen before Easter 1136 . During the first two years of the reign Robert is found in Normandy fighting rival claimants for his honor of Breteuil. Military action allowed him to add the castle of Pont St-Pierre to his Norman estates in June 1136 at the expense of one of his rivals. From the end of 1137 Robert and his brother were increasingly caught up in the politics of the court of King Stephen in England, where Waleran secured an ascendancy which lasted till the beginning of 1141. Robert participated in his brother's political coup against the king's justiciar, Roger of Salisbury (the Bishop of Salisbury ).

...
Family and children
He married after 1120 Amice de Montfort , daughter of Ralph, senior of Gael or Montfort . They had four children:
Hawise, who married William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester ;
Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester ;
Isabel, who married with:
Simon II of St Liz, 4th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton ;
Gervase Paynel of Dudley.
Margaret, who married Ralph V de Toeni

Literary references
He is a minor character in The Holy Thief, one of the Brother Cadfael series by Ellis Peters .

Notes
^ a b c Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 69

References
D. Crouch, The Beaumont Twins: the Roots and Branches of Power in the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1986).
D. Crouch, The Reign of King Stephen, 1135-1154 (London, 2000).
E. King, "Mountsorrel and its region in King Stephen's Reign", Huntington Library Quarterly, 44 (1980), 1-10.
Leicester Abbey, ed. J. Storey, J. Bourne and R. Buckley (Leicester, 2006).
Powicke, F. Maurice and E. B. Fryde Handbook of British Chronology 2nd. ed. London:Royal Historical Society 1961
British Library ms Royal E xxv.

Noted events in his life were:

• Knighted: 1122.

• Justiciar of England: 1155-1168.

Robert married Amice de Gael de Montfort,228 423 535 daughter of Ralph de Gael de Montfort and Unknown, after 1120. Amice was born about 1108 and died 31 Aug 1168 or 1169 about age 60. Other names for Amice were Amice de Gael, Amicia, and Amice de Montfort.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 281)

307. Gundred de Warenne 310 463 was born about 1117 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England, died after 1166 in Warwickshire, England, and was buried in Kelso, Roxburgh, Scotland. Another name for Gundred was Gundrada de Warenne.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey:

Gundrada de Warenne , who married first Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick , and second William, lord of Kendal , and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen 's garrison from Warwick Castle ;

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1166.

Gundred married Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick,426 427 son of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick and Margaret de Perche, before 1130. Roger was born about 1102 and died on 12 Jun 1153 about age 51.

Research Notes: Elder son of Henry de Beaumont.

From Wikipedia - Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick :

Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick (1102 - 12 June 1153 ), was the elder son of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick and Marguerite, daughter of Geoffrey II of Perche and Beatrix of Montdidier . He was also known as Roger de Newburg.

He was generally considered to have been a devout and pious man; a chronicle of the period, the Gesta Regis Stephani , speaks of him as a "man of gentle disposition". The borough of Warwick remembers him as the founder of the Hospital of S. Michael for lepers which he endowed with the tithes of Wedgnock , and other property; he also endowed the House of the Templars beyond the bridge. In the reign of Stephen he founded a priory dedicated to S. Kenned at Llangennilth, Co. Glamorgan and he attached it as a cell to the Abbey of S. Taurinus at Evreux in Normandy .


Family and children
He married 1130 Gundred de Warenne, daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Elizabeth de Vermandois and had children:
William de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Warwick .
Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick (1153 - 12 December 1204).
Henry de Beaumont, was Dean of Salisbury in 1205.
Agnes de Beaumont, married Geoffrey de Clinton, Chamberlain to the King and son of Geoffrey de Clinton , the founder of Kenilworth Castle and Priory.
Margaret de Beaumont.
Gundred de Beaumont (c.1135-1200), married:
Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk ;
Roger de Glanville.

Noted events in his life were:

• Crusader:

(Duplicate Line. See Person 287)

Gundred next married William I de Lancaster, 5th Baron of Kendal of Workington,310 565 son of Gilbert de Lancaster and Godith, after 1153. William was born about 1100 in <Kendal, Westmoreland, England> and died in 1170 about age 70. Another name for William was William de Lancaster.

Research Notes: Name of his first wife is unknown. His second wife was Gundred de Warenne, widow of Roger de Beaumont.

Noted events in his life were:

• Castellan: of William Fitz Duncan's castle of Egremont, 1138.

• Governor: of Castle of Lancaster.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 377 F    i. Avice de Lancaster 310 566 was born about 1155 in Cumberland, England and died on 1 Jan 1191 about age 36.

308. William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne 464 was born in 1118 and died in 1148 at age 30.

Research Notes: First husband of Ela (Talvas).

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :
In her second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.

William married Ela Talvas, of Alençon and Ponthieu,361 514 515 daughter of William III Talvas, Count of Alençon & Ponthieu and Hélie, of Burgundy,. Ela was born about 1124 in <Alençon, Normandy>, France, died on 10 Oct 1174 in Bradenstoke Priory, Bradenstoke, Wiltshire, England about age 50, and was buried on 4 Dec 1174. Other names for Ela were Adela Talvaise and Ida Talvaise.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 378 F    i. Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey 567 died on 13 Jul 1199.

309. Ada de Warenne 266 462 465 died about 1178. Another name for Ada was Adeline de Warren.

Research Notes: Widow of Conale Petit, Earl of Brittany and Richmond. Sister of William the Lion, King of Scots.

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.

Ada married Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon,462 568 son of David I "The Saint", King of Scots and Maud, of Huntingdon, in 1139. Henry was born in 1114 and died on 12 Jun 1152 at age 38. Another name for Henry was Henry Prince of Scotland.

Research Notes: Eldest son of David I, King of Scots.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 170-23


The child from this marriage was:

+ 379 F    i. Margaret, of Huntingdon 569 died in 1201.

312. Ermengarde, de Nevers 361 467 was born about 1073 in <Courtenay, Loiret>, France and died in 1095 in France about age 22.

Ermengarde married Milo, Sire de Courtenay,361 570 son of Jocelin de Courtenay and Isabel de Montlhéry, about 1095 in France. Milo was born about 1075 in <Courtenay, Loiret>, France, died after 1127, and was buried in Abbey of Fontain Jean, France. Other names for Milo were Miles Sire de Courtenay, Miles de Courtenay, and Milo de Courtenay.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1069


The child from this marriage was:

+ 380 M    i. Renaud de Courtenay, Sire de Courtenay 361 571 was born about 1125 in <Courtenay, Loiret>, France and died about 1190 about age 65.

313. Stephen, of Blois, King of England 470 471 was born about 1096 in Blois, Loire-et-Cher, France, died on 25 Oct 1154 in Dover Priory, Dover, England about age 58, and was buried in Faversham Abbey. Another name for Stephen was Stephen of England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Stephen of England :

Stephen often known as Stephen of Blois (c. 1096 - 25 October 1154) was a grandson of William the Conqueror . He was the last Norman King of England , from 1135 to his death, and also the Count of Boulogne jure uxoris . His reign was marked by civil war with his rival the Empress Matilda and general chaos, known as The Anarchy . He was succeeded by Matilda's son, Henry II , the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet kings.

Early life
Stephen was born at Blois in France, son of Stephen , Count of Blois , and Adela of England, (daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders ). One of ten children, his surviving brothers were Count Theobald II of Champagne , Henry of Blois , Bishop of Winchester , and William of Sully . He also had four sisters, including Eléonore of Blois .

Stephen was sent to be raised at the English court of his uncle, King Henry I , in 1106. He became Count of Mortain in about 1115, and married Matilda , daughter of the Count of Boulogne , in about 1125, who became Countess of Boulogne. Their marriage was a happy one and his wife was an important supporter during the struggle for the English crown. Stephen became joint ruler of Boulogne in 1128.

Reign

King of England
There were several principal contenders for the succession to Henry I . The least popular was the Empress Matilda , Henry I's only legitimate surviving child, not simply because she was a woman, but because her husband Geoffrey, Count of Anjou was an enemy of the Normans . The other contenders were Robert, Earl of Gloucester , illegitimate son of Henry I, Stephen, and Stephen's older brother, Theobald, Count of Blois . However, Theobald did not want the kingdom, at least not enough to fight for it.[1] Before his death in 1135, Henry I named his daughter Matilda his heir and made the barons of England swear allegiance to her. Stephen was the first baron to do so. However, upon King Henry's death, Stephen claimed the throne, saying Henry had changed his mind on his deathbed and named Stephen as his heir. Once crowned, Stephen gained the support of the majority of the barons as well as Pope Innocent II and the first few years of his reign were peaceful, notwithstanding insurgences by the Welsh, King David I of Scotland , and Baldwin de Redvers.

The Anarchy: War with Matilda
By 1139, Stephen had lost much support and the country sank into a civil war , commonly called The Anarchy . Stephen faced the forces of Empress Matilda at several locations including the Battle of Beverston Castle and the Battle of Lincoln . Bad omens haunted him before the Battle of Lincoln where Stephen faced Matilda's illegitimate brother Robert and Ranulph, Earl of Chester . According to chroniclers, Stephen fought bravely but was captured by a knight named William de Cahaignes (a relative of Ranulph, ancestor of the Keynes family ). Stephen was defeated and brought before his cousin Matilda. He was imprisoned at Bristol .

Stephen's wife rallied support amongst the people from London and the barons. Matilda was, in turn, forced out of London. With the capture of her most able lieutenant, her half-brother the Earl of Gloucester, she was obliged to trade Stephen for him, and Stephen was restored to the throne in November the same year.

In December 1142, the Empress was besieged at Oxford , but managed to escape, dressed in white, across the snow to Wallingford Castle , held by her supporter Brien FitzCount .

In 1147, Empress Matilda's teenage son, the future King Henry II of England , decided to assist in the war effort by raising a small army of mercenaries and invading England. Rumours of this army's size terrified Stephen's retainers, although in truth the force was very small. Having been defeated twice in battle, and with no money to pay his mercenaries, young Henry appealed to his uncle Robert for aid but was turned away. Desperately, and in secret, the boy asked Stephen for help. According to the Gesta Stephani , "On receiving the message, the king...hearkened to the young man..." and bestowed upon him money and other support.

Reconciliation and death
Stephen maintained his precarious hold on the throne for the remainder of his lifetime. However, after a military standoff at Wallingford with Henry, and following the death of his son and heir, Eustace , in 1153, he was persuaded to reach a compromise with Matilda (known as the Treaty of Wallingford or Winchester), whereby Stephen's son William of Blois would be passed over for the English throne, and instead Matilda's son Henry would succeed Stephen.

Stephen died in Dover , at Dover Priory , and was buried in Faversham Abbey , which he had founded with Countess Matilda in 1148.

Besides Eustace, Stephen and Queen Matilda had two other sons, Baldwin (d. before 1135), and William of Blois (Count of Mortain and Boulogne, and Earl of Surrey or Warenne). They also had two daughters, Matilda and Marie of Boulogne . In addition to these children, Stephen fathered at least three illegitimate children , one of whom, Gervase, became Abbot of Westminster .

English royal descendants
Philippa of Hainault , the wife of Edward III , was a descendant of Stephen, and he was thus ancestor of all subsequent kings of England.[3]

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Mortain: 1115-1154.

• King of England: 1135-1154.

Stephen married Matilda, of Boulogne,404 405 daughter of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and Lens and Mary, of Scotland, about 1119. Matilda was born about 1105 in Boulogne, France, died on 3 Jul 1151 in Hedingham Castle about age 46, and was buried in Faversham Abbey. Other names for Matilda were Matilda I of Boulogne and Maud of Boulogne.

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. 3 May 1152.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Matilda of Boulogne :

Matilda I or Maud (1105? - 3 May, 1152), was suo jure Countess of Boulogne . She was also wife of King Stephen of England and Queen of England .

History
She was born in Boulogne , France , the daughter of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and his wife Mary of Scotland, daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Matilda was first cousin of her husband's rival, Empress Matilda . Through her maternal grandmother, Matilda was descended from the pre-Conquest English kings.

In 1125, Matilda married Stephen of Blois , Count of Mortain, who possessed a large honour in England. When Matilda's father abdicated and retired to a monastery the same year, this was joined with Boulogne and the similarly large English honour Matilda inherited. On Eustace III's death, Matilda and her husband became joint rulers of Boulogne. Two children, a son and a daughter, were born to the Countess and Count of Boulogne during the reign of King Henry I , who had granted Stephen and Matilda a residence in London. [1] The son was named Baldwin, after Matilda's uncle, King Baldwin I of Jerusalem . [2] The daughter was named Matilda. Baldwin died in early childhood and the young Matilda is thought to have died during childhood too, although some scholars state that she lived long enough to be espoused to the count of Milan. [3]

On the death of Henry I of England in 1135, Stephen rushed to England, taking advantage of Boulogne's control of the closest seaports, and was crowned king, beating his rival, the Empress Matilda . Matilda was heavily pregnant at that time and crossed the Channel after gaving birth to a son, Eustace , who would one day succeed her as Count of Boulogne. Matilda was crowned queen at Easter - March 22, 1136. [4]

In the civil war that followed, known as the Anarchy , Matilda proved to be her husband's strongest supporter. After he was captured at the Battle of Lincoln she rallied the king's partisans, and raised an army with the help of William of Ypres . Empress Matilda was besieging Stephen's brother Henry of Blois , but she, in turn, besieged the Empress, driving her away and capturing the Empress's brother, Robert of Gloucester .

Around 1125, her father died and she succeeded as Countess of Boulogne. She ruled this area jointly with her husband until 1150, when she reigned alone until 1151, when the County was given to her eldest son Eustace, then her surviving son William inherited it, and then her daughter Marie.

Matilda died of a fever at Hedingham Castle , Essex , England and is buried at Faversham Abbey , which was founded by her and her husband. [5]

Issue
Stephen and Matilda had three sons:
Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne
Baldwin of Boulogne (d. before 1135)
William of Blois , Count of Mortain and Boulogne and Earl of Surrey
They also had two daughters:
Matilda of Boulogne
Marie of Boulogne

(Duplicate Line. See Person 264)

314. Lithuaise .472

Research Notes: Sister of Stephen of Blois, King of England.

Lithuaise married Milon I "le Grand", Seigneur Montlhéry and de Bray.472

The child from this marriage was:

+ 381 F    i. Isabel de Montlhéry, Viscomtessa de Troyes .472

315. EmpressMatilda, Countess of Anjou 473 474 was born about 7 Feb 1102 and died on 10 Sep 1167 about age 65. Other names for Matilda were Mathilda of England, Empress Maud Countess of Anjou, and Maude of England.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots Line 1-23 has b. abt. 1102-1104; Line 118-25 has b. 1104.
Some other source has b. Feb 1101

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Empress Matilda :

Empress Matilda, also known as Matilda of England or Maude (c. 7 February 1102 - 10 September 1167) was the daughter and heir of King Henry I of England . Matilda and her younger brother, William Adelin , were the only legitimate children of King Henry. Her brother died young in the White ship disaster , leaving Matilda as the last heir from the paternal line of her grandfather William the Conqueror .

As a child, Matilda was betrothed and later married to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . From her marriage to Henry, she acquired the title Empress. The couple had no known children. When widowed, she was married to the much younger Geoffrey of Anjou , by whom she became the mother of three sons, the eldest of whom became King Henry II of England .

Matilda was the first female ruler of the Kingdom of England . However the length of her effective rule was quite brief - a few months in 1141 - and she was never crowned and failed to consolidate her rule (legally and politically). Because of this she is normally excluded from lists of English monarchs, and her rival (and cousin) Stephen of Blois is routinely listed as monarch for the period 1135-1154. Their warring rivalry for the throne led to years of unrest and civil war in England that have been called The Anarchy . She did secure her inheritance of the Duchy of Normandy - through the military feats of her husband Geoffrey - and she campaigned unstintingly for her oldest son's inheritance, living to see him ascend the throne in 1154.

(In Latin texts Matilda was sometimes called Maude . This is a modernised spelling of the Norman-French form of her name, Mahaut.)

Early life
Matilda was the firstborn of two children to Henry I of England and his wife Matilda of Scotland (also known as Edith). Her maternal grandparents were Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Margaret was daughter of Edward the Exile and granddaughter of Edmund II of England . (Most historians believe Matilda was born at Winchester , but one, John Fletcher (1990), argues for the possibility of the royal palace at Sutton Courtenay in Oxfordshire .)

First marriage: Holy Roman Empress
When she was seven years old, Matilda was betrothed to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor ; at nine, she was sent to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) to begin training for the life of Empress consort . The royal couple were married at Worms on January 7, 1114, and Matilda accompanied her husband on tours to Rome and Tuscany . After time, the young wife of the Emperor acted as regent , mainly in Italy, in his absence[1]. Emperor Henry died in 1125. The imperial couple had no surviving offspring, but Herman of Tournai states that Matilda bore a son who lived only a short while.

Despite being popularly known by the title "Empress " from her first marriage, Matilda's right to the title was dubious. She was never crowned Holy Roman Empress by a legitimate Pope - which ceremony was normally required to achieve the title; indeed, in later years she encouraged chroniclers to believe she had been crowned by the Pope. Contemporary, she was called German Queen by her husband's bishops, while her formal title was recorded as "Queen of the Romans". Still, "Empress" was arguably an appropriate courtesy title for the wife of an Emperor who had been crowned by the Pope.

In 1120 her brother William Adelin was drowned in the disastrous wreck of the White Ship , which left Matilda as the only legitimate child of her father King Henry . Like Matilda, her cousin Stephen of Blois was a grandchild of William (the Conqueror) of Normandy ; but her paternal line made her senior in right of succession to his maternal line.

Second marriage: Countess of Anjou
Matilda returned to England a young widow, age 23, and dowager "Empress" - a status of considerable pride to her. There Henry named her his heir to both the English throne and his Duchy of Normandy . Henry saw to it that the Anglo-Norman barons (including Stephen of Blois ) were sworn (several times) to accept Matilda as ruler if Henry died without a male heir.

Henry then arranged a second marriage for Matilda; as he aimed to achieve peace between the fractious barons of Normandy and Anjou. On 17 June 1128, Matilda, aged 26, was married to Geoffrey of Anjou , aged 15, who also was Count of Maine and heir apparent to (his father) the Count of Anjou - which title he soon acquired, and by which Matilda became Countess of Anjou. It was a title she rarely used. Geoffrey called himself "Plantagenet " from the broom flower (planta genista) he adopted as his personal emblem. So Plantagenet became the dynastic name of that powerful line of English kings who descended from Matilda and Geoffrey.

Matilda's marriage with Geoffrey was troubled; there were frequent long separations, but they had three sons and she survived him. The eldest son, Henry , was born on 5 March 1133. In 1134, she nearly died in childbirth, following the birth of her second son, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes . A third son, William X, Count of Poitou , was born in 1136.

When her father died in Normandy, on 1 December 1135, Matilda was with her husband, in Anjou ; and, crucially, too far away from events rapidly unfolding in England and Normandy. Stephen of Blois rushed to England upon learning of Henry's death; in London he moved quickly to grasp the crown of England from its appointed heir.

But Matilda was game to contest Stephen in both realms; she and her husband Geoffrey entered Normandy and began military campaigns to claim her inheritance. Progress was uneven at first, but she persevered; even so, it was not until 1139 that Matilda felt secure enough in Normandy to turn her attentions to invading England and fighting Stephen directly.
In Normandy, Geoffrey secured all fiefdoms west and south of the Seine by 1143; in January 1144, he crossed the Seine and took Rouen without resistance. He assumed the title Duke of Normandy , and Matilda became Duchess of Normandy. Geoffrey and Matilda held the duchy conjointly until 1149, then ceded it to their son, Henry, which event was soon ratified by King Louis VII of France .

Struggle for throne of England
On the death of her father, Henry I, in 1135, Matilda expected to succeed to the throne of England , but her cousin, Stephen of Blois , a nephew of Henry I, usurped the throne with the support of most of the barons, breaking the oath he had previously made to defend her rights. The civil war which followed was bitter and prolonged, with neither side gaining the ascendancy for long, but it was not until 1139 that Matilda could command the military strength necessary to challenge Stephen within his own realm. Stephen's wife, the Countess of Boulogne who was also named Matilda , was the Empress's maternal cousin. During the war, Matilda's most loyal and capable supporter was her illegitimate half-brother, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester .

Matilda's greatest triumph came in April 1141, when her forces defeated and captured King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln . He was made a prisoner and effectively deposed.

Her advantage lasted only a few months. When she marched on London , the city was ready to welcome her and support her coronation . She used the title of Lady of the English and planned to assume the title of queen upon coronation (the custom which was followed by her grandsons, Richard and John ).[2] However, she refused the citizens' request to have their taxes halved and, because of her own arrogance [2], she found the gates of London shut and the civil war reignited on 24 June 1141. By November, Stephen was free, having been exchanged for the captured Robert of Gloucester, and a year later, the tables were turned when Matilda was besieged at Oxford but escaped to Wallingford , supposedly by fleeing across the snow-covered land in a white cape. In 1141 she had escaped Devizes in a similarly clever manner, by disguising herself as a corpse and being carried out for burial. In 1148, Matilda and Henry returned to Normandy , following the death of Robert of Gloucester, and the reconquest of that county by her husband. Upon their arrival, Geoffrey turned Normandy over to his son, and retired to his own county of Anjou .

Later life
Matilda's first son, Henry , was showing signs of becoming a successful leader. Although the civil war had been decided in Stephen's favour, his reign was troubled. In 1153, the death of his son Eustace, combined with the arrival of a military expedition led by Henry, led him to acknowledge the latter as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford .

Matilda retired to Rouen in Normandy during her last years, where she maintained her own court and presided over the government of the duchy in the absence of Henry. She intervened in the quarrels between her eldest son Henry and her second son Geoffrey, but peace between the brothers was brief. Geoffrey rebelled against Henry twice before his sudden death in 1158. Relations between Henry and his youngest brother, William X, Count of Poitou , were more cordial, and William was given vast estates in England. Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the Countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Matilda's court at Rouen. William, who was his mother's favourite child, died there in January 1164, reportedly of disappointment and sorrow. She attempted to mediate in the quarrel between her son Henry and Becket, but was unsuccessful.

Although she gave up hope of being crowned in 1141, her name always preceded that of her son Henry, even after he became king. Matilda died at Notre Dame du Pré near Rouen and was buried in the Abbey church of Bec-Hellouin, Normandy. Her body was transferred to the Rouen Cathedral in 1847; her epitaph reads: "Great by Birth, Greater by Marriage, Greatest in her Offspring: Here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry."

Matilda married Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, son of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Bertha, of Savoy, on 7 Jan 1114 in Worms, (Rhine-Palatinate, Germany). Henry was born on 8 Jan 1086 and died on 23 May 1125 at age 39.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Bertha of Savoy

Matilda next married Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy,457 458 459 son of Fulk V "the Young", Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem and Erembourg, Countess of Maine, on 22 May 1128 in Le Mans, France. Geoffrey was born on 24 Aug 1113 in Anjou, France, died on 7 Sep 1151 at age 38, and was buried in Le Mans, France. Other names for Geoffrey were Geoffrey V Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and Geoffrey 'the Fair' Plantagenet Count of Anjou.

Marriage Notes: Marriage date may have been 3 April 1127 (Ancestral Roots Line 1-23). Line 118-25 (Geoffrey V) has m. 22 May 1127.

Research Notes: Second husband of Matilda.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871913 :
'The Fair' Count of Anjou (1129-1151); founder of the Plantagenet dynasty. Geoffey's nickname derived from his physical appearance - he was said to be tall, handsome, graceful and strong. He was also known as Geoffrey Plantagenet, appearantly from the sprig of broom (genet) he wore in his hat. In 1127, aged 14, he was married to Matilda, daughter and heiress of Henry I of England and the widow of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. They disliked each other, but maintained an uneasy political alliance and produces three sons, Henry (the future Henry II of England), Geoffrey and William. An illegitimate son, Hamelin became the Duke of Salisbury. Geoffrey spent much of his youth imposing order on his unruly vassals, including his own brother Helias II, Count of Maine, who rebelled against him in 1131; Geoffrey captured Helias and held him prisoner in Tours, Helias died soon after his release from a disease contracted in prison. In 1135 Henry I of England died, and Matilda's cousin Stephen of Blois (RIN # 1643) seized the English throne, together with Normandy, traditionally coveted by the counts of Anjou. Geoffrey laid claim to the duchy in his wife's right. Between 1135-1138 Geoffrey launched four expeditions into Normandy, none of which achieved great success. The expedition in 1137 was striken by dysentery, and forced to return swiftly to Anjou. In 1139 Matilda invaded England, seeking to press her claim to the English throne, and Geoffrey remained in Anjou to continue the war against Normandy. The Morman barons opposed Geoffrey, not through loyalty to Stephen, who had only visited Normandy once, but out of hatred of their traditional enemy, Anjou. However, Norman morale was weakened when Matilda captured Stephen at Lincoln in 1141, and many castles surrendered to Geoffrey, leaving him in control of most of the lands between Bayeux and the Seine. In 1142 he took the Avranchin and Mortain, and in 1143 moved east of the Seine, overunning the Cotentin. He was invested as Duke of Normandy in 144 after the fall of Rouen, and Arques, the last castle opposing him, capitulated in 1145, leaving him unchallenged master of Normandy. After the conquest of Normandy, Geoffrey joined Louis VII of France in the abortive Second Crusade (1147-9), returning in 1149. In 1150 he ceded Normandy to his son Henry, who also inhereted the family claim to the English throne. Geoffrey died in 1151, and was buried in Le Mans Cathedral; founder of a great dynasty of kings through his son, Henry II of England. For more on the Second Crusade, see RIN # 1618.
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 38-63,80,102,140,154

----

From Wikipedia - Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou :

Geoffrey (24 August 1113 - 7 September 1151), called the Handsome (French : le Bel) and Plantagenet, was the Count of Anjou , Touraine , and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. By his marriage to the Empress Matilda , daughter and heiress of Henry I of England , Geoffrey had a son, Henry Curtmantle , who succeeded to the English throne and founded the Plantagenet dynasty to which Geoffrey gave his nickname.

Biography
Geoffrey was the elder son of Fulk V of Anjou and Eremburga of La Flèche , heiress of Elias I of Maine . Geoffrey received his nickname for the yellow sprig of broom blossom (genêt is the French name for the genista, or broom shrub) he wore in his hat as a badge. King Henry I of England, having heard good reports on Geoffrey's talents and prowess, sent his royal legates to Anjou to negotiate a marriage between Geoffrey and his own daughter, Matilda. Consent was obtained from both parties, and on 10 June 1128 the fifteen-year-old Geoffrey was knighted in Rouen by King Henry in preparation for the wedding. Interestingly, there was no opposition to the marriage from the Church, despite the fact that Geoffrey's sister was the widow of Matilda's brother (only son of King Henry) which fact had been used to annul the marriage of another of Geoffrey's sisters to the Norman pretender William Clito .

On 17 June 1128 Geoffrey married Empress Matilda, the daughter and heiress of King Henry I of England by his first wife Edith of Scotland , and widow of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . The marriage was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, very proud of her status as an Empress (as opposed to being a mere Countess). Their marriage was a stormy one with frequent long separations, but she bore him three sons and survived him.

The year after the marriage Geoffrey's father left for Jerusalem (where he was to become king ), leaving Geoffrey behind as count of Anjou. John of Marmoutier describes Geoffrey as handsome, red-headed, jovial, and a great warrior; however, Ralph of Diceto alleges that his charm concealed his cold and selfish character.

When King Henry I died in 1135, Matilda at once entered Normandy to claim her inheritance. The border districts submitted to her, but England chose her cousin Stephen of Blois for its king, and Normandy soon followed suit. The following year, Geoffrey gave Ambrieres, Gorron, and Chatilon-sur-Colmont to Juhel de Mayenne, on condition that he help obtain the inheritance of Geoffrey's wife. In 1139 Matilda landed in England with 140 knights, where she was besieged at Arundel Castle by King Stephen. In the "Anarchy" which ensued, Stephen was captured at Lincoln in February, 1141, and imprisoned at Bristol. A legatine council of the English church held at Winchester in April 1141 declared Stephen deposed and proclaimed Matilda "Lady of the English". Stephen was subsequently released from prison and had himself recrowned on the anniversary of his first coronation.

During 1142 and 1143, Geoffrey secured all of Normandy west and south of the Seine, and, on 14 January 1144, he crossed the Seine and entered Rouen. He assumed the title of Duke of Normandy in the summer of 1144. In 1144, he founded an Augustine priory at Chateau-l'Ermitage in Anjou. Geoffrey held the duchy until 1149, when he and Matilda conjointly ceded it to their son, Henry, which cession was formally ratified by King Louis VII of France the following year.

Geoffrey also put down three baronial rebellions in Anjou, in 1129, 1135, and 1145-1151. He was often at odds with his younger brother, Elias , whom he had imprisoned until 1151. The threat of rebellion slowed his progress in Normandy, and is one reason he could not intervene in England. In 1153, the Treaty of Westminster allowed Stephen should remain King of England for life and that Henry, the son of Geoffrey and Matilda should succeed him.

Geoffrey died suddenly on September 7, 1151. According to John of Marmoutier, Geoffrey was returning from a royal council when he was stricken with fever. He arrived at Château-du-Loir , collapsed on a couch, made bequests of gifts and charities, and died. He was buried at St. Julien's Cathedral in Le Mans France. Geoffrey and Matilda's children were:
Henry II of England (1133-1189)
Geoffrey, Count of Nantes (1 June 1134 Rouen - 26 July 1158 Nantes ) died unmarried and was buried in Nantes
William X, Count of Poitou (1136-1164) died unmarried

Geoffrey also had illegitimate children by an unknown mistress (or mistresses): Hamelin ; Emme, who married Dafydd Ab Owain Gwynedd , Prince of North Wales ; and Mary, who became a nun and Abbess of Shaftesbury and who may be the poetess Marie de France . Adelaide of Angers is sometimes sourced as being the mother of Hamelin.

The first reference to Norman heraldry was in 1128, when Henry I of England knighted his son-in-law Geoffrey and granted him a badge of gold lions (or leopards ) on a blue background. (A gold lion may already have been Henry's own badge.) Henry II used two gold lions and two lions on a red background are still part of the arms of Normandy. Henry's son, Richard I , added a third lion to distinguish the arms of England.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine: 1129-1151.

• Duke of Normandy: 1144-1151.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 305)

317. Maud, Princess of England 334 was born about 1091 in England.

Research Notes: Illegitimate daughter of Henry I.

Maud married Conan III "le Gros", Duke of Bretagne,334 son of Alan IV Fergent and Hermengarde, Countess of Bretagne, in Mar 1113 in England. Conan was born about 1096 in <Bretagne, France> and died on 17 Sep 1148 about age 52.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 382 F    i. Constance, Princess of Bretagne 334 was born about 1118 in <Bretagne, France>.

318. Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester 476 477 478 was born about 1090 in <Caen, Normandy, France>, died on 31 Oct 1147 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, England about age 57, and was buried in St. James Priory, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England. Other names for Robert were Robert "the King's son" de Caen Earl of Gloucester, Robert de Caen "the Consul and" Earl of Glouchester.

Research Notes: Natural son of Henry I. Half-brother of Empress Matilda.

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 123-26:
"ROBERT DE CAEN, Earl of Gloucester, 1122-1147 (natural son of Henry I, prob. by a NN dau. of the Gay or Gayt family of N. Oxfordshire... b. abt 1090, d. Bristol, 31 Oct. 1147, called 'the Consul'; m. Maud Fitz Hamon, dau. and h. of Robert Fitz Hamon, d. 1107, seigneur of Crelly in Calvados, Normandy, Lord of Thoringni, etc., and Sybil de Montgomery, dau. of Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury."

Also line 63-26 (Hawise de Beaumont)
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From Wikipedia - Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester :

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090 - October 31 , 1147 ) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England , and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy . He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'.

Early life
Robert was the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born well before his father's accession to the English throne, probably in the late 1080s, as he had himself had a son by 1104. There are numerous references noting him to have been the son of Sybil Corbet , heiress to Robert Corbet, Lord of Alcester, whose family had land in both England and Normandy. He was born in Caen, Normandy and was the first of several children between Henry and his Mistress Sybil Corbet. [1]

Robert was acknowledged at birth, though in view of the vicissitudes of his father's career between 1087 and 1096 it is unlikely he was raised in his household. He was educated to a high standard, was literate in Latin and had a serious interest in both history and philosophy, which indicates that he was at least partly raised in a clerical household, a suggestion made all the more likely as his first known child, born around 1104, was born to a daughter of Samson, Bishop of Worcester (died 1112) who up till 1096 had been a Royal Chaplain and Treasurer of Bayeux . It may be significant that his next brother Richard was brought up in an episcopal household, that of Robert Bloet , bishop of Lincoln . Robert later received dedications from both Geoffrey of Monmouth and William of Malmesbury . William's 'Historia Novella' contains a flattering portrait of the Earl.

Robert appears at court in Normandy in 1113, and in 1107 he had married Mabel, eldest daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon , who brought him the substantial honour of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully . In 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester . Through his marriage to Mabel he became second Lord of Glamorgan, and gained possession of Cardiff Castle , and was responsible for the building of the stone keep there, which remains as the best preserved Norman shell keep in Wales, and one of the best in the British Isles. Robert had considerable authority and autonomy, to the extent that he even minted his own coinage, today preserved in the British Museum .

Family and children
He married, around 1107, Mabel FitzHamon of Gloucester (died 1156), daughter of Robert Fitzhamon and Sibyl de Montgomery . Their children were:
William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester , died 1183. He married Hawise (died 1197) daughter of Robert II, Earl of Leicester.
Roger , Bishop of Worcester , (died 9 August 1179 , Tours ).
Hamon, killed at the siege of Toulouse in 1159.
Robert. (died before 1157) Also called Robert of Ilchester in documents. He married Hawise, (died after 1210) daughter of Baldwin de Redvers and Adeliz. Their daughter Mabel married Jordan de Cambernon .
Maud , (died 1190), wife of Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester .
Philip, Castellan of Cricklade , (died after 1147). He took part in the Second Crusade .

Earl Robert had an illegitimate son, Richard, bishop of Bayeux (1135-1142), by Isabel de Douvres , sister of Richard de Douvres , bishop of Bayeux (1107-1133).

Noted events in his life were:

• 2nd Lord of Glamorgan: by right of his wife

• Created: 1st Earl of Gloucester, Aug 1122.

Robert married Mabel FitzHamon, of Gloucester,477 572 573 daughter of Robert FitzHamon, Sieur de Creully and Sybil Montgomery, in 1107. Mabel was born in 1090 in Gloucestershire, England and died on 29 Sep 1157 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, England at age 67. Other names for Mabel were Maud FitzHammon and Maud FitzHamon.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 63-26 (Hawise de Beaumont)
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From Wikipedia - Mabel FitzHamon of Gloucester :

Mabel FitzHamon of Gloucester, Countess of Gloucester (1090- 29 September 1157[1]), was an Anglo-Norman noblewoman, and a wealthy heiress who brought the lordship of Gloucester , among other prestigious honours to her husband, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester upon their marriage. He was the illegitimate son of King Henry I of England . Her father was Robert Fitzhamon , Lord of Gloucester and Glamorgan . As she was the eldest daughter of four, and her younger sisters had become nuns, Mabel inherited all of his honours and properties upon his death in 1107.


Family
Mabel was born in Gloucestershire , England in 1090, the eldest of the three daughters of Robert FitzHamon, Lord of Glamorgan, and Gloucester, and his wife, Sybil de Montgomery. Her three younger sisters, Hawise, Cecile and Amice[2] all became nuns, making Mabel the sole heiress to her father's lordships and vast estates in England, Wales, and Normandy.

Her paternal grandfather was Hamon, Sheriff of Kent . Her maternal grandparents were Roger de Montgomery, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Mabel Talvas of Belleme.

In March 1107, her father died in Normandy , leaving his lordships and estates to Mabel. Her mother married secondly Jean, Sire de Raimes.[3]



Marriage and children
In 1107, Mabel married Robert of Caen, an illegitimate son of King Henry I by his mistress Sybil Corbet. Their marriage is recorded by Orderic Vitalis who also names her parents.[4] He would later become an important figure during the turbulent period in English history known as The Anarchy which occurred in the reign of King Stephen of England . Throughout the civil war , he was a loyal supporter of his half-sister Empress Matilda who would make him the chief commander of her army. He had originally sworn fealty to King Stephen, but after quarrelling with him in 1137, his English and Welsh possessions were forfeited, and thus he joined forces with Matilda.[5]

Mabel brought to her husband, the honours of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales, Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe, Evrecy and Creully in Normandy. By right of his wife, he became the 2nd Lord of Glamorgan, and gained possession of her father's castle of Cardiff in Wales. In August 1122, he was created 1st Earl of Gloucester; henceforth, Mabel was styled as Countess of Gloucester.

Together Robert and Mabel had at least eight children:

William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester (23 November 1112- 23 November 1183), married Hawise de Beaumont by whom he had five children, including Isabella of Gloucester , the first wife of King John of England , and Amice FitzRobert, Countess of Gloucester.
Roger, Bishop of Worcester (died 9 August 1179)
Hamon FitzRobert, (died 1159), killed in the Siege of Toulouse.
Robert FitzRobert of Ilchester (died before 1157), married Hawise de Redvers, by whom he had a daughter Mabel who in her turn married Jordan de Cambernon.
Richard FitzRobert, Sire de Creully (died 1175), inherited the seigneury of Creully from Mabel, and became the ancestor of the Sires de Creully. He married the daughter of Hughes de Montfort by whom he had five children.
Philip FitzRobert, (died after 1147), Castellan of Cricklade . He took part in the Second Crusade .
Maud FitzRobert (died 29 July 1190), married Ranulf de Gernon , 4th Earl of Chester by whom she had three children.
Mabel FitzRobert, married Aubrey de Vere

Robert also sired an illegitimate son, Richard, Bishop of Bayeux by Isabel de Douvres.

Mabel's husband died on 31 October 1147. Mabel herself died on 29 September 1157 in Bristol at the age of sixty-seven years.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 383 F    i. Maud FitzRobert, of Gloucester 477 574 575 was born about 1120 in Glouchestershire, England and died on 29 Jul 1190 in Chester, Cheshire, England about age 70.

+ 384 M    ii. William FitzRobert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester was born about 1128 and died on 23 Nov 1183 about age 55.

Robert next married Elizabeth.

Research Notes: Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Robert next married Maud.

Research Notes: Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

319. Elizabeth, Princess of England 92 480 was born about 1095 in <Talby, Yorkshire, England>. Another name for Elizabeth was Isabel.

Research Notes: Probably the mother of Gunnild of Dunbar. Youngest illegitimate daughter of Henry I.

Elizabeth married Fergus, Lord of Galloway 92 576 in 1124 in Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland. Fergus was born about 1090 in <Galloway, Scotland>, died in 1161 in Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Edinburghshire, Scotland about age 71, and was buried on 12 May 1161 in Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Edinburghshire, Scotland.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 385 M    i. Uchtred, Lord of Galloway 92 576 was born about 1118 in <Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland> and died on 22 Sep 1174 about age 56.

320. Judith, of Bavaria was born in 1100 and died in 1130 at age 30.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 166-25.

Judith married Frederick II, of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia,577 578 son of Frederick I von Büren, of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Alsace and Swabia and Agnes, of Germany, in 1121. Frederick was born in 1090 and died on 6 Apr 1147 at age 57. Another name for Frederick was Frederick II Duke of Swabia.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 45-25.

From Wikipedia - Frederick II, Duke of Swabia :

Frederick II (1090 - 6 April 1147 ), called the One-Eyed, was the second Hohenstaufen duke of Swabia from 1105. He was the eldest son of Frederick I and Agnes .

He succeeded his father in 1105. In 1121 he married Judith of Bavaria, a member of the powerful House of Guelph . On the death of Emperor Henry V , his uncle, Frederick stood for election as King of the Romans with the support of his younger brother Conrad , duke of Franconia and several houses. However, he lost this election of 1125 to Lothar III , crowned Emperor later in 1133.

A conflict erupted between Frederick and his supporters, and Lothar. Encouraged by Albert, Archbishop of Mainz , who loathed the supporters of the late Emperor Henry V, Lothar besieged Nuremberg in 1127. Frederick relieved the siege of Nuremberg in 1127 and occupied Speyer in 1128. The attempt of Henry the Proud , duke of Bavaria, to capture Frederick during negotiations failed (1129). However, afterwards supporters of Lothar won a number of victories both in Germany and in Italy. Speyer (1129), Nuremberg (1130) and Ulm (1134) were captured and in October 1134 Frederick submitted to the emperor. In 1135 both Frederick and Conrad were finally reconciled with Lothar. After Lothar's death (1137) and election of Conrad as King of the Romans (1138) Frederick supported his brother in the struggle with Guelphs . According to Otto of Freising , Frederick was "so faithful a knight to his sovereign and so helpful a friend to his uncle that by valor he supported the tottering honor of the realm, fighting manfully against its foes..."

Frederick's second wife, Agnes, was the niece of his old enemy Albert of Mainz.

Children
With Judith of Bavaria (d. 1130 or 1131), daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria :
Frederick III Barbarossa (1122-1190), duke of Swabia and Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick I
Bertha (1123-1195), married Matthias I, Duke of Lorraine
With Agnes of Saarbrücken (d.~1147):
Conrad of Hohenstaufen (also called Konrad) (1134/1136-1195), Count Palatine of the Rhine
Judith (1135-1191), married Louis II, Landgrave of Thuringia


The child from this marriage was:

+ 386 M    i. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor was born in 1122, died on 10 Jun 1190 at age 68, and was buried in Holy Land.

321. Adélarde de Vignory 483 died after 1140. Another name for Adélarde was Hodiarde de Vignory.

Adélarde married Roger I de Joinville, Seigneur de Joinville, son of Geoffroi de Joinville, Seigneur de Joinville and Blanche, of Reynel,. Roger died after 1137.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 71A-26


The child from this marriage was:

+ 387 M    i. Geoffroi III de Joinville, Sénéchal of Champagne and of Bar-sur-Seine 579 was born before 1127 and died in 1188.


322. Afonso I, King of Portugal 484 485 was born on 25 Jul 1109 in Viseu, Viseu, Portugal, died on 6 Dec 1185 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal at age 76, and was buried in Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Other names for Afonso were Affonso I "the Conqueror" King of Portugal and the Algarves, Afonso Henriques King of Portugal, Alfonso I King of Portugal, and Henriquez I King of Portugal.

Research Notes: First king of Portugal.

From Wikipedia - Afonso I of Portugal :

Afonso I (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pronounced [?'fõsu ?'?ik??] ), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician ) or Alphonsus (Latin version), (Viseu , 1109 , traditionally July 25 - Coimbra , 1185 December 6 ), also known as the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal , declaring his independence from León .


Life
Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León , the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León . He was proclaimed King on July 26 , 1139 , immediately after the Battle of Ourique , and died on December 6 , 1185 in Coimbra .

At the end of the 11th century , the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista , the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Cordoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades , Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors . In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy , younger son of the Count of Burgundy , and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León , wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy , younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy . Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia , where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112 , under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120 , the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga , a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county , under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century . He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora , raised an army , and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães , at the Battle of São Mamede (1128 ) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia , making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León . Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of Castile and León , another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile . On April 6 , 1129 , Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

...In 1169 , Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse , and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum , Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Castilian attempts at annexation.

In 1184 , in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. He died shortly after, on December 6 , 1185 .

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation . There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge.



Afonso married Maud, of Savoy,25 509 510 daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy, Maurienne and Turin and Mathilde, Comtesse d'Albon, before Jun 1146 in Chambéry, Savoie, France. Maud was born in 1125 in <Chambéry, Savoie>, France, died on 4 Nov 1158 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal at age 33, and was buried in Igreja Santa Cruz, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Other names for Maud were Mafalda of Savoy, Mahaut of Savoy, Mathilda of Savoy, and Matilde Countess of Savoy.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 1157

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Maud of Savoy :

Maud of Savoy (1125 -1158 ), also known as Mafalda, Mahaut or Matilda (in Portuguese always as Mafalda),was the first queen of Portugal. She was Queen consort of Portugal through her marriage to King Afonso I of Portugal (of the House of Burgundy ; first king of Portugal ) in 1146 .
She was the second or third daughter of Amadeus III of Savoy , Count of Savoy and Maurienne , and Mahaut of Albon (the sister of Guigues IV, Comte d'Albon , "le Dauphin").


Afonso's and Maud descendants
Henrique (died 1147 ).
Mafalda, Princess of Portugal (1148 -c.1160 ).
Urraca, princess of Portugal (1151 -1188 ), married to King Ferdinand II of León .
Sancho I, King of Portugal (1154 -1212 ), married to Dulce Berenguer of Barcelona , Princess of Aragon (daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona and Queen Petronila of Aragon ).
Teresa, Princess of Portugal (1157 -1218 ), married to Philip I of Flanders and next to Eudes III of Burgundy .
João (?-?).
Sancha (?-?).


Children from this marriage were:

+ 388 F    i. Urraca, of Portugal 25 580 581 was born about 1150 in <Coimbra, Coimbra>, Portugal and died on 16 Oct 1188 in Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain about age 38.

+ 389 M    ii. Sancho I, King of Portugal was born on 11 Nov 1154 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal and died on 26 Mar 1212 in Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal at age 57.

323. Alberic I, Count of Dammartin 71 was born about 1110 in <Dammartin, Seine-et-Marne>, France and died in 1183 about age 73.

Alberic married Joan Basset 154 before 1150. Joan was born about 1114 in <Wellingford, Oxfordshire>, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 390 M    i. Albri de Luzarches, Count of Dammartin 71 582 was born about 1135 in <Dammartin, Seine-et-Marne>, France, died on 19 Sep 1200 in London, Middlesex, England about age 65, and was buried in Abbaye de Jumieges, Jumieges, Seine-Maritime, France.

324. Marguerite, de Turenne .

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A-25.

Marguerite married William IV Taillifer, Count of Angoulême,583 son of Wulgrin II, Count of Angoulême and Ponce de la Marche and Pontia de la Marche, about 1147. William died on 7 Aug 1179.

Research Notes: 3rd husband of Marguerite de Turenne.

From Wikipedia - William IV of Angoulême :

William IV of Angoulême, inherited the territory of Count of Angouleme from his father, Wulgrin II of Angoulême .

It is from him, that the territory was split between the three brothers all sons of William IV: Wulgrin III of Angoulême who was the eldest, William V of Angoulême and Aymer of Angoulême .

After the death of Aymer, the territory did not pass to Aymer's daughter, Isabella of Angouleme , Queen consort to John of England , but rather to the daughter of Wulgrim III, Mathilde of Angoulême , who had married Hugh IX of Lusignan , father of Hugh X of Lusignan .

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Angoulême: 1140-1179.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 391 M    i. Aymer Taillifer, de Valence, Count of Angoulême 584 was born about 1160 and died on 16 Jul 1202 about age 42.

+ 392 M    ii. Wulgrin III, Count of Angoulême .

325. Marguerite, de l'Aigle 486 487 died on 25 May 1141. Another name for Marguerite was Margaret de l'Aigle.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Marguerite de l'Aigle :

Marguerite de l'Aigle (d.1144) was a daughter of Gilbert de l'Aigle, Seigneur de l'Aigle and his wife Juliana du Perche . She was Queen consort of Navarre , by her marriage to García Ramírez of Navarre .

Family
Marguerite's paternal grandparents were Richer de l'Aigle, Seigneur de l'Aigle and his wife, Judith d'Avranches. Her maternal grandparents were Geoffrey II du Perche, Count of Perche and Mortagne, and his wife, Beatrix de Montdidier.
Marguerite had three siblings. These were two sisters, Lucy and Emmeline; and her brother was Richard II de L'Aigle, successor to their father, as Baron de l'Aigle.
Marguerite was a descendent of Hedwig of France , daughter of Hugh Capet . Marguerite was also a distant cousin of Felica of Roucy , second queen of Sancho Ramírez , King of Aragon .[1]

Queen of Navarre
Marguerite married in 1130 to García Ramírez of Navarre , shortly before his accession to the throne of Navarre .[2]
Marguerite was to bear García Ramírez a son and heir, Sancho VI , as well as two daughters who each married kings: the elder, Blanca , born after 1133, married Sancho III of Castile , while the younger, Margaret , named after her mother, married William I of Sicily . García's relationship with Marguerite was, however, unstable. She took many lovers and showed favouritism to her French relatives. She bore a second son named Rodrigo , whom her husband refused to recognise as his own. He was never acknowledged as a son by the Navarrese king, even after Marguerite's death, and he was widely considered a bastard, though his sister, Margaret did not treat him as such. He certainly never behaved as anything other than the son of a king.[3]
Marguerite died disgraced in 1144. Her husband later remarried, to Urraca, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII of Castile . [4]

Marguerite married Garcia VII, of Navarre 585 586 after 1130. Garcia died on 21 Nov 1150 in Lorca and was buried in Santa María la Real, Pamplona. Other names for Garcia were García VI "el Restaurador," Garcia VI "the Restorer" of Navarre, and García Ramírez of Navarre.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - García Ramírez of Navarre :

García Ramírez, sometimes García IV,V, VI or VII (died 21 November 1150 , Lorca ), called the Restorer (Spanish : el Restaurador), was Lord of Monzón and Logroño , and, from 1134, King of Navarre . He "restored" the independence of the Navarrese crown after 58 years of union with the Kingdom of Aragon .

Early years
García was born in the early twelfth century, the grandson of Rodrigo Díaz, better known as El Cid . His father was Ramiro Sánchez of Monzón , a son of Sancho Garcés , illegitimate son of García Sánchez III of Navarre and half-brother of Sancho IV . His mother was the Cid's daughter Cristina.

Rise to power
When Aragon, which had from 1076 been united to Navarre, lost its warrior king Alfonso the Battler and fell into a succession crisis in 1134, García managed to wrest Navarre from his Aragonese cousins. He was elected in Pamplona by the bishops and nobles of the realm against the will of Alfonso. That Alfonso, in drawing up a will, had ignored his distant relation (of an illegitimate line), is not unsurprising given the circumstances. Alfonso had nearer male kin in the form of his brother Ramiro . Besides that, since Alfonso seems to have disregarded Ramiro as well, the choice of an illegitimate descendant of Sancho the Great would undoubtedly have aroused the opposition of the Papacy to the succession.[1]


Ramiro did succeed Alfonso in Aragon, because the nobles refused to enact the late king's unusual will. His accession did raise protest from Rome and was not uncontested within Aragon, much less in Navarre, where García was the chosen candidate once the testament of Alfonso was laid aside. Rome does not seem to have opposed him, but neither does he seem to have had much support within Aragon, while Ramiro strongly objected to his election in Navarre. In light of this, the Bishop of Pamplona granted García his church's treasure to fund his government against Ramiro's pretensions.[2] Among Garcías other early supporters were Lop Ennechones, Martinus de Leit, and Count Latro, who carried out negotiations on the king's behalf with Ramiro.[3] Eventually, however, the two monarchs reached a mutual accord - the Pact of Vadoluongo - of "adoption" in January 1135: García was deemed the "son" and Ramiro the "father" in an attempt to maintain both the independence of each kingdom and the de facto supremacy of the Aragonese one.

In May 1135, García declared himself a vassal of Alfonso VII . This simultaneously put him under the protection and lordship of Castile and bought recognition of his royal status from Alfonso, who was a claimant to the Battler's succession.[4] García's submission to Castile has been seen as an act of protection for Navarre which had the consequence of putting her in an offensive alliance against Aragon, which thus forced Ramiro to marry, to forge an alliance with Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona and to produce an heir, now that García, his adoptive son, was out of the question.[5] On the other hand, García may have been responding to Ramiro's marriage, which proved beyond a doubt that the king of Aragon was seeking another heir than his distant relative and adopted son.[6]


Before September 1135, Alfonso VII granted García Zaragoza as a fief.[7] Recently conquered from Aragon, this outpost of Castilian authority in the east was clearly beyond the military capacity of Alfonso to control and provided further reasons for recognition of García in Navarre in return for not only his homage, but his holding Zaragoza on behalf of Castile. In 1136, Alfons was forced to do homage for Zaragoza to Ramiro and to recognise him as King of Zaragoza. In 1137, Zaragoza was surrendered to Raymond Berengar, though Alfonso retained suzerainty over it. By then, García's reign in Zaragoza had closed.

García's heirs
Sometime after 1130, but before his succession, García married Marguerite de l'Aigle . She was to bear him a son and successor, Sancho VI , as well as two daughters who each married kings: the elder, Blanca , born after 1133, married Sancho III of Castile , while the younger, Margaret , named after her mother, married William I of Sicily . García's relationship with his first queen was, however, shaky. She took on many lovers and showed favouritism to her French relatives. She bore a second son named Rodrigo , whom her husband refused to recognise as his own.[8] On 24 June 1144 , in León , García married Urraca , called "La Asturiana" (the Asturian), illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII by Guntroda Pérez , to strengthen his relationship with his overlord.

In 1136, García was obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile but, in 1137, he allied with Alfonso I of Portugal and confronted Alfonso VII. They confirmed a peace between 1139 and 1140. He was thereafter an ally of Castile in the Reconquista and was instrumental in the conquest of Almería in 1147. In 1146, he occupied Tauste , which belonged to Aragon, and Alfonso VII intervened to mediate a peace between the two kingdoms.

By his marriage to Urraca, García had also become a brother-in-law of Raymond Berengar IV, with whom he confirmed a peace treaty in 1149. The count was promised to García's daughter Blanca while already engaged to Petronilla of Aragon , but García died before the marriage could be carried out.

García died on 21 November 1150 in Lorca , near Estella , and was buried in the cathedral of Santa María la Real in Pamplona. He was succeeded by his eldest son. He left one daughter by Urraca: Sancha, who married Gaston V of Béarn . He left a widow in the person of his third wife, Ganfreda López.

García left, as the primary monument of his reign, the monastery of Santa María de la Oliva in Carcastillo . It is a fine example of Romanesque architecture .

Noted events in his life were:

• Lord of Monzón and Logroño:

• King of Navarre: 1134-1150.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 393 F    i. Blanca Garcés, of Navarre 587 588 was born after 1133, died on 12 Aug 1156, and was buried in Monastery of Santa Maria la Real of Najera.

326. Adeliza de Clare 492 493 494 was born between 1066 and 1080 in <Essex, England> and died about 1163 in <Clare, Suffolk, England>. Other names for Adeliza were Alice de Clare, Alice FitzRichard, Adeliza fitz Richard, and Alice fitz Richard.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1077, Essex, England.

Adeliza married Aubrey II de Vere, of Great Addington & Drayton,43 532 533 534 son of Aubrey I de Vere and Beatrice de Gand, about 1105. Aubrey was born about 1080 in <Hedingham, Essex, England>, died on 15 May 1141 in London, Middlesex, England about age 61, and was buried in Colne Priory, Earls Colne, Essex, England. Other names for Aubrey were Alberic de Ver, Albericus de Ver, and Alberic De Vere.

Birth Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019514.htm has b. 1062 in Hedingham, Essex, England.

Death Notes: Killed by a London mob

Research Notes: Aubrey II de Vere of Great Addington and Drayton, co. Northampton, Sheriff of London and Middlesex 1121, 1125, Justice and Master Chamberlain of England 1133.
----
From Wikipedia - Aubrey de Vere II

Aubrey de Vere II (c. 1080 -1141 ) was also known as "Alberic[us] de Ver". He was the second of that name in post Norman Conquest England , being the eldest surviving son of Alberic or Aubrey I de Vere who had followed William the Conqueror to England in or after 1066 .

Their lineage is probably Norman , possibly originally from the eponymous town of Ver/Vire in western Normandy , and were [erroneously] said to descend from Charlemagne himself through the Counts of Flanders by late antiquarians. In fact, their connection with Guînes , in Flanders , was temporary; Aubrey de Vere III was briefly married to Beatrice, heiress to that county, about 1137 -1144 or 1146 .

Aubrey II served as Sheriff of many shires and as a Justiciar under kings Henry I and Stephen .[1] King Henry I had declared the estates and office of the first Lord Chamberlain , Robert Malet , to be forfeit, and in 1133 awarded the office of Lord Chamberlain of England to Aubrey.

William of Malmesbury reports that Aubrey represented King Stephen in 1139 , when the king had been summoned to a church council to answer for the seizure of castles held by Roger, Bishop of Salisbury.

His eldest son Aubrey de Vere III , was later created Earl of Oxford , and their descendants were to hold that title and the office that came to be known as the Lord Great Chamberlain until the extinction of the male line in 1703 .[2] He was killed by a London mob in May, 1141 , and buried in the family priory at Colne, Essex .

Aubrey II married Adeliza/Alice, daughter of Gilbert fitz Richard of Clare. Their known children: Aubrey de Vere III , first earl of Oxford; Rohese de Vere, Countess of Essex , Robert; Alice "of Essex;" Geoffrey; Juliana, Countess of Norfolk; William de Vere , Bishop of Hereford; Gilbert, prior of the Knights Hospitaller in England; and an unnamed daughter who married Roger de Ramis.

^ Davis, et al.: "Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum". Oxford University Press, 1913-68: v. 2.
^ Cokayne, G. E: "Complete Peerage of England....", v. 10. St. Catherine Press, 1910-58.

Noted events in his life were:

• Sheriff: of London and Middlesex.

• Justice: and Master Chamberlain of England, 1133.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 394 F    i. Rohese de Vere, Countess of Essex 109 532 589 was born about 1103 in <Hedingham, Essex, England>, died after 21 Oct 1166 in <England>, and was buried in Chicksands Priory, Bedfordshire, England.

+ 395 M    ii. Aubrey III de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford and Count of Guînes 590 was born about 1115 and died on 26 Dec 1194 about age 79.

+ 396 F    iii. Juliana de Vere 43 591 was born about 1116 in <Hedingham, Essex, England>, was christened in Hedingham, Essex, England, and died about 1199 about age 83.

   397 F    iv. Alice de Vere, of Essex 532 592 was born before 1141 and died after 1185. Another name for Alice was Adelicia de Vere.

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1185.

Alice married Robert de Essex, Lord of Rayleigh.593

Research Notes: First husband of Adelicia de Vere

Alice next married Roger FitzRichard, 1st Lord of Warkworth, Northumberland,593 son of Richard and Jane Bigod,. Roger was born about 1140 and died about 1177 about age 37.

Research Notes: Second husband of Adelicia de Vere.

   398 M    v. Robert de Vere .532

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Aubrey de Vere II

   399 M    vi. Geoffrey de Vere .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Aubrey de Vere II

   400 M    vii. William de Vere, Bishop of Hereford .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Aubrey de Vere II

   401 M    viii. Gilbert de Vere .

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Aubrey de Vere II - Prior of the Knights Hospitaller in England

327. Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford 109 495 496 497 was born between 1084 and 1090 in <Hertford, Hertfordshire>, England, was christened in Clare, Suffolk, England, died on 15 Apr 1136 in [near Abergavenny], Monmouthshire, England, and was buried in Gloucester. Other names for Richard were Richard de Clare Earl of Hertford and Earl of Clare, Richard FitzGilbert de Clare Lord of Clare, Suffolk, Richard Fitz Gilbert Lord of Clare, and Suffolk.

Death Notes: Slain by the Welsh near Abergavenny

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Richard FitzGilbert was also known as Richard de Clare.1 He succeeded to the title of 3rd Lord of Clare [feudal baron] circa 1117.1 He is supposed to have been created Earl of Hertford by King Stephen I (or by King Henry I), but Cokayne states that there is no grounds for this belief.1 He founded the Priory of Tonbridge.1 He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.

--------
From Wikipedia - Richard de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford :

Lineage
Richard FitzGilbert de Clare. 1st Earl of Hertford
(1094-15 April 1136 ) was the son of Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare and Alice de Claremont also known as Adeliza de Claremont .
He founded the priory of Tonbridge .

Welsh revolt
Richard held the Lordship of Ceredigion in Wales . A Welsh revolt against Norman rule had begun in south Wales where, on 1 January 1136 the Welsh won a victory over the local Norman forces between Loughor and Swansea .


Ambush & death
Richard had been away from his lordship in the early part of the year. Returning to the borders of Wales in April, he ignored warnings of the danger and pressed on toward Ceredigion with only a small force. He had not gone far when he was ambushed and killed by the men of Gwent under Iorwerth ab Owain and his brother Morgan, grandsons of Caradog ap Gruffydd , in a woody tract called "the ill-way of Coed Grano", near Llanthony Abbey , north of Abergavenny .

Spur for Welsh invasion
The news of Richard's death induced Owain Gwynedd , son of Gruffydd ap Cynan , king of Gwynedd to invade his Lordship. In alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth , he won a crushing victory over the Normans at the Battle of Crug Mawr , just outside Cardigan . The town of Cardigan was taken and burnt, and Richard's widow, Adelize, took refuge in Cardigan Castle , which was successfully defended by Robert fitz Martin . She was rescued by Miles of Gloucester who led an expedition to bring her to safety in England .

Noted events in his life were:

• Lord of Clare, Suffolk:

Richard married Adelize de Gernon,109 496 546 daughter of Ranulf le Meschin, 3rd Earl of Chester and Lucy, of Bolingbroke, about 1116. Adelize was born about 1094 in <Hertford, Hertfordshire>, England and died in 1128 about age 34. Other names for Adelize were Alice de Gernon, Alicia de Gernon, Adeliza de Meschines, and Alice de Meschines.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia has b. abt 1102


Children from this marriage were:

+ 402 F    i. Alice de Clare 477 594 was born about 1102 in <Tunbridge, Kent>, England and died after 1148 in England.

   403 M    ii. Gilbert de Clare 595 was born in 1115 in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England and died in 1153 at age 38.

Research Notes: First son of Richard de Clare. Died without issue and succeeded by his brother Roger de Clare .

+ 404 M    iii. Roger de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford 109 497 596 597 was born in 1116 in <Tunbridge Castle>, Kent, England, died in 1173 in Oxfordshire, England at age 57, and was buried in Eynsham Priory, Oxfordshire, England.

328. Rohese FitzRichard 491 was born about 1090 in <Clare, Suffolk>, England and died in 1149 in England about age 59. Another name for Rohese was Rohesia de Clare.

Rohese married Badeion de Monmouth, of Monmouth, Monmouthshire.598

The child from this marriage was:

+ 405 F    i. Rohese de Monmouth .598

331. Mathilda, of Clermont, Ponthieu & Dammartin 154 499 500 was born about 1138 in <Pontieu, Ain>, France and died after Oct 1200. Other names for Mathilda were Mabilie of Clermont, Ponthieu & Dammartin, Mahaut de Ponthieu, Maud of Clermont, Ponthieu & Dammartin, and Maude de Clermont.

Mathilda married Albri de Luzarches, Count of Dammartin,71 582 son of Alberic I, Count of Dammartin and Joan Basset,. Albri was born about 1135 in <Dammartin, Seine-et-Marne>, France, died on 19 Sep 1200 in London, Middlesex, England about age 65, and was buried in Abbaye de Jumieges, Jumieges, Seine-Maritime, France. Other names for Albri were Alberic II Count of Dammartin and Aubrey II Count of Dammartin.

Research Notes: Count of Dammartin by right of his wife

Noted events in his life were:

• Chamberlain of France: 1155-1160.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 406 F    i. Agnes de Dammartin 71 599 was born about 1166 in <Buckinghamshire>, England and died in 1237 about age 71.

   407 M    ii. Simon de Dammartin, Count of Aumale 600 died in 1239.

   408 F    iii. Juliane de Dammartin .601

Mathilda next married Alberic II, de Dammartin.602

The child from this marriage was:

+ 409 M    i. Simon, de Dammartin 602 was born in 1180 and died on 21 Sep 1239 at age 59.

332. Félicité de Brienne 501 died on 21 Jul 1178.

Research Notes: Widow of Simon de Broye, d. 1132

Félicité married Geoffroi III de Joinville, Sénéchal of Champagne and of Bar-sur-Seine,579 son of Roger I de Joinville, Seigneur de Joinville and Adélarde de Vignory, before 1141. Geoffroi was born before 1127 and died in 1188.

Research Notes: Sénéchal of Champagne 1127-1188, and of Bar-sur-Seine

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 71A-27

Noted events in his life were:

• Sénéchal of Champagne: 1127-1188.

• Sénéchal of Bar-sur-Seine:

The child from this marriage was:

+ 410 M    i. Geoffroi IV de Joinville, Sénéchal of Champagne 603 died in Aug 1190 in Acre, Palestine.

333. Sancho III, of Castile 503 504 was born in 1134 and died on 30 Aug 1158 a